The Book of



Containing revelations given to Jachanan Ben Kathryn, modern prophet to the house of Judah. “for out of Zion shall go forth the law, and the word of the Lord from Jerusalem” (Isa 2:3)

INTRODUCTION: Please follow the link to Introduction to The Book of Ben Kathryn for valuable introductory information.


Revelation given to the modern prophet, Jachanan (John) Ben Kathryn. Written unto the house of Judah (Jews), in preparation for the things which  shall shortly come to pass. Judah (the present-day nation of Israel) is chided for their traditions and  rejection of the Messiah. The temporary destruction of Israel, and a final period of captivity for the Jews is prophesied. Through this captivity God will free the Jews of their false traditions and ‘turn’ them to Him. The true Gospel of Messiah/Jehovah will be restored to them, and the final gathering of Israel will ensue. America (Ephraim) is chided for its wickedness and its gradual decline, division and rebirth are prophesied. Pestilence and natural precesses will aid in the decline of the faithless gentile nations. Detailed instructions concerning the structure and operations of the final Temple in Jerusalem are put forth.


John son of Kathryn is called to be a prophet unto Judah. God bids him wait until the appointed time to inscribe His words. He shall warn the people of coming destruction and upheaval. The prophet shrinks and wrestles at his calling.

THE[1a] burden of the word of the LORD which came unto John the son of Kathryn, the daughter of Jacob and Messiah’s Light, the son of Karl Hirsch, the son of Abraham, the son of Hillel, when the LORD first drew him out from the nations and inclined his spirit to seek after the LORD. It first came when he was about 30 [1995/6] years of age, saying expressly: “Thou shalt surely be my witness to Israel.”
2 But the prophet wrestled at the word of the LORD, and the LORD would not have it inscribed, For it is not yet time that I cry out, that I rend and that I devour; that I heal and that I say Restore. So it was laid to heart.
3 It came again in his 37th year. See, I have molded thee. I have given thee pain, and I have given thee fear. I have given thee loss and death, and a burning heart. None can quench what the LORD causeth to burn. Lay it to heart.
4 And in his 38th year, which was 5,764[1b], it came as a flood. Inscribe it now, what I have laid in thine heart, and what I shall put from henceforth into thy heart, for it is time that I cry out. And publish thou it abroad at the time of thy turning 40 [2005/2006], for thou shalt serve me in thine old age[1c]. For it is time that I plow up and that I plant, that I cause to wax young that which hath waxed old; that which is buried[1d] I reveal unto light, and that which is I pull up and bury.
5 Cry out, cry out in the name of the LORD: Destruction and upheaval! Plowing and planting, turning over and deep furrows, the banks thereof without footing. Heavy rains and mud, and the furrows shall be filled, and the line shall grow. I shall fence it in, and I shall reset the hinges of my gate.
6 And the word of the LORD came unto me, saying, Behold now in the dusk vision, a great caldron[1e] set upon broken desert ground. What doeth it? And I said, “It pitcheth round, as on a whirligig, and doth not steady, but the water slosheth at every point of the brim.”
7 So bring I upon the Earth at every quarter, convulsion and upheaval, dismay, a setting on edge, fumes and smoke and a steamy vapour. As the water feedeth the desert from tumult, so shall old seed sprout from upheaval. Publish it abroad. Fear not, for I shall put the fear of thee on mine enemies, and at the time appointed I shall give thee the heart not of a rabbit but of a lion. At my word they shall have confusion of face, for lo, I have not spoken by prophet since days of old.
8 (But the prophet wrestled again) And I said: Why should they, O my Lord, hearken unto me, seeing I was not raised after the manner of my fathers, nor in the ways of my mothers? —Seeing also that thou hast not raised up a prophet unto this thy people for so long. Why should it be me?
9 And the LORD said: Away, get thee to thy task, for I shall be with thee; and who can prevail against thee? seeing I am a hawk upon thy shoulder and a falcon unhooded against its prey. Whom I call, I shall call, and whose feet I shall place upon the path before me, I shall send before me. Away, son of Isaac, get thee to thy people and declare thou mine heart, what I have placed in thine heart.


The Lord sees the heart of Israel as they wail at the wall. The Jews hearts are as stones of the wall….

THE word of the LORD which first came unto Jachanan ben Kathryn in the year 5,755 [1995] concerning the Holy Place (Temple).
2 Thus saith the LORD, Do I not see Israel gather and wail at the wall? My spirit goeth forth within the land and every man’s heart is turned toward Jerusalem in lament. Is it not the heart of Israel?
3 Look upon this stone wall, if thou canst bear it. Listen to them ableat. Look at them bow themselves again and again and with their parted books recite vain words.
4 See the concourse of stone as I see it, if thou canst bear the sight. Behold, I, even I, saith the LORD, do see the heart of Israel. The concourse of stone is potted and etched and doth not have the appearance of vigour and hath no similitude unto what it was when it was cut true and polished smooth.
5 Beyond it are the promenades of free living cats, and the birds of centuries have cast their dung upon it, and beyond this there is the ahouse of a god which is no god. Yea, have I seen the heart of Israel. Well do they call this place their heart.
6 Therefore tread upon this people’s heart, and say unto them:
7 Thus saith the LORD God, Thine heart is even as this stone, and beareth no resemblance to what it was. Within it is filth and brambles, unclean things and a place for birds to waste, and in its center are thine own imaginations. Thine idols are loathsome to me; thine imaginations are crudely formed and have no beauty.
8 My spirit hath perceived, yea, mine eyes have beheld; therefore my right hand is stretched forth to make the days, even the days that shall come, saith the LORD Almighty, that I shall build again the wasteland of David and restore unto thee thine heart. Even I shall do this.
9 Such days as this thou hast not seen in all thy generations since, nor hath ear heard the gentle comfort of God from the far places of thy dispersion. These days have been the days of thine enslavement, and within these days the multitude of thy woundings have wedged thee into the cleft of the rock and sunk thine head between thy knees in weeping. The days that come shall be the days of thine astonishment, the days of thy setting free from thy yokes, from thy sore travail and thy caged heart. For thou art in bondage without me. No matter where thou shouldest dwell, affliction is thy neighbour; desolation is thy mother.
10 Thou couldest see only flesh, O daughter of Zion. Goodly flesh and skin like alabaster thou beheldst with pleasure, but mine honour thou couldest not touch. Blood issued forth glory, but thou only hissedst.
11 Thine eyes were cast to thy handsome men. Their comely features led thee to destruction, and thou wentest cheerfully enough.
12 There they left thee, in the wilderness of thy desolation they caused thee to dwell. In the shadow of darkness thou foundest solitude, and thou soughtest to thyself no light.
13 Thou hidst thy shame in the clefts of the rocks, and amongst the scorpions thou learnst a new thing: a coarse temperament was thy way; and thy feet walked upon the hot and sharp rocks. Thy soft skin became calloused; thine heart became old.
14 There I would not approach thee. What doth desolation have to do with me, saith the LORD? Let thy lovers console thee. Thou art a hissing to me.


AND in the 38th year the word of the LORD moreover came unto me, saying, Behold, it is time to cry out, to lift up my voice as a slash of lightning teareth the sky with its thunder. I am a flood upon thee. My word shall be a tempest upon the Earth. I cry out. I proclaim from on high:
2 Hear ye one and all the word of the LORD, O ye nations and thou house of backsliding: I withhold not anymore. As a hand hitting the forehead I cause the whole Earth to stop astonied, to gape, and to stutter.
3 Shall I make mankind to multiply on the Earth, only for firebrands for the afurnace? Behold, saith the LORD, it shall never be. I shall never let that it should be shut up. Nor shall I bring forth man as the fowls, only to stamp my feet to cause them to fly into the fowler’s net.
4 Behold, saith the LORD, the nations are my kingdom and Israel is mine house. I shall return from setting my borders and from building me far cities. I shall asweep out mine house of the dust and the webs that grow only upon quiescence; and I prune the brambles about my garden. I shall remove the shutters, and let the light in. Yea, the very fine scent of jasmine and mandrakes shall fill mine house.
5 I shall reset my table and replace my candlestick, and I shall light the way by day and by night to all those of my kingdom, near and far, who shall come to do obeisance before the LORD of hosts.
6 I see thee now, O daughter of Zion. Dost thou come also in the way? Ah, thou art old and no longer comely. Thy whoredoms have aged thee; and when thou didst set thy mind to knowledge, behold, it was vanity: strange ideas and evil eyes.
7 I see now the report. The truth of it is before me. The LORD hath heard the rumor and confirmeth it. In the markets thy reproach causeth even thy money to be scorned.
8 See the merchants magnify themselves against thee, but thou holdest thy peace. Thy skin is too calloused, thine eyes too heavy to care anymore. Thou art tired of thy wounds bound with dirty linen, and tears dried upon thy dirty face.
9 Are the cries of merchants so loud, saith the LORD, that my shout of pity cannot they hear? My words are deeds indeed, and my deeds are mercy. What is it to thee if thou must be merciful for a season if thou shalt come to me forever and dwell in my garden of delight?
10 Therefore stretch I out my voice, and my voice is salvation and my words dissolve brine. Behold a plain man. I stand at the door. Without thy sight thou shalt not see my garden hinter.
11 Thy beauty is gone, O daughter Zion; thou hast long lost thy maiden innocence. Truly, thy widowhood hath been bitter. Now thou wilt hear my call. Above the din of the market thou shalt hear, and my plain flesh thou wilt not abhor.
12 The whoredoms of thy youth I sought to redeem. The whoredoms of thy middle-age overflowed. Thy body was young and light and thine ear heavy. Now thou art heavy and slow, and thine ear is light. Now thou shalt hear. Thy youth shall not return for a season, but thou shalt live with what thou hast done.
13 Thine eyebrow archeth with curiosity. What stirreth at that desolate house? Come and see, come and see, saith the LORD.
14 There is no shame upon me. I have cleansed this place, and I will build it: to turn thy heart to me in purity. Thou shalt build these concourses and I shall sweep thine heart. Thou shalt gild with gold and I shall burnish thy soul and make it gleam brighter than gold, yea greater than very fine gold.
15 Then shall thy worship be sweet to me; then shalt thou have this place and call it my house, though I dwell not in buildings, though even the Universe is nought but a bowl that cannot contain a finger of my soul.


WEEP, O Zion, that thou ever didst bear a son; who can shut the floodgates of our weeping, for the hand of the LORD hath revealed it?
2 The mouth of the LORD doth direct mine ears to the sound: aKidron in the sunset doth moan with the weeping of women, weeping as if over their firstborn. Louder is the weep thereof then the cheer when they see Zion formed in marble and gold, for we have seen the hand of the LORD, and a guiltless wound is etched in our pupil. Hear ye the beating of breasts, women beating their breasts in anguish at their firstborn, and saying, Truly my name is Bitterness.
3 aAstonied looks give place, I say ye, give place to anguish. How is a harden brow become melted! At the sight of the bwounds we without wounds feel pain. All we have become guilty, yet He suffereth no voice to accuse; it is we who with shamed face ask unto him, “Wherefore didst thou do this in the company of thy children?”
4 We esteemed Thee not, nor in Thy affliction did pity take us companion. Our hearts spit forth murder, and yet Thou bledst; our imaginations imagined vain things, yet Thy soul was afflicted; even our sins overflowed, but Thou wast whipped. Thou afflictedst thyself, but they Thy bruises have become whiter than snow, but our bright spots are ugly and putrid. Our flesh is rotted, yet we have no wounds; our bodies stink, yet we wash. Thou hast scars, but art more brilliant than the sun.
4 Is this the weeping of triumph, saith the LORD? Is this the sound to greet a Hero? Weep not, O Zion; remove the pit from thy stomach. Rather, shout ye aloud! I say ye, “Blessed is he who cometh in the name of the LORD.” Be thou refreshed in thy God, and be no more ignorant of his way. See thou now, and declare: “I see.”
5 Behold, behold, I have declared and my word is good. I live forever and my feet can tread down mountains as tender grapes in the harvest. I bury with mercy, yea, mercy is the only earth I know for them that love me; and my breath can blow the dust off the deepest of graves, and my voice can call and bring forth the bones, even dried bones. I shall bury thee under this earth, and I shall call thee forth with a mighty shout.
6 And it shall come to pass in that time, and at that moment, that ye shall call upon the name of the LORD, even upon his goodness, and the LORD shall hear you, and he shall give goodness by an ephah worth an homer, a shekel shall be worth a talent, and it shall cause your hearts to burn, even as ye pull out your hair in anguish over your souls and the souls of your fathers. As a young woman waileth who hath just lost her firstborn at the time of his weaning, so shall ye wail. Lift up thy wounds with thy cry, O Zion, and I shall stretch forth my hafnd, and I shall bring forgiveness.
7 As I live, saith the LORD, I will not forebear. Thou shalt look up and feel the alatter rain as before. As a wineskin that is sliced open shall I pour out my spirit upon Israel. Even as thou art overwhelmed at my graciousness, even more shall I overwhelm thee with my mercy, and thy sons and thy daughters shall come to me, and I shall polish their pockmarked hearts.
8 Then thou shalt acknowledge thy guilt; just that: acknowledge thy guilt; and I shall silence thy accusers. Thou shalt then worship at Zion with a joyful sound. Thy atimbrals shall be merry, thy horn a rejoicing; and I shall hear thee. Then shalt thou tread my courts with joy and thou shalt dance the fine song of the maiden for the groom in the house of the LORD.
9 There thou shalt dwell and be happy, O Israel, and at its ramparts thou shalt look upon these stones of people and thou shalt say, “Look at what the LORD hath built; even our God had mercy, for he hath forgiven us all our sins, even blotted out our unbelief, our great sin, and hath purged our souls. He bloweth our transgression from upon the book as dust that shall no more return. He hath gathered us to the fullest intent of his desire.”
10 Desolation shall yield to fatness. It shall give fruit to abundance. Your withered souls shall swell and burst forth like a sweet grape. Kings and angels have desired to see that moment, saith the LORD, and such a shout shall go forth in heaven when the LORD bringeth it to pass.


GIVE ear, O heavens, cast off your sullen eyelids, O stars. Canst thou imagine greater glory to shake the Earth? Canst thou see a greater wonder? Hast thou seen a virgin restored, or an old woman leap as unto a young Roe again?
2 If I awaken the nations from their vain ways would not the Earth still slumber? Did they awound Me that I should bear grudge? But I shall restore thee as a marvel, as a widow to the husband of her youth, that the heavens may sing at the mercy of God.
3 The LORD shall approach and the train of his majesty shall flow out from his holy house. As a cascading stream shall it flow over Moriah, and in it shall be his children of all nations. No more shall they be called strangers who come to the LORD.
4 Nations shall come by tens and by twenties. Ten thousands times ten thousands speak: Come, cast mercy as the sand. Cast it to the wind, and it shall come back to thee as sand doth in a gale. Come, cast gold of no value, for the treasures of the LORD are as abundant as the wind, and who can measure it upon a scale to determine its portion? As a mighty wind breathe upon us again, O LORD, and give us again thy spirit. Unlock the floodgates of thy soul.
5 Gather ’round me, saith the LORD. I gather thee as a chick is gathered under the wing, and nestle thee to my warm breast. If any harm shall come to thee, mine hand beareth the awound, for my right hand— it protecteth thee; and my left hand, it comforteth thee. This shall be the piercing of thine heart, and thy scars shall be healed. Mine hand shall be a shield to any foe; and a wound of battle is upon it that shall draw the beleaguered and warn thine enemies.
6 Rise up and shout, O house of Jacob, shout unto heaven at the mercy of God, and in that day all the nations shall marvel! And they shall worship from afar off and from near. The LORD thy God hath spoken.
7 The army that destroyeth shall worship. They shall cast off their weapons and pick up the aged and the infirmed and bring them to the house of the LORD, and I shall heal them. Mine house that is encompassed shall conquer. The armies that laid waste shall stand in awe, and shall cast off their idols.
8 In that day, as in aforetime, I shall make an end of Israel, Israel that scattereth, Israel that lieth, Israel that denieth the way. Without siege and without pulley, without fire and without the battling ram shall I make an end. They that were within the camp shall be left without, and Jacob shall possess the ramparts of his God.
9 But the house of Israel shall be the portion for dogs, and the sword shall devour. All those of my people who call upon the Lord of their own imagining and know me not shall be as if they called upon aBuddhim and Allahim and Krishna Baalim.
10 Thou art still the younger, O Jacob, my beloved. Thou art a aspitz and esteemest thyself evil above thy fathers; but I love thee. O Jacob, I have not forgotten thee. I shall give thee that place; for your sakes I shall give it to you. I shall give you the pleasant gardens. I shall give you a swept house.
11 In that day I shall pose a riddle, and thou shalt give me the answer. When was Jacob not Israel? When was the younger divided into two, and the elder portion still served the younger?
12 Jacob, O Jacob, thou shalt be my prince again. Thou shalt be Israel, and the elder shall be cast away and without inheritance.


IN that day thou shalt see my vengeance on they who made thy children few—on they who stopped the womb; upon they also who took thee from thy path to heathen aTels to teach thee their ways as mine, saying: “No more do the ways of the LORD, for they are things which are old.” I shall make their ways few, and their traditions shall be no more remembered. Even I the LORD shall do this.
2 For in that day the LORD shall make an end of the nations [Gentiles], and their glory shall be utterly consumed. Their congregations shall be called Impudent, and shall be a place for the casting of dice, for the forum and for the market; their heralds proclaiming the jig and the polka.
3 And the LORD shall turn the captivity of the nations into bitterness, and their sojourn shall be as dried timber, that the remnant of mankind shall seek the LORD. He shall plunder the nations, and he shall leave them with gall. For all that they have done he shall utterly devour and cast them off, because of their enchanters, because of their prophets, their vanities, and their lusts. Go to, ye nations! Be as primitives adorning your bodies with costly jewels and elabourate piercings! Your vanities only inflict upon you wounds, and they open up to infection and are a place for the gathering of puss.
4 Mount up ye who see and hear not, for the babblers are brought to nought, and the dreamer of dreams is set on edge, and the expounder of tradition hath confusion of face. None have children from that point, and are as unto a dried atwig that withereth, one that a wind taketh from the stump.
5 So shall the LORD do in that day upon the house of the nations, upon the impudent congregations. Mount up, ye that see and hear not, mount up and be not afraid of what ye see in that day.
6 For the LORD shall rise up on aMount Moriah. He shall exalt himself above the mountains and he shall fill in the valleys. All they that come to him shall come on sure ground, and they shall see his glory. Bring thou down our walls; let every fortification fall out that we may see thy rising early.


THUS saith the LORD, When have I spoken in the secret place, or when have my words been unintelligible? My words are not the words of agroves nor the wisps of wind. When have I whispered in the ear or carried my word as skulking gossip?
2 Your fathers cannot teach you to hear me, nor train your tongue to speak my words. My words are not tattle nor the rumor of strangers.
3 All these years I have not spoken unto thee, O Israel. Hast thou not considered? Doth not even a dog whine when his master’s voice is long absent?
4 Yet thou hast not considered the sum of thy ways and looked back to see thy footsteps outlined in blood. Thou hast invented doctrines to cover thine inward parts like a skirt for shame, and vain statutes are the covering upon thine head that thou wilt not bear or confront. Thou makest excuses. As a mantel they cover shame, for they cover the things of thine own imagining. Thy study is perverse. It is wisdom only to lackeys. Thou makest excuses.
5 Dost thou think it is mine iniquity that hath caused silence? Nay, but if thou couldst thou wouldest hear the heavens resound with my praise. Thou wouldest run to and fro and not be comforted as a lover seeking her spouse if thou lovest me with all thine heart. If thou knewest how great I am thou wouldest brag until the Earth would beat its ears.
6 Thou hast not pined and longed for me, but inventedst debaucheries to keep thy mind at ease. Thou sittest and art idle all the day, inventing excuses.
7 When for one day thine heart and tongue do not make excuse, then will I declare thou hast righteousness. If a lens can be made powerful enough that I can see thy righteousness then will I say unto thee that thou needest me not.
8 Who hath spoken unto thee in my name, lo, these many generations, these thousands of autumns the leaves have fallen to the grave, and it hath come to pass or hath comforted thee?


JUDGMENT hath come upon you, O my people, yea, cruel judgment hath come swiftly upon you like a stag and deadly as unto a scorpion’s sting. Without warning and without a word from the LORD hath it come. Yet ye have not inclined your hearts unto the LORD, to deliver you from the sore travails— Nay, but ye have courted disaster. Ye have called upon me, and I have not answered. Ye have sought deliverance, but your bodies have formed hillocks. Your dead ye have left by the wayside; the avenue of your sojourn is littered with the corpses of your dispersion. The LORD’s wrath hath burned furiously, but you have only hardened your hearts lest ye should see. Ye look up only to see the vultures. And because ye see something desiring you, ye think ye must be righteous and possessing something worth extolling.
2 It is not my silence, saith the LORD, that hath caused thy foot to continue on the hard ground. Who speaketh to a stone, and how long shall one wait for an intelligent reply?
3 Behold, your hearts are hard, the heart of this people is waxed stupid. Your minds are defiled with your pride, and your hard conceit hath made you dumb to reason, and rebelling to the words of the LORD. I shall make the presumptuous woman a blemish unto you; and he that maketh a word an offense to make men count their words before him, even he shall be an offense to me. Your hearts and minds are defiled with your idols, and an image of your fancy is as a totem burned into your pupil that ye may adulate it all the day.
4 This generation shall end before me, saith the LORD. This pride shall I no more tolerate upon the Earth; they and the farmers that have become your teachers, and they who were at the plow that have become your elders; and their vain jangling that hath become your law; even this shall be the last of it. I shall sift them out as wheat. Not one shall fall upon the ground that it should take hold and bear the fruit of this generation. None shall live out their days that they may as a burden place it upon the sure and youthful foot to carry it forward into their generation.
5 They are the forehead of a foolish body. I remember the feet that were their fathers, in the day that I scattered them; and, behold, ye are indeed the forehead and the princes the crown of an ignorant head. In my sore contempt I would not approach thee. Nor did I walk amongst the promenades of thy ruins in wait for someone to come upon me. But I left thee to thy ruins. Thou madest the scale of the righteous and the wicked equal, in that thy foolishness saith “He punisheth the righteous. How else can we explain our travail?” Is it not meet that I should make the head fall? Is it not good that it should fall, such a foolish thing that doth not consider where he who was an husband unto Israel hath gone? Who shall ask, and who shall enquire?— but he in whom I have placed my heart and he in whom my words do reside.


AND the word of the LORD came unto me, saying, Hearken unto thy heart, and be attentive to thine ears, for I shall put my heart into thy bosom, and place my will before thine eyes. Thou shalt call upon me and I shall hear thee, and I shall answer thee. Thy prayers for this people I shall put upon thy lips, and the deep groanings I shall apply unto their hearts. Of all they who since old have fallen asleep thou shalt call upon me, and thou shalt say, Thus saith the LORD God; and it shall come to pass. For I do put my words in thine heart and I wrap them around thine head; and thou shalt enquire, Ah, LORD God; and I shall hear thee.
2 And the word of the LORD came unto me, saying, What seest thou? And I said, “A tree heavily laden with fruit, and upon the fruit thine holy name.”
3 Take and eat, for so do I end the famine that I have brought upon Israel, as I swore unto aAmos that I should bring. Therefore speak unto this people, and say unto them, Thus saith the LORD God of Israel: Run no more to and fro, beloved daughter. Lift up thy downcast head, O my son. Be ye comforted, my people and all ye nations. All ye Gentiles that are called by my name, wedge your staff in Zion and be not moved. He that lusteth after God hath found the Most High.
4 Let the evil be vanquished at my word, but let my people rejoice and shout aloud.
5 Open thine ears, and hear the pleasant waters, for the LORD thy God doth direct thee again in thy ways, and my words shall give thee peace and they shall give thee life.
6 (The burden of the word of the LORD which was given unto John ben Kathryn)
7 And this shall be the burden of the word of the LORD which I give unto thee:
8 Thus saith the LORD unto thee, I am the God of thy fathers, the God of Abraham, the God of Isaac, and the God of Jacob. Thy mother Kathryn is with me, and thy mother Messiah’s Light. They dance and rejoice with their mother Sarah.
9 I am the God of thy people. aIn flesh I did appear amongst them, and from the womb did mine eyes see the travail. I looked about at the poverty of their soul and was amazed. My spirit was grieved within me. The wealth of ages flowed out from me, but they preferred poverty of their flesh. In drunkenness did they bwound me. In ignorance did they call judgment down upon themselves and their children.
10 I shall shake off their wine of ignorance, saith the LORD. I shall sober their hearts and fatten their lean souls on my mercy. I shall teach them to fast from the world, and I shall set them up for a sign, and establish them as a far gate in my kingdom, that the overflow may come to me; and the world shall know that I am the LORD.
11 Say thou not, O Zion, “I am forsaken,” and, “My Lord hath cast me off for the place of a wound.” I am the LORD. BEING is my name. My name is etched deeper than any wound, and for thee I bore it. For my great namesake I shall gather thee at last. It is I the LORD that doth ever have thine image in my pupil, that declareth now unto thee.
12 Beforehand it cometh to pass, I reveal unto you. Before they should happen I tell you of them. Before ye shall hear, I speak. Before I gather Israel, I declare unto you that ye may consider and lay it to heart at the doings of God. Behold, I gather mine offspring from amongst the nations and set them upon the path. Let not the nations say: “I never was,” and that: “His hand is not fierce and his visage dreadful;” and of the days that come, “They come by natural course.”
13 They come by my mighty hand, saith the LORD, and my voice precedeth them as a howling wind before storm. For this purpose I raised thee up from thy mother’s womb. I brought thee out from a princeling among the Gentiles and restored thee unto thy people which thou knewest not. I took thee from thy righteousness and showed thee thy sin. From foolishness to wisdom I led thee, for great is the day of the LORD that shall come, and great shall be the repentance before it.
14 For this reason raise I up my prophets so that none of my doings shall come without mercy. For, behold, I give warning first: I do not delight in destruction.
15 Faint not, nor look upon thine own sin. Why dishearten thyself at blackness? If I should raise thee up to be a prophet, what is it to thee? It shall be my words that shall come to pass, not thine.
16 I know thy fears and thine infirmities, thy halting speech. It is for my word that thou wast given these. It is I who have afflicted thee since thy youth, and I shall afflict thee until I take thee; that thou mayest say, Thus saith the LORD God, and that thou may bear it; that thou mayest call upon me rightly, Ah LORD God, and that I should hear thee. See the false prophets around thee; see them carried off in their pride. Rejoice then at my affliction, for thou shalt say, Thus saith the LORD the King, and it shall come to pass.
17 See how the Gentiles glorify their prophets. But I have made thee base that thou and Israel shall know that it is I the LORD that doeth these things.
18 Tie thy tongue into a ribbon and bow if thou canst, yet when thou speakest Israel shall hear thee, for I shall now cause wonders upon the Earth. Even I, saith the LORD, shall bring my word to pass and I shall turn Israel. As I place my column in the sky to lead them, so shall I place it in their hearts to lead them perpetually.


AND the word of the LORD moreover came unto me, saying: Seeing that I have made thee a prophet unto Israel, take thou no disciples, lead no one off into a far place, separate not, bind not men with customs, take no money, make no public display, shout thou not in the street, nor speak rashly in my name.
2 But rather when thine heart burneth within thee, when it hurteth and when tears choke thee, when thou art in passion of my nature and great name, then speak and write in my name and I shall bring it to pass. Fear not, for it is I that speak from thee.
3 And this shall be a sign unto thee: I shall burn these words into the heart of Israel, and thou shalt know that I have spoken from thee. Be not lifted up, nor deceived, for I shall do these things and my spirit shall move men.
4 Take heed so that thou fearest not at my word, seeing how hard the heart of Israel hath been and how vain have I let the customs of Jacob become. It is I who shall cause men to turn, not thee. It is I who shall be praised, not thee.
5 But when thou hatest thy people for their hard hearts and despisest them for their ignorance, thou shalt not speak in my name, nor in thine anger declare my vengeance. For words spoken at my glory are harsh enough, and even from a steady note can no one stand before my wrath.
6 Wages I give thee not; but thou shalt inherit of thy portion as a child. Thy reward thou knowest: Thou shalt see of these things come to pass.
7 Thus saith the LORD thy God, Come unto me as a child, and like an admirer in an accomplished man so boast of me. Begrudge me not, for my great glory is greater than man’s and my ways worth shouting across the Universe. If thou wilt admire a great man and be filled with privilege in the company of famous people, how much more should not all mankind seek the LORD who is beyond all things and created all things?
8 Speak not what Israel wanteth to hear, nor be joined to any group, nor be led to any place, saying, It is the LORD’s will. I shall not be enquired of concerning those things already said. I bandy not with men, nor am I tried by mankind. If Israel shall say unto thee, ‘Judge us,’ say NO. If they say ‘Administer,’ say NEVER. For I have appointed thee a prophet, and I shall judge Israel, and I shall be their ruler.
9 But gird thou up and hold thy reigns within thee, and prophecy unto this people and tell them, Set your hearts to turn; let the hearts of the sons turn to the fathers, so that they might understand how they have wandered, so that they turn.
10 Soften thy stony heart into flesh, O Israel, for flesh cannot break, and there is none who can mend rock and make it sound again. A wounded heart I will heal; but a heart of stone shall shatter and crumble under my fist; and I shall scoop up the pieces and cast it to the heap; and it shall be a proverb that a hard heart hath no life and can only break, but a heart of flesh I shall wound and I will heal.
11 Set thine heart to be wounded, O foolish wandering Israel, that I may heal, so that at my coming I shall afind faith upon the Earth and shall not utterly destroy all mankind at my sight.
12 For, lo, I come suddenly, and my sword is in mine hand, and my justice set to heart; my threshingfloor prepared unannounced. Let my people prepare, let the nations cringe and tremble, for the [10e]day of the LORD shall not be as they imagine; and it is a day in which no grain shall be spared the reaper’s eye, nor shall one be overlooked to find refuge; and it is a great and terrible day when all secrets of men’s hearts are purged by the hand of the living God.
13 I play amongst the atoms, and [10f]from nothing I can create beauty. Who will not tremble at my presence?
14 Yet am I as gentle as a father with my children. As gentle as a hand stroking a lamb do I comfort my people. I shall make thy wool white with a touch, and I shall rest thine inward parts.
15 Therefore thus say I the LORD unto thee, speak to this people Israel, for I turn the hearts unto the fathers. Turn ye that my day catch you not in shame. This shall be thy burden wherewith I burden thee.
16 (And from this point forward no more did John ben Kathryn struggle and wrestle at the word of the LORD, for he did not wish to be a prophet).


I SHALL now stand in awe with certainty, unto the LORD, for his goodness; his word is unrelenting; his honour unreproachable; they are soothing psalms of edification, for his graciousness endureth forever. Beware, O ye nations, and ye gainsayers of foolish traditions: He shall restore his people with a mighty hand; he shall honour us as at the first with his holy name. For his great namesake he shall prepare the future as a fine confection. He shall shut the presumptuous mouth and bring to nought the thoughts of the self-serving. Our honour is the great name of the LORD, and his presence is our joy! He taketh away our reproach!
2 Set it to heart to enquire. I shall seek from mine heart his words; and I shall not take them for granted. Let thy people humble themselves and enquire. Behold, the LORD hath not gone so far that he cannot hear, nor are his feet slow that he cannot deliver his people. Let our prayers go up before the Holy One of Israel, and let them be acceptable.
3 Who can bear the words of the LORD! Hearts are hardened and fists beat against temples. For the day of the LORD is declared and his words break the forms of Ephraim and dash the carved stones of Israel, and rework the carved trunks of the nations!
4 Plain words overthrow, declareth Ephraim. He searcheth to find a means of annulment. The letter is an idol for him but its meaning is an uncarved form to recarve a meaning, that he might worship the works of his own mind.
5 Let us, saith Ephraim, go to and cast the prophets from our midst. Oh heavy burden! Get thee hence and prophesy not. When thou art perished we shall adorn thy tomb and make merry over thy words. Is it not said amongst the people, “What the son wisheth to forget, the grandson wisheth to remember”?— Thus hath Ephraim trusted in the word of the LORD, but thus he recognizeth not the words when the LORD speaketh.
6 Wherefore, thus saith the LORD, forasmuch as this is true, thou shalt be plundered, O Ephraim, for by a flea in the ear is a man driven mad. So shall the LORD’s words be unto this generation. They shall not be a shout, to cause one to jolt and dismiss, but they shall be a buzz and a tickle that shall not depart from thine ears or from the house of Israel. So do and, Lay on! Boldly on! Thy finger shall route thine ear until thou art a laughing stock, and the people walk from thee.


BEHOLD, I see Ephraim upon the mountains and in the watchtowers, yea, the [12a]very tall watchtowers. They have set their code, and they signal therewith. Though they reflect the sun, their signal is set to their rhythm. Therefore the stillness of the LORD’s doings they have not detected, and the method of his purpose hath been marvelous unto them, incomprehensible and without form.
2 Rise up, O ye inhabitants of Judah and ye dwellers of her uttermost borders, and give the signal to the watchmen. The LORD cometh with a mighty hand, and his fierce ax doth cleave mountains before him! But is it that ye see not also? Howbeit none see?—only because your watchmen peek at points of light and ye dwellers of the land wait upon them. Open up your panorama and see smoke over the mountains. It is not the smoke of fire but of dust, the dust of stampede. Behold, they are not far mountains, O Judah. And the men of them ye know. But, lo, ye know not the LORD your God. The LORD sendeth them not a prophet to stir them up, but I send ye my [12b]servant, for many winds shall be stirred, and the dust shall approach you from many lands, yea, and encompass your seed even in far lands.
3 The LORD is wonderful in wisdom and comforting in his counsel. And from his depth he doth declare his wise things. Woe unto them who do not enquire, saith the LORD, and woe unto those who do not consider the sum of their ways and the burden of history, who take away from what the LORD hath done, and who add but a foot unto his path, either to lengthen it or to broaden it by their measure.
4 The LORD shall turn the dust with his breath and make it a smoke of fire upon mine enemies, to raise up Jacob to bear my name, to deliver the outcasts and gather the dispersed of Israel. What thou, O mighty Syria, devisest in the culverts of Riyadh shall bring down Damascus and shake the foundations of Mecca; and it shall be contemplated in Medina; and Alexandria shall bring down Cairo with it. Hear the sound of the LORD’s quake! The LORD deviseth not in secret of his beloved, but hath drawn my banner in days of old.
5 The LORD shall save thee that day, O Judah, by his open counsel with the words he declareth here, as in the days of thy Babylonian captivity. Ye shall no more fall back into your idols, O people, for, lo, the LORD raiseth me up again by wise counsel; he setteth me in an anointed place. By hardness he delivereth thee, and in it shall be glory.
6 In this his resolution there is tender purpose. In his deep things there is reason, a fuller’s soap, a trying with fire. It burneth forth not with eloquence, but it refineth the metal of dross and it cleanseth the linen. For the LORD shall open again the mouth of the unlearned, and from the reason of the illiterate will he speak again unto his people. He shall utter his deep things from voices long stilled, and Jerusalem shall rejoice again as a barren widow who hath found joy in the son of her first husband.
7 Man’s trials are hard, but the LORD’s are cunning. The meek have upset the mighty, and the brazen have learned to keep their mouth shut. O thou, little Judah, though thou be small and as unto a remnant, halt and quivering, shall God’s salvation burn in thee, and as an ember it shall ignite and it shall consume the world. In that day the Gentiles shall cast off their idols, and no more shall a graven image be found amongst them. No more shall a hand fondle stone and bronze, nor heart wait upon a stony eye. Apples shall not be an offering to brass, nor flowers to the artificer’s vanity. The stone altars of the heathen shall be barren, and their foundations shall be pits. They shall break up their idols, and decay shall grow over them; they shall no more be found.
8 For, lo, O Israel, the LORD hath declared plainly unto me: I have so declared it this day: Thou hast seen generations of thy children, and thou seest thy prodigal return. No more shall they call you son. But this day I have called you father. I pronounce it clear that all may know that I am come, and that it is I the LORD that dwelleth amongst them, and it is I the LORD that they behold. The LORD thy Saviour hath spoken it.
9 The LORD overturneth the shallowness of the world forever. Thou art too great; this heart hath done too wonderful a thing to draw to thy courts affectations, and for thy caravan to be that of flatterers; that the cloisters of thy garden should be the promenade of gainsayers. Therefore I have decked thee with the array of the lowly, but I have made thy breath as a cool breeze in the desert heat; thy words as clear water to those that thirst. I say unto thee, thou art my breath. Greater art thou than wind, earthquake and fire, wherein was not to be found mine intent; but from a soft voice did I speak.
10 How shall a king know the heart of his servant, and how shall he test his piety? A golden [12e]crown man will obey in action, but anon his heart grumbleth. With a rough cloak tried I man, and he that followeth doth not grumble. I was not comely, and no man durst follow me by reason of gain. Cast aside thy vestures of fine linen and thy golden jewels. Let thy spirit burst forth at my passing. Follow me. Feel mine hand touch thee and awaken thy reason.
11 Behold a wonder, O Israel and ye inhabitants of Judaea, a ripple hath gone forth from Zion as when a block is dropped in water. My ripples are gentle and my block is soft, saith the LORD, yet they brought down multitudes and upset many a course. Who shall believe, saith the LORD, and whose spirit shall be tempered? Let him trace the ripples. Is it not easy? But stop and consider. Doth not a straight line lead to the center from no matter where thou encounterest the ripple? Can a ripple come from a false angle? Trace it. Even from the farthest ripple shall they be safely led.
12 For this sake I set in Zion my [12g]block, and so I let my ripples silently to go forth. Ephraim was upset and hearkened not. He traced not the ripples but rode out the swells. Let him stop and there consider his God. Yea, our God is the only God.


HEAR a cry, a cry of toppling, O Judah. Ephraim is cast from the watchtower, for Ephraim saw but he could not say. When too late he could only point to destruction but not to whence cometh salvation. Deliverance is far from him, and its path to him is retreat. For the fear of the LORD in that day shall possess him, and he shall cast himself as a headlong torrent to the sea. He shall cast his wise things and the mantel of his prestige upon the waves and they shall no more come back to him, but they shall be swallowed by the deep.
2 They shall take up this song: In days of glory did Ephraim not hearken, and with mighty deeds did he not remain content. The LORD worketh a work of substance, and he shall possess the heart of his people. Let Ephraim fall back. Let the shallowness of the world go on. Those that see destruction be many, and those that delight in it be not a few; but blessed is he who raiseth his voice to proclaim the LORD’s salvation. He shall draw the sword of the LORD’s glory and he shall command the mighty men of valour, and on the day of the LORD they who are humble shall be honoured. Yea, blessed is he who waiteth upon the LORD, yea, blessed is he whom the LORD will not move from his place but goeth before to lead him as a young colt through rocky ground. Yea, he who seeketh the LORD in the stillness of his doings shall not be upset, and through the great and terrible day of the LORD he shall rejoice in his salvation.
3 Yet though for a season doeth he wonders, it is by his gentle silence that he shall try thy faith, O son of man, and it is by this faith that thine heart’s blood shall be replaced. Let a man consider. Ponder ye the way and consider what hath been laid in Zion. Try mankind as aforetime, saith the LORD, try them with my signs to set their faith.
4 Come ye with this people, O Gentiles. Come, hear the trees sing you a fine tune. Hear the calving of young with the sound of joy. Oh clap your hands, all ye mountains. Skip ye the clouds with his thunderous glory. Come ye to the glorious works of the LORD!
5 Stumble not, O Ephraim, seek thou them not because thy faith is unsound. Try and give unto him this word that he might see the ripples again, for I do quell [still/suppress] the ocean that they might see the ripples again, lest my block be placed in vain. My spirit doth go out in stillness. Cast thine eyes upon a tempered sea and behold and but seek.
6 Pray, and I shall quell the ocean that there withholden any tempests, and there shall be no storms upon the sea 40 years; for thy faith, O Jacob; for thy rebuke, O Ephraim.
7 I am a poor servant indeed if I cannot recognize my master, and bring my head down lower than his. Yet I also see my father. Therefore I shall not prostrate myself, but I shall embrace he who saw not his children, and yet he hath generations unto abundance. Let thy spirit gush forth, O LORD, that our lusts for thy words may be filled. The Earth doth starve. We hunger and yearn, but we are not filled. Ephraim’s cakes are apportioned unto us by mince. But thy words are as sweet as angel’s food. They fill my soul and relax my joints. Let thine Holy Spirit go about mankind and see that we are dumb. Feed us with thy salvation, O my God. Stretch forth thine hand and touch my lips. Feed us, feed us, thou who art my maker, my guide and my beauty. In thy resolve there is life, and this life is evermore.

v.1 The Rich Jewish leaders of America (Ephraim) will lose their power over Israel and the global jewish community. They will reject the prophet and refuse to acknowledge that he was the beginnings of all the coming religious and civil upheaval.
v.3 He will work miracles (through his prophet?) for a season, but then will come a 40 year period with none (v.6). At the end of this period of probation (ref), the sand storm will hit.
v.6 “for thy faith O Jacob”, that is 40 yrs to “set [Jacob’s] faith”, but to rebuke Ephraim’s faith (since they will completely deny the prophet). This will condemn them, and a just judgment will be given at the end of the 40 yr probation.


AND the word of the LORD came unto me, saying: I shall yet do a wonder in Zion. Not since Horeb, they shall say, hath the LORD caused us to tremble so. He bringeth us to the brink; by the mouth of the deep he causeth us to dwell.
2 But the LORD seeth Jacob. We shall not be moved. Let the unbelieving depart. Let them seek the mouth of the deep. Let them watch from afar, for God is with Us; we shall mount up.
3 Let his banner be raised. Let it go forth before us. Let the sharpness of his eye spare not our enemies. Let Egypt run to her borders first, for she came late of battle. Let Syria be ashamed, and they that dwelt among us find excuse.
4 For our stony hearts did it come to this, for in our hard conceit did we regard the LORD as Buddhim and Baalim and Krishnim.
5 Oh that we were not a people who did mischief! Oh that we did not hearken unto the prophets of the nations and the leaders of Israel, speaking peaceably. To every desire of our imagination do they say “thus saith the LORD.”
6 But thou didst not speak peaceably, O LORD, for thou dost not condone the vanity of man, nor singest thou the praises of flesh. We have no excuse, for we corrupt the love of God and make it usury. All the willful made it a stumbling block to the weak.
7 We would not hearken unto thee in thy forbearing. Thy goodness we greeted with a turn of our backs.
8 Our face was to those who did evil in thy sight, and we did not look away. In the name of love they justify fornication, adulteries and murders, envy, jealousy and greed. Whatsoever they desire to do, they call love; and if one taketh unto himself from one must it be taken.
9 There is no man that layeth hold, freely given; but covetousness is his god and envy his prophet.
10 It is because they delight in evil that they corrupt the ways of the LORD to prevent judgment. They delight in frowardness and audacity, and have a perverse lust for irony. They heed not thy laws that they may be reproved. They use love to tip the scales against those who were defrauded.
11 We drank of their cup, and are not innocent. Yet for a little while will thine anger endure, O Holy One. Thou pickest us up, and dustest off our knees. Set us on thy way, O LORD. We shall call that day JHWH RAH’AH, for God hath shown us, and we trembled more at his mercy than at his wrath, for God hath shown himself on the field of battle and hath torn heaven asunder and shouted down his name, and in the hearts of men did it burn.
12 O LORD, that we had hearkened unto thy prophets; that we had heard thy voice. But even now at the brink, as the mouth of the deep doth yawn for our souls, thy wrath is of short duration; thy wonder as the fire from Horeb. Stir thou from thy place, O God, and guide us to our borders. Guide us again, O LORD, for we have seen thy salvation.
13 In that day, I shall hear thee, O my Jacob. I take the elder from thine head; and the maker of traditions as a babe that learneth of thee, even he shall be at thy feet.
14 I shall moreover chastise the Gentiles in that day, saith the LORD. How long ere innocency come? saith the LORD— it cometh with each new generation. So come again the days of thine innocency; to feign its destruction is vanity. It cometh from the womb, wherefrom there is no memory of what hath been.
15 Behold, the days come when I shall cause to return the innocency of the nations, saith the LORD.


BE not dismayed at the ways of the heathen and the signs which their own minds conceive. For one leaneth his elbow upon the mantel and smoketh long on his pipe. There he expoundeth a new idea. He hath gravened another idol. It is without form. It speaketh from his mind, “Lo, here I am,” and he followeth wherever it listeth.
2 The nations come together and say: “Let us conspire to throw off the LORD, for so was his anointed created in the days of our ancient.” Be not dismayed at their oracle, for it is quicksilver and it cannot take form. It shall be poison to the mouth that speaketh; poison to the ear that receiveth.
3 Oh bemoan, wail and be undone, for the owner of all things draweth nigh, and the visage of the dreadful God is in the heavens. He looketh upon his creation, and he crieth out in anguish: What have they formed that ye should treat your minds as gods? for I see a land laid waste; and the whole earth, it is upside down. He who stoppeth the womb createth not, but saith “Come not forth” to that which I have sewn together. Behold, it was never spoken by my mouth, nor did it ever come into mine heart, that man should so stray and that the righteous should say “It must be.”
4 Behold, there is none that abideth; there is not one who remaineth constant. I have found me none: he who maketh his sin righteousness and he who maketh his righteousness sin are altogether this people. He saith to his fellow: “Let us go and move together unto a far place, unto the mountains or a wilderness haven, that we may dwell in sameness of mind and in purity.” He shall be cut off from my sight, saith the LORD. Though he saith “Let us not be as the sinners in the city, the children of the damned,” he shall be cut off, he and his fellow.
5 He also who remaineth in the city, to walk as all others that therein walk, he shall be consumed. I make him as a strand for the straw pile, and he shall be consumed. For the righteous that would not contend for his righteousness and he who preferreth mischief in the cities shall perish together; even he who was too holy and he who delighted in sin—they shall be the same. He who hath the power, yet liveth for himself shall surely perish: both cause the land to languish under sin.
6 Therefore thus saith the LORD, I shall chastise the righteous and the sinners, and shall cause to lay desolate this generation; I shall make vapid the cheeks that were once swelled, for there is no speaker of justice; there is no person mature in sobriety before me, nor circumspect in his ways. The righteous walk as the sinners, and say, “We are too holy;” and the sinners as the righteous, saying, “There is no sin.”
7 Behold how great is the uneven weight they create, and how great is the burden they have forged upon their own backs. Even in the great congregation I shall silence the delight: “The day of the LORD cometh.” Rejoice not in the day of the LORD that cometh, nor take ye comfort; for I shall consume the righteous and the wicked in that day.
8 Oh that my heart should be set to malice and the earth trembleth not. Oh that I should roar like a bear and growl like a lion and the earth slumbereth instead.
9 I shall set mine heart to wrath soon, and as a blinding fury I shall take vengeance upon the great congregation. The forger of weights and the caster of iron chains have oppressed the way of the LORD long enough. Be silent, thou and thy haughty jabber! Give ear to your own salvation, for ye are without knowledge, and I come to utterly purge.
10 Oh give ear indeed ye that have made my laws a burden, and my ways of no effect, saith the LORD. I speak not wrath in vanity. I shall perform my words.
11 For, indeed, ye are an oppression to my soul. It is not oppression to stop the oppressor, nor tyranny to say no to the tyrant, saith the LORD. Behold, I declare you the tyrant and the oppressor, ye who will not hearken unto my words to perform them and my laws to do them.
12 But ye have set prophets to justify the way of young lions. Yea, ye are young lions set to roam. Ye bring down a young stag and gnaw upon him to the bone while one of you standeth off and justifieth their rapine.
13 The young lions’ ways embolden them, and cause them to think themselves seers. But see the LORD’s wrath they do not! Nor do any of their signs prophecy their own destruction. Shall lust and vanity see my ways, saith the LORD? If thou seest not Horeb, shalt thou see Nebo?
14 Think I shall not avenge? Makest thou me into a hard heart, O man, because I take vengeance? Nay, thy ways are uneven, and I have seen the defrauded.
15 Did I not smite the firstborn of Egypt because Egypt smote the firstborn of Israel? Makest thou me hard, O fool, when I gave warning beforehand I should smite? Didst thou, O Egypt, give warning unto Israel? Nay, thy ways are uneven. The sons of flesh hate my reproof; but my ways are right, saith the LORD.
16 Therefore thus saith the LORD, I shall cut off the prophets from you, even the blemish from you when she saith “That is hardly loving;” and the shaker of heads and the roller of eyes; and they who glorify an action and condemn a reaction; and he who magnifieth himself by study to overturn my words shall no longer be a guide unto you. Surely, they who say “Wrath cometh not upon the Earth” shall find that day an undoing, for it cometh not save for them and they who in like manner thwart justice and who mock reproof.
17 Provocation is their wine, and whim is their judgment. Is he who stretched out the heavens and breathed life as they? He who is wise counseleth for the better of his things. So am I the LORD, and so are all things mine.
18 What graven image so evened the scales and so ordered fairness as unto the LORD? Nay, they cannot, for they own nothing. The world is not theirs, nor have they possession of a speck of dust. The LORD breatheth and the meadow flowereth; he sigheth and the forests clap their hands. Man fashioneth thereof what he listeth, but the tree was made by the LORD.
19 But your minds have carved vanity, and destruction is your artificer’s tool. Your cities whittle the soul; your babes are buried in canning jars. All creation languisheth under your artificer’s tool; and under the hand that formed it and under the mind that brought it about.
20 A sigh stirreth my soul. I have given righteousness as the air, that a man may breathe in and live, and that therewith breathing he should live. Doth death so delight thee, son of man, that thou breathest not? — and thou that breathest, doth it begin with a sigh? beginneth it with a filling of the lungs. Therefore give heed unto the LORD that thou mayest live; and living live to abundance. I have waited, and man turneth not. I have spared that man might not see my wrath; but he would not.
21 Truly, I have heard the words of the quiescent long enough. Though he moveth nought but his tongue, he doeth so only to justify those that lead to destruction. His arms raise up only to stop those who speak the words of justice. Surely I shall put an end to his civilization.


DECLARE thou this word unto Israel, saith the LORD. The LORD of hosts causeth me to prophecy against the nations and against their prophets, for with thy turning I will loosen the teeth of the false prophets off of the nations, so that the remnant of mankind shall seek the LORD.
2 Thus saith the LORD your God, Behold, as a pot over-boiling, so have the nations put out their own fire. The words of their prophets are as the vapour from the fire. More doth the broth singe the flame, more doth the vapour rise. Yet as it hath no substance and quickly fadeth, so shall I now make the words of their false prophets to fail and their kingdom to fade.
3 Even by reason of their own boiling is their time full, even full to the brim of blood, lasciviousness, greed, and uneven weights. Not for your sakes do I cut them off, but for their great sins do I cut off their head and their tail, their grasping hands and loathsome tongue. The head is their tradition, their grasping hands their congregations, their tongue their preachers, and their deadly tail their lying prophets; and their feet, are these not their judges? supported by the strong tail.
4 They are froward mouths and foolish minds; expecting hands are their gestures of praise before me; he whose heart is set upon the crotch is their speaker of philosophy: therefore their prophesyings are lies, and their glimpse of the future blurred by their own lusts. For this also my face is against their lying tongues, and my rebuke upon thee, because thou hast made them thine ally against my covenant, in that they say, “The blessing is in thy flesh, O Zion;” and that thou rebukest them not in error, saying instead, “If it is a matter by which we may gain, it is well.”
5 Think and consider, O foolish prophets and ye ignorant who have established traditions as idols of the soul: What is the lot of the village idiot? Though he be a fool, doth not thine own foolishness cause thee to think thyself sound by comparison? Thou restest in an unwise comparison.
6 Though he be not carried off into captivity, and of the spoils of his own house doth no man brag of taking, no deal braggeth he the greater portion of getting, yet by comparison the fool causeth thee to rest assured that thou art wise.
7 Yet it is thou who art plundered and led off, and it is thy substance that shall be spoiled by a mighty hand.
8 Therefore hear ye now the LORD, O Israel, So have your traditions been until now, saith the LORD, and so too do the nations fool themselves.
9 When my prophets spoke in the former days, rising early and declaring, O foolish Israel, thou saidst the prophecy was for a long time off. When thou considerest them today, thou sayest the prophecy was for a long time ago.
10 Foolish people, hard eyes, hard minds! What I declared unto you came to pass, and what I declare unto the nations shall soon come to pass; and ye shall know that I am the LORD. I shall call that day Astonishment, for so shall it be an astonishment to the nations the day I turn you unto me; and that night shall be called Terror, for shall not the nations be overwhelmed at the sight of it?
11 Consider the cedar: before the sapling can grow a young tree; or the babe, before it can have hoary temples, so shall I bring my word to pass.
12 Shall your teeth not be set on edge at the doing? saith the LORD. Yea, they shall be set on edge, every one of you. And your eyes, even they shall be set longingly to your coasts. In that day ye shall know that the nations prophesied unto you a lie. Your nakedness shall be revealed, and ye shall know that the prophets of the nations were gainsayers and flatterers.
13 Thus saith the LORD; A voice is heard from Achor; a wailing and the weeping of shame. Out of the valley stirreth the voice of ashes; soot is the breath from their mouth. The nations lament, and the great congregation is covered in shame, for I have made the nakedness of the prophets of the nations an abhorrence. I shall strip them of their apparel, and ye shall burn it, O ye valiant of Judah, upon the autumn heap. Great shall be the conflagration in the Valley of Achor; and he shall fill in the valley with their remnant and with the heaps of their ashes, that no more shall ye suffer trouble of the nations. Great shall be the day of Achor, for I shall cause thee to fly on eagle’s wings over the valley to thy borders.


SHOD the feet of Israel, saith the LORD. Remove the bunions and support thou the arch. Sound a trumpet in Zion, and march on, for the LORD of hosts is thy banner that day: mine eye in the scope, like a lion on its prey.
2 My servant Arie, the son of BenHezeron, is he not least among you? and I shall drive out mine enemies, and go before the host of Israel though their backs be to the beach. My spirit shall come upon them, and they shall not faint. Mount up and shout, O Israel: “Our God is in our midst! The LORD of hosts goeth before us!”
3 Better is the residue than the sauce, saith the LORD. Blessed be Jacob who waiteth for me, for he shall not be cut off from the land. But they shall trust in me, and wait upon the LORD. I wave away the vapour and bring the residue to taste. And the remnant of mankind shall be the LORD’s.
4 But he that preacheth “Behold the day of the LORD is at hand; he doth smite Israel for joy”— that day shall overtake him and be a snare.
5 For, see, the false prophet is brought to nought, and the expounder of presumptions is unmasked. I cut off both in one day: He who would take by envy the promises which I have given thee, and he who declareth it falsely as thy flesh. His hands move not over stones, and caress they not trunks, but he fondleth your flesh, and ye are made idolatrous of things not of the LORD.
6 Out of the nations we have heard a droning, and there is a constant drip in our ears: “The day of the LORD.” Why call yourselves prophets, ye preachers, when ye have seen nothing? Have ye not declared my day for generations, and then hastened your feet to vanities and fleshpots? When a man seeth smoke he doth declare: “Fire cometh.” But ye have seen nothing. He who is within the smoke seeth not thither it listeth. Only after it lifteth ye see the pattern of char, and ye do declare the doings of the LORD: “Ah, lament.”
7 O ye envious! What can you see if ye are not the center of the matter? Ye are in the smoke, ye false of the nations and ye foolish of Judah, ye blind of Ephraim. The fire scorcheth toward you. If you saw the day of the LORD was at hand, O foolish prophets, then why did ye not repent? If ye saw its approach, why did ye also not see your destruction?
8 Behold, the day is at hand, saith the LORD, wherein I shall punish the nations wherein ye sojourn, wherein all do only that which is right in their own hearts, for as an old leaven they make sour the whole lump. Therefore I shall purge them to save the dough, that it no more be puffed with bitterness and be sour to the taste.
9 For the prophets’ eyes are continuously upon the young lions; they look not away in distaste, but are those who encourage the assembly of bloody cubs. They are an abomination to me, and the prophets prophecy unto them a lie in their midst.
10 Their tongues are set to a recital. Vain repetition is the tempo of their justification. Hear ye the words of your fate. Therefore the LORD shall repeat his judgment upon them until they are utterly consumed. For thus hath the LORD said: I have seen each man walk in his own imagination, and I will fill your empty minds with judgment. Inclusion I shall make exclusion, and ye shall not come before the LORD. Your inclusion shall bring into your windows the inclusion of my judgment upon you; and as straw cannot make a nest for fire so can your prophecyings not buffer my wrath.
11 Behold, out of the windows in which ye have crept, there is the sound of wailing; lamentation proceedeth where once there was rejoicing. The maidens have become harlots, they who once rejoiced are now soiled because the false prophet is exposed.
12 Make well your howlings, ye that are now the leavings of whoredoms. The day of the LORD hath multiplied your moanings, O ye whorish congregation! Proclaim it not from your solemn assemblies. For ye cannot see what is before your nose, and a matter too big is rendered invisible to those close at hand.
13 For in that day not one prophet shall declare his soundness, and instead of “The day of the LORD is at hand,” they shall moan; and instead of joy they shall wear sackcloth. For they have proclaimed rejoicing at their whoredoms, gladness at their sin, and greeted judgment with mirth. For all that they desire they have declared “a blessing,” and I have not spoken it. They have mingled my words with gall, and they have set sheep to graze continually. They have covered their wool as dew, it is a full mantle, and the weight thereof a burden that causeth them to languish, even unto death. For this I cut off the shepherds and the prophets, and I shear the sheep, for ye are more than sheep, and your sin is the sin of man.
14 Take up weeping at the sight of it, make great the wailings from your shores, for I shall avenge myself on you, saith the LORD, with a great slaughter that they which come hither for generations shall fear the LORD, that they sin not; even as the sin of the blemish who declared lust in my name, and they who set my words on fire by study to make a torch of their own light. Their carcasses shall line the way to Fish Gate and to Dung Gate; those that mock the LORD’s doings shall be heaps, and a byword.
15 And in that day Jacob the younger shall take the birthright again, and Israel shall serve Judah: the first the last, the greater the lesser, the larger the smaller. The LORD of hosts hath spoken.
16 Tribulation shall be a snake, upheaval an adder, but Jacob shall vanquish them to their holes. I will make the nations as multitudes that follow but a small ensign— the greater, the lesser. And I shall settle them in the land of Benjamin, as multitudes settle after a weary journey in fertile land. The LORD Hosanna shall cut off the serpent from the land, and shall bring an end to the desolation, and no more shall my holy mount be trodden down of the nations.


AND the word of the LORD came unto me, saying, A head hath no power, nor can a tail survive on its own; and feet and hands require legs and arms; and all are tied by sinews unto a body, and without a body none have any power. This is the nations, for it is not enough that Hazor is corrupt, and corrupteth; she thinketh all should be Gerizim, false practices quaint and no more; and she longeth for Jerusalem, that she may make all as Gerizim, that bastard of Shechem, to whom she hath made betrothal. She hath by Bethel’s conquest emboldened herself, and she magnifieth her emissaries as prophets to willingly sing a song of happiness, an ode of justification, at their lewdness.
2 And the word of the LORD moreover declared unto me, Unto what shall I liken the prophets that come from Hazor of the Gentiles, and unto what is the spirit of them unto whom they are sent at Jerusalem? For thus saith the LORD, The prophets of these times are like drunks staggering down a canyon road, proclaiming your own nonsense. Their words echo back to them. From your own stony hearts gladly echo back their foolishness in the Valley of Deception, nigh your land. Ye join the throng and cast ye flowers at their parade, and they enter the gates of your strong cities by treaty. If ye would enquire of me, would ye have so enjoined them at the gate? Ye enquire not of the LORD your God because ye are ignorant of my law, but knowing my law ye enquire not, for ye know I would disallow, O ye foolish prophets and they that set you to prophecy a desirable thing.
3 Ye seek the attention of men; it is a sweet nectar to have praise without substance; preeminence at any cost. But of whom should ye have taken counsel, my people? but of him who careth not for what people think, but in whose heart is equity because his heart is set upon the LORD.
4 Shall I be fickle and speak not to you this day? Come again, not today. Come another time and I shall perchance speak a word to you. Nay, but the day of the LORD is a terrible day. I speak to you a word. I whisper not at your whoredoms.
5 Therefore thus saith the LORD God of hosts, That day I shall make it a day of rebuke. I shall cause the Gentiles to know their abominations, for their prophets speak but what the congregations want to hear. As a dart that whistleth forth shall always find a target, so a mouth that speaketh deceitfully shall always find an ear that delighteth in deceit.
6 The mouth hath no power, as a dart hath no sting, save it find its mark. A tongue shall not wag unless there be an ear waiting for it like a quiver waiting for an evil dart to return from its victim, dripping with innocent blood. The ear is an open sheath, and the heart is its bottom wherein resteth the edge.
7 Prophecy thou unto the whoredoms of the nations, unto Hazor yonder nigh Lebanon, against those who also say the LORD spoke of times long ago, and for today he speaketh of wrath long to come.
8 Speak unto them, Thus saith the LORD God: I have purposed your overthrow. I have thought it, and I will execute it with craft. Jerusalem shall not die from your dart, and I shall resurrect Bethel by my breath on Jerusalem. From the desert cometh my breath, through the dry winds of the Negev. In vain spoke I not from the wilderness wherein Horeb dwelleth, and therefore thou Canaanitish wench hast no excuse because thou art of the nations. From the desert I bring my prophets, from the nations my people. If man should speak and write vanities in my name, should I raise up prophets proclaiming so? Yet there were no prophets raised up justifying a wayward people. Why should I raise them up now?
9 Wear the frock of humbling, for I bring sore chastisement upon ye of Jerusalem. Wear widowhood in betrothal, for I smite Hazor, for this your lover was a Canaanite; and ye espoused have a storyteller for a father-in-law. The marriage shall not be consummated, for Hazor went back to her ancient ways, and for her whoredoms I have sent her back.
10 Hear ye the word of the LORD, O ye of Jerusalem, long not for Hazor. Come ye forward; be ye circumcised in heart before the LORD your God, where there dwelleth and abideth splendours forevermore, where the LORD is your ruler and your judge of mercy.
11 But without there is no man innocent before me by reason of the error of those who rule over them. Each one delighteth in deceit and the perverting of judgment, in that ye judge by defense and not by action. He that followeth seeing the footsteps outlined in blood is as guilty, saith the LORD. Behold, this is the nations before me, saith the LORD, and they in Jerusalem who espoused themselves by heart and practice. But I shall not send ye back Hazor way, for it is from there that I took you and brought ye on to this time. My compassion burned for you. I dressed you in silks of many colours, combed your hair and made it radiant, and decked you with many splendours, until Hazor desired you in the plain of her assemblies and petitioned you from the Tel of her power. Ye shall not depart from me; the wilderness is a poor place for the brightness of silk, and the splendours of my side shall make you remain. No man shall plead his prince as justification. I shall judge the empty soul by its emptiness, and another
12 Go not to that place, to her ancient stones and the carvings of predatory eyes. There is no deed done by mercy, neither a heart stirreth by pity; but gain is always before their eyes. Have I not listened all the day long to selfish gainsaying and love of reward? Those that say “a jewel in my crown” by whatsoever act he doeth in mercy shall not get one. I shall cause your crown to tarnish your head. It shall rot and fall to pieces because you do nothing in the name of the LORD without bean counting.
13 Ah vain revelers! Your places of forgathering are not holy places but a den of merchants and the bazaar of players. But thus saith the LORD, If I cause to open the mouth, wisdom proceedeth; and of the heart, godliness as an ointment and balm of relief. Where is found secret words, for the works of the LORD cannot be hid, and his glory cannot be shut up? He doth not require initiations. He doth not babble, and burblers do not speak his words.
14 What have your babblers seen? Declare ye unto me, for the LORD demandeth of you? Thus saith the LORD, Hazor putteth off my name, and each man and woman hath dreams and seeth visions on her Tel, but Israel seeth none nor dreameth dreams. Labour in Jezreel beckoneth, and mounts are a dreamy place. Moreh is barren, Tabor is high, and Carmel is wicked as unto Hazor. Envy not the mounts, nor tend to Jezreel when the LORD is nigh. Beseech ye the LORD in Jezreel, even his compassion unto Sharon. Come to the river, come ye to the cool of the brook, for my compassion is not far from you, and a strenuous pilgrimage shall not endear you. I have not spoken from the mounts, nor appeared to any there in dreams. Behold the revelry on the mounts; how their faces open in sighs of ecstasy as if from a fine wine, and yet their prophets do not pour out my wine. They are not drunk on my ways, saith the LORD. They delight in their feelings; their imagination hath made them dumb to reason. Each one feeleth special, though even
15 But hear ye the clear word of the LORD, the word against the nations and their assemblies, their Tels and encampments on the plains: You have become detestable things in my sight, empty vessels with hands reaching about perchance to grab a spirit. Wherefore? Shall ye make the LORD as something for to shove within your purses that ye may keep him as a Djinn? Behold, your ignorance is offensive. Ye caress idols of your mind, and your hand moveth about to adore idols without forms.
16 Long enough, saith the LORD. Indeed, yea, long enough hath mine holy things been scattered in the nations. I shall restore them to Judah, even my name. At the casting forth with a mighty shout of Saviour, that is my name, the LORD of hosts, I shall make Jerusalem a crown and its inhabitants my heralds again. In that day Rome shall be a widow, and she shall call her children bastards. They shall praise my name and bow down to idols, and their hands shall work for Ishmael.
17 But I say unto thee, O Judah of my beloved, I say Restore. I place this in thy mouth, and at the saying of this I make thee a mark of offense, a point of chiding and derision unto the nations. I make thee a teething bone upon which they shall gnaw. Say not “I knew it!” I make thee of brass. Thou shalt not be delivered up unto the Gentiles. But because these words shall make thee a hissing, I shall hiss unto them. I whistle for the raven and not for the roosting bird; and my word shall be carried on the wings of contention, so that all Israel shall hear them.
18 Thus saith the LORD, In that day I shall break the betrothal of Hazor to Gerizim, that no more the things of the heathen mix with the storytellers, and no more shall they be called the ways of the LORD.
19 Take up this parable, my prophet, and prophecy thou against Hazor yonder Galilee, against the ancient stones of her meeting places that she hath dug up, this oracle:
20 She who calleth herself my bride hath bidden you, O foolish prophets, as vulgar minstrels and impish players. She setteth you to play at her banquets. Ah, it is a sight! Thou hast a low flame, O Bride, for fear it will set thy fat on fire like a torch.
21 Thou art vulgar, O Bride, and these thy minstrels are louts. The place I made glorious in the latter times thou hast polluted with thine ancient stones. Thou carvest even now thine own idols with thy tongue, and with foolishness anointest thine own prophets. Thine idols are lewd, and their votaries— Ah, my, are they a homely lot! They scare varnish from wood! They bring revelers, effeminate men, homosexuals, perverts and strange minstrels. They live off my wealth and mock me because I am patient. I leave thee to thy lovers, perchance they shall abide thy contentions and find musings in them.
22 How hast thou become an harlot! How have thy children committed abominations! They go not into the secret chambers to commit their iniquities, but with a mighty beckon bring out their champions of lewdness. They dance with rioters and cavort with revelers. How I delight in the sound of children playing in the streets, but they have brought out filth and trample them therewith.
23 Am I not as a mother unto Israel? saith the LORD. Shall I not run and pick up the children and spare them from the trampling feet? Am I not a father unto the nations? saith the LORD. Shall I enquire whose child is in the path of the chariot wheels before I rescue? Behold, I save first before I turn over the chariot’s wheel. When the children are safe, I plan a trap for the trampling of the horse and for the chariot’s wheel, and the driver shall be upset in the snare.
24 And this shall be the snare thereof: I give you this, at the hand of the LORD: Israel is too small for my works, and mine hand is too broad. I will draw with a sweep of my mighty arm the treasures of the Gentiles, and they shall come unto me, saith the LORD that doeth this, even the Mighty One of Israel. Ye shall weep in your poverty on that day, saith the LORD, ye congregations of foolishness.
25 Thus saith the LORD; An end hath come, an end of the nations. Now smite the arch, saith the LORD, until it collapse, that the steeple fall, and make great the rubble thereof over the street in which the revelers have defiled my holy name, that no more traffic shall be heard therein, nor the sound of children playing. Better a ruin than a snare; a place of shadows than an highway of blood— until the LORD raiseth up his salvation, that he who is delivered of the children of Israel shall know it is I the LORD who hath delivered him.
26 Then smite the dam and the stones shall crack, that a flood may be prepared. Strike the base and the water shall flow. Shake the ends thereof and the flood shall gush forth. When it becometh a trickle shall the dam be easy to rebuild, even with flimsy stone shall it be built and then reinforced; that they that come not forth at the word of the LORD may be snared by precepts, fall back and not be delivered. (These are the mighty oracles against Hazor of the Canaanites, and against the wisdom of her ancient stones, her prophets and allies)


WOE unto the rebelling nations, and woe to the horde of mischief makers, who say “It is” and therein is found the will of God, and a blessing to be ordained; the purpose of whose council is to overturn the word of the LORD; who make themselves the center and by their own council mold the LORD’s doings to justify their set ways.
2 Lo, the nations imagine a vain thing; their mind is in league with deception. Each man formeth me in their own image, and if I were to send them a prophet they would not hearken. Not with stones form they my image, but with their vain minds and self-seeking spirits form they my image. Better they made a dumb idol than pollute my ways, saith the LORD. For an idol hath no power of itself to teach any man its dumb ways nor enlighten a suppliant with its ignorance. The ignorant seeketh an idol and remaineth in his first estate, but a fool seeketh the counsel of the foolish and is made like unto his foolish image.
3 Vanity is deceit itself, above all deceptions wherein the sons of flesh deceive themselves. And I the LORD regard no one more foolish than they who fear not at my word. Is not an idol worshiper and him that revereth a carved trunk less foolish than they who take my name upon their lips and do not my ways? who declare I live and then declare I speak not clearly, and that I have not made the heart in mine own image?
4 And the word of the LORD came unto me, saying, Is not the melting of snow a slow and steady process? In like manner shall such be overthrown. Destruction shall come upon them, by my hand shall it come, and who can save them in that day? Yet by grace it is thought, and by mercy it is written: Only they who call upon the LORD shall escape.
5 When indeed have the nations sought me, saith the LORD, and who in my far journey hath taken hold of me by the hand that he should lead me in his ways? Doth not a shepherd take his sheep to seasonal grass, and when the season turneth yet again doth he not take them to the old pastures and the old cotes to graze? Behold as the sheep graze he mendeth the cotes and then leadeth them into safety. Or seeing a fire come to the seasonal grass, will he not hasten, especially when seeing that the old grass groweth ready?
6 Therefore thus prophecy thou unto thy brethren, the children of Israel, So am I a shepherd unto Israel, saith the LORD, and so shall I do. Follow my paths and come to my sheepcote, for my shepherds have gathered speckled sheep. But I will not mix ye, saith the LORD. I shall sack my shepherds and scatter their speckled beasts. And from my pure sheep I shall raise me up aseven shepherds. For from sheep born of another pasture, of the seasonal grounds, shall I speak unto this people and lead my people back, counsel them, govern them, and restore them to the old cotes.
7 My name shall be carried back as the holy things of old, and upon my people, my chosen generation, shall it reside. From the islands afar off shall they return, from Tartessos, Gog, Ashkanaz, and America. Britain shall give forth; Sepharad shall stretch forth its hands and carry my people. Kittim shall boast and rejoice, and shall fill my courts. Ishmael shall come by caravans and shall deck thee, O Judah, with the wealth of the East. Cathay shall come with aloes and ointments, and whithersoever the nations encounter thee, my beloved of Judah, my chosen of Israel, shall they carry you, and ye shall all rejoice in the LORD.
8 And the word of the LORD moreover came unto me, saying: And in that day this parable shall guide them: I came to my cote and, behold, my shepherd was gone and my sheep unattended. And I was wroth with my shepherd and I sought him on the high and rocky hills. There I met him, in a place between the tight rocks, in his arms a strange lamb. And I chode with him. Why hast thou left, seeing there were no sheep missing? And he said: “I went forth to seek, perchance any stranger had happed into thy domain. And, behold, I have found one, lame, this one in mine arms, who could not pass through thy land. And I have brought her, even as a little ewe lamb.”
9 A son speaketh unto me. This is the voice of him that loveth me. Surely thou hast done well, my shepherd; for so shall I take of the strangers’ lambs, and so is a diligent shepherd before me.


The Lord sends destruction on Israel, they will not see it coming because their watchmen look in the wrong place.

THUS saith the LORD God; And it shall come to pass in the days after the fullness of the nations hath come in, that they will no more say: “Last days;” and no more shall it be heard. But they who walk in my paths shall be gird with a pap of iron, and my words shall be written thereon. Upon my word shall they engrave “sandal,” and they shall say of my name: “Mine identify and mine honour.”
2 And it shall come to pass in that day that they shall long to see me, and their hearts shall be turned to crave me. Yet for all that I will not end the days of man upon the Earth, but I will stretch it to the uttermost that life may come from my side until the time of my desire. And if they should turn to no longer desire my face, I shall still not end the days of man upon the Earth for vengeance sake. But the dreadful day of the LORD shall come at my choosing.
3 Speak unto them, saying: For all this the nations have sought and not sought, and neither hath its desire added one pim unto the congregations nor have they prevented the evils of mankind therewith. Therefore prophecy thou unto the nations this oracle:
4 Thus saith the LORD: Prepare for a day of jealousy, for the Bride’s children are as their mother, and a proverb of ignorance. There is not light in the nations. Behold a smoke, a blue smoke, thin and curling upward. Thy children kindled a fire. A fire is kindled in the nations. The smoke shall be a furnace and the fat of the Bride shall be its fuel.
5 But there is in Judah a sound. Hear one and all the sound, a sound is in Dan and Naphtali, the sound of bells tinkling over the deep. Zebulon heareth them. Joppa doth ring. Acre rejoiceth and all the seacoasts there between. Gaza is glad again. Jerusalem weareth bells of gold, and the soft breeze sendeth the sound thereof over the mountains. “What fire?” say we. We see the fire of the LORD. He hath restored our glory and made himself our refuge.
6 Therefore thus saith the LORD God unto the nations: Consider Judah, and dismiss not the mercy of the LORD. I have moated thee and made thee a keep, O Judah, and Bethlehem a parapet and a tower of rejoicing. Bethel and Shiloh are places of congregation and praise. But Samaria I make a place of warning, a warning unto the nations. I write it on the hills so all they who pilgrim from the nations can see it afar.
7 For I have set my name amongst you again, and ye walk the paths of Judah and Israel with my sandals. Lo, I have returned unto my people and ye have returned unto the LORD your God, and his Holy One. The young men are handsome and set in array. The maidens are decked in the finest silks, and the locks of their hair are intertwined with flowers. The ancient is honourable again, and no man regardeth small matters or turneth he aside another for a trifle.
8 Sound an alarm of lovingkindness unto the nations, that they look upon thee. See that it goeth forth as a mighty trumpet. For, behold, how the LORD loveth the Gentiles, that he should call them forth. And in that day ye dwell safely they shall forget their philosophies, even the Samaritans their stiff neck; and vain knowledge and false tels, the congregations their divisions and contentions; and the Samaritan his solitary isolation. I shall heal thus: humble yourselves and enquire of me, saith the LORD God of Israel, and I shall hear you, and I will lead you to my compassion, for I the LORD have spoken this.
9 Consider ye not tribulation, nor thirst for judgment lest ye be snared and overtaken. He who seeth destruction the clearest shouteth the loudest of salvation. Redemption do I bring, a correction and a sore reproof that no more they that dwell upon the Earth shall call me by the moon, or by the winds, or say I am the power in the sun or in the river. All shall say, We know he is the LORD. For I the LORD am One; I had no rising. I have no setting. I am. There is no force but my will.
10 (The oracle against the vanities of aHeshbon, whose watchmen’s eyes are always upon bAmmon.) The desolate places of Moab and Ammon make ye to see every whirlwind and every wisp of dust, O ye watchmen of Heshbon. Ye dwell too nigh desolation, and your face is set to it daily, and your brow squinteth to mark an undoing. Your ways are contaminated with theirs, and emptiness prompteth your visions. cShittim is bored with your words, and letteth her gates lie idle at night; the passes to Jordan are unguarded. Though dNebo is close, ye mount not and look not yonder to promise.
11 Tribulation, great tribulation— my soul is in tribulation at the bleat of their words. I cannot bear them. Last days, last days are a mockery. I don’t wish to hear them. Your days have been long. Full of days hast thou been, O Heshbon. Ammon still remaineth, and Moab’s wastes are still not arid. Have ye been removed except by judgment so that another may take your place in an arid time to come? So shall thy preaching foretell thine own removal. Thy days have been as full as the former days, prosperous Heshbon. Whose last days do thy seers see? Say no more “last day,” but come unto the LORD, the Great God, the God of the horn of Judah, the Redeemer of Jacob. Behold how Jacob was a trickle ye flicked with your toe, and now he is a torrent.
12 Tribulation shall vanish with your days and the bleat of your ignorance; but Judah shall be set aright. Her shores will be glad, and her fishermen heralds. Her coasts shall not be rocky, her lighthouses not desolate. Hearken behind ye as well, O watchmen of Heshbon. See that the desert hath laid waste your oasis whiles ye scanned the desert; your gates are sprung. Thou Heshbon art become as Ammon, and dry as unto Moab because of thy watchmen who left off thine oasis to watch yonder wisps kicked up of passing caravans.
13 Bend ye your minds unto him who is from the beginning and changeth not; and set your courses by the helm of the LORD. Hearken unto his word and take ye comfort at the mercies of God, for he is the head of days, and he is their extender unto the uttermost point. He bringeth beginnings, and he shall bring an end according to his wise purpose.
14 Why must I set a tune and play it again? ye caravans of Heshbon passing fair through Shittim to yonder Jordan’s low banks. The LORD is not a suppliant that he should entreat before flesh. Nay, he is not a minstrel that he should replay the same tune to a market that heareth him not. I turn not aside caravans into the market square. A new thing the LORD doeth not to get the attention of the crowd.
15 What use is there in speaking to man? His ways are set. His path leadeth to destruction. Upon a horse, with a switchback, doth he set the gallop to his end. Take ye heed, O ye of Samaria, and hearken unto this oracle: ye shall not go down to aMegiddo. Nor shall the LORD overturn you with a mighty battle. You set the tempo to your end, and it cometh as a snare in an unexpected place, without honour and without chance to draw the sword.
16 Look off to the north, ye caravaneers of Heshbon. Set up camp. Raise your pulpit and set it to the north. The Assyrian watcheth from the heights as a predator. The Palestinian lurketh in the clefts. Judgment cometh from behind you and not from the desolate realm. They have passed Jordan before you, because your eyes were laggard on the camp of your neighbour, upon the desolate places. They are within your camp, and ye are cut off first.
17 (The oracle for an end of time) Thus saith the LORD unto the nations: An end, an end cometh. The time hath returned. Now hath the time of your hebdomads come to fruition before me. Say not, From whence cometh destruction?— ye are within the seething pot. Your congregations saw false visions in the desert sand, and your house is laid desolate. Your retreat is also stalked. I set ye now to the time of your probation. Hear ye the word of the LORD: My mercy setteth ye a time. Shout it aloud, and from the rooftops let this message go forth! Get ye to repentance! Cast off your ways, O foolish people, and harden not your hearts. Put aside your uncleanness, your vanities, and your cold self-seeking hearts, and I shall lead you yonder Jordan where dwelleth aSharon’s fertile plain and bJezreel’s cultivated fields.
18 A son is a son, and the choosing of a son is the same. Cometh it not from the heart of him that chooseth? Therefore I was your God, and in far lands that heard of me not there I was called upon, and there I heard. But, come, your sins are a river crimson, and your ignorance is the puss of your infection. Your wounds I have opened because your strength is eaten up from within, expelled in riotousness and iniquity.
19 Come bind them with free gauze, and nurture them with balms that cost no money; where wit maketh thee none the wiser, and beauty none the better. Why spend money for that which perisheth? Come unto the LORD upon a free path, and perish not.
20 The end of the oracle: For when the Israelite shall smite the Assyrian, ye shall know your watchmen looked amiss and led you astray. The LORD shall cause an end of time upon the nations, upon their congregations; and their watchmen shall be no more. Ye shall return over Jordan and re-inhabit the desolate places, and Heshbon shall not be dwelt in until it is within a fertile valley, and her watchmen no longer see the desolate mountains of Ataroth and Rabbah; and the Ammonite and the Moabite shall dwell peaceably within the congregation of the LORD, and the nations shall dwell peacefully with Israel.


THUS saith the LORD thy God, in the year of the 70th hebdomad of the Gentiles set thy face to the east, and set it to the west, to the north and then to the south, and prophecy thou against them: Your times come to the full. The LORD God setteth ye a time to repent.
2 And the word of the LORD came unto me, saying: Set thee now a goodly vase before thee. Fill it with fine flowers, with delphiniums, roses, marigolds, wild flowers, and every beauteous flower thou canst find.
3 Prophecy unto the nations: For so is the LORD’s fulfillment. I set my ways and my laws to the purpose to which they were intended, and it nourisheth and causeth all beautiful things to grow and to sustain.
4 Empty now, my prophet, the vase of the goodly flowers. Prophecy unto the nations, unto my Bride, for so she fancieth herself: This is what ye call fulfillment; then smash it against a wall so that it shattereth.
5 Therefore thus saith the LORD God, so I do with thy fulfillment before me. So I make of thy fulfillment, and this shall be the end of thy fulfillment before me.
6 In the year of their 70th hebdomad, so set thy face against them and thus prophecy thou: In your probation ye shall traverse 40 miles. Your watchmen shall fall to the side of the road, the might of their camels collapse, the burden of their loads dropped aside; and ye shall leave their parched bones. But ye shall be holpen by the sight of aBethel, for the hand of the LORD rebuildeth it. Plant the goodly flowers at Bethel, the late flowers also and the early flowers in their season. They shall be sanctified by Bethel, by the spring breath of the LORD, and he shall blow their seed over Jordan and make Heshbon’s vista fertile.
7 But as for the vase, this is mine oracle against it, saith the LORD. Thus saith the LORD: When thy probation shall be ended I shall smash thee against the wall, for empty thou shalt be, and a vase be of no value unless it is set to the purpose to which it is intended.
8 Bend now a little; give me some time of your minds. I set thee now a sign and a riddle: Ezra riseth of the nations [Gentiles], from a cold and inhospitable place, and again with nails my laws, my ways, and my fulfillment are raised up unto all nations, and my laws go forth.
9 Upon the outer door they be, proclaiming not what is within but what is not. So understand ye the prophecy of the 70 hebdomads of the Gentiles, for they who calleth themselves my watchmen have been of heavy ears, heavy eyes all these hebdomads since.
v.6 I “feel” like this is alluding to the distance between Tel Aviv and Jerusalem (~30 miles), [then to Bethel, (10 miles) as well as doubling for a time period. Thus symbolizing the journey of Israel during the 40 year probation period from Tel Aviv (a symbol of American anti-christian Judaism) to Jerusalem/Bethel (a symbol of the true Judaism of Abraham and their fathers).


The Lord will return Israel into captivity for 70 more years, one last time. This captivity will be the means of enlarging Israel.

IN that day I shall set to me eight princes of my people [22a]. And upon them and my prophets shall my spirit come, to direct the ways again, and for a sign and a pillar unto Israel. They shall raise up my standard as aforetime, and my people shall look up and be healed.
2 Fear not, thou trembling land; for a great thing have I done in all the land. For, lo, I am returning this second time the captivity of my people Israel. Whilst the land trembleth, even by reason of boots, do I swell your borders and enlarge your house. My laws do go forth, amidst the up-cry they are heard in Judah and Jerusalem. Laud ye the LORD in his land! And tell ye the nations to repent at his doings.
3 And it shall be a hissing to the nations in that day, a source of offense, and as a shout of rejoicing is to him that seeketh solace. I shall gather the congregations against the house of Israel as one that gathereth an army to battle, and as one pulleth the bit in the foamy mouth. But I shall be jealous again for my people, Israel. And it shall come to pass in that day that the congregations of the nations shall be broken by the staff of Jacob. I have made it a double staff and a quartershaft[22c], and Jacob shall vanquish his enemies; on the right and on the left shall the staff strike as unto the sting of behemoth’s tail; and in that day Israel shall know that it is I, the LORD, who is their righteousness, and that I have not changed from my purpose, for my purpose is spoken before the world was, and it shall be lauded after the world passeth away.
4 Laud ye the LORD in the land, for he hath doused his mighty sword. Whole Palestina rejoice! The LORD, even the LORD GOD of Israel, speaketh, Even I speak peaceably, He saith; unto the seed and unto him that soweth I speak peaceably. Worship ye the LORD in the land; let the images of Hazor be put from your minds, ye Galileans. Call him not Baal after your fashion. Form him not in crude minds. Understand the LORD this day by his doings. Worship ye the LORD. See his doings today, and know it is done by the LORD, the God of Israel. Where his name was meek it is now mighty. At his roar bears do retreat. Bank not your flesh unto the nations, ye of Israel. But say: What is a Jew that we should marvel? But God is our boast. Yea, beauty upon beauty, beauty burning brightly, shall they call the LORD God of hosts, the king of Israel.
5 Rejoice, O children of Zion, for the LORD, even the Living God, draweth you unto his bosom. He taketh the glory and traditions of men and casteth them from you, and with them the Gentiles shall be confounded.
6 In what ye gloried, ye shall abhor; in what ye feared among the Gentiles, ye shall tread as though clay; in what ye had pride ye shall scorn with laughter.
7 Howl, O ye nations, saith the LORD, for one of you dreadeth the day out of envy when I shall turn Israel and the other lusteth for it to see a sign. Yet though you be as far apart as the poles, yet shall it be an undoing for you when ye both shall see it.


The false prophets of the Nations are chastised. The Christian & Jewish philosophies of dispensationalism are denounced. Israel is chastised for their failure to see the fulfillment of Ezekiel and Daniel 12 concerning their scattering and gathering. Compare to chapter 46.

OH, my soul, indeed, ah, my soul grieveth that man doth not consider; that no one layeth hold of knowledge; that man’s heart seeketh only what is before his face, and yet he doth not consider the sum of his ways.
2 Ah, man hath no knowledge, and my servants are but a breath amongst the crowd. Why must I raise up my servants to face mockery, and in the public place to scorn? Hath it been any different before?
3 Behold, we are mocked; behold a worse vexation, O my Lord: they make themselves prophets by fashion and fad. We no sooner declare thy fury and thy righteous way, and the foolish of the nations and the boisterous of the congregations scramble from between the planks and declare “We too are prophets!”
4 Can any man take the LORD Saboath so lightly that upon impulse or envy he declareth his words to be the Almighty’s? Prestige is their god. They lust after the feeling and contend all day to appear accomplished. Like a ravenous dog their neck is half full yet their eyes are not satisfied. They are lodged in the corner of their sockets upon the meal of the other dog. So do they seek prestige without having the necessary merit to warrant it.
5 Dispensation, hear the cry of dispensation, O people, for by it ye have set your ways to destruction. Ye are a river of foolishness, a highway of noise in what otherwise could be a peaceful cobblestone walk, ye that call out dispensation.
6 Dispensation is thy death warrant, O fool. By crying it thou hast signed it, and thou hast shouted from the housetops thy guilt. So the LORD shall make thy overturning a public matter, and thy fate a matter of the public square.
7 Woe, my prophet, declare thou woes unto the nations, and rebukes unto Israel, saith the LORD. Woe unto them who declare Dispensation, for they cannot be turned. He sanctifieth his ways as mine.
8 Woe to them who rest in Chance, and who live by Luck. Luck cometh not before the LORD; nor doth Chance find a place in the Almighty’s quiver. No archer fireth blind, nor doth any warrior rest upon an untried weapon.
9 Woe unto them who search my words merely to overturn them. Woe unto them who are drunk for signs, for they shall drink the wine of those who interpret signs, and they who interpret have created them.
10 Their signs are revealed by shouts of Conspiracy, Conspiracy. They are both gods and prophets of their own vanities. They declare their word, and they shall fulfill it. Thus saith the prophets of the nations, Conspiracy! Those who hearken not to our words have fallen snare to conspiracy!
11 Behold, they have declared, and the LORD shall fulfill their words upon them and heap the end result upon their brows. What is the end of conspiracy but tumult, and of tumult is it not upheaval?
12 There is no afterthought with the LORD. There be no chance or luck in the outcome of things. There is no splinter of wood wherein the LORD cannot count the weight or discern the grain thereof. Know ye that what cometh of judgment upon the Earth cometh of the LORD; and then consider thy ways, O man.
13 Have the sum of thy ways, lo, these many generations been written in the sand that thou shouldest not see the works of God? Though I spoke not unto thee by prophets, did I not make the way of the LORD clear unto thee before? Why seekest thou new prophets to declare unto thee strange ways when thou wouldest not hearken unto me before?
14 What ways do they declare unto thee?— but the ways of thine own lust and avarice. Why needest thou justification? As fire burneth so doth man run to his weaknesses. Why should I make my word an emolument for them? Thy prophets do not point to any way; they justify thine own conscience.
15 Yea, the generations of man are foolish and their ways utter nonsense. He hath not tempered his ways with my laws, nor shod his feet with my words. He waitheth not upon the word of the LORD to see it come to pass, but saith: “Yea, hath God spoken?” But ye justify the false prophet when his words come not to pass. Why should I not give ye up unto them for a season? Look back and see your oracles, your incantings from books and your teachings, and declare unto me, if you can, have they come to pass?
16 Yet my words have come to pass. I declared unto Israel, but the daughter of Zion heard me not. I declared I should go unto the nations[23e]. I declared that I should place my foot upon the dry ground and raise my right hand toward heaven and declare I live forever[23f]. But she preferred her timbrals, and sewed upon her elbows pillows that she might lean on her hand all the day and contemplate the handsome men.
17 Hast thou not waited upon the LORD, but I came not? Hast thou not longed to see me, yet blinded thyself to my judgments, lo, these many generations?
18 Be grateful, pat thy breast with a sigh and regain the wind taken from thee by sudden startle. Be grateful thou hast not seen my day, else thy doom is complete. They who walk after the dispensation of their mind’s idol cannot hear my words, nor see the end of their ways that they should turn and be healed.
19 I walked not with the idolatry of Rome, and fashioned not my kingdom after the ways of the high places of Carmel, after the place of Dagon and the straddling floor of his feet. But I brought down Dagon of Askelon, and his poised legs could not withstand. So shall all those be brought low and upset who keep a foot on their floor of their past to justify it and a foot on the way of the LORD JHWH as he marcheth forth to accomplish his ways. There shall be such a spreading that thou shalt be spread and fall.
20 Leap thou now, cast off thy past idols, and let thine old ways be forgotten, and leap thou fast upon my chariot as it passeth the way. Clutch upon its rails and see thy master drive goodly steeds. There shall no one upset my hero. Is he not a breathtaking sight to see at the reins?
21 Cling not to thy past idols of the mind. Let thy soul leap within thee at the good ways of God.
22 Hearken and Consider, look to the end of the ways of many nations and therein say: “Thus saith the LORD.” See idols smashed and justice raised as a standard, and say: “The LORD’s spirit moveth amongst us.”


WHAT hear I, say I; A sound, a sound of rushing. Whence come ye, and whither go ye on? Get ye from this torrent down! Behold, look behind you and consider what hath been; yea, pause and consider.
2 Hear ye a sudden wail. Be ye moved at a curdling shriek cut short. Stop in your way, look behind you and retrace your steps. What hath happened?
3 Hear this the word of the LORD, O ye nations, ye headlong to destruction, hear this as if it were a shriek in an unexpected place. Be not fearful but curious. Consider and investigate, O man. Ponder, ye sons of men. The way of thy path leadeth to destruction. The avenue of thy course bringeth thee to tumult. Forsake the crowd and hearken to the cry. Break from the undaunted torrent. Enter a doorway— close off the din without, for all they without who hear the din go to destruction, and even a jolt will not cause them to turn.
4 O blind and conformist, thy world is as a chicken coop. One cackleth and they all cackle together the same tune. A false idea spreadeth faster than a disease amongst the hens and addeth therewith unto the din until no man can hear the way but courseth with the headlong torrent.
5 Even if the LORD should provide only a shriek, we poor souls should have no excuse. Stop and Consider, O nations. Pause from thy feast, O Bride; rest not in thy matchmakers’ interpretations, in thy lawyers’ adetente. The LORD hath spoken plainly. His ways are manifest about us. Take ye up again the edicts of a mighty king, yea, our God is a mighty king.
6 There is no hidden way before the LORD. No code to satiate the mischief maker. As the LORD saveth from the adin aforetime, so is his word a house of refuge, a den of comfort to those who break from their journey.
7 The LORD hath an house of refuge, a citadel high upon a mount, a solemn place of retirement, a place to rest your weary souls. The LORD hath always been our refuge, a gentle and soft wing under which to seek comfort and solace. The LORD hath always been. He is from everlasting, and his ways declared from the beginning. What hath taken him by surprise, or wherein have the sons of flesh invented something curious for him? Hearken unto his words and live.
8 They who run to judgment, to the day of the LORD, run to their own destruction— and they who run to their destruction see not what is ahead of them.
9 But see ye God by all his wondrous works, he who formed the Earth and broadcast the stars as if casting sand from his fist; he who created the light within your eyes. Tremble then and let fear seize the marrow in your bones, for he liveth and his judgment shall come to all men, and there is none who shall stand without shaking before he who created Hell also.


MOREOVER the word of the LORD came unto me, saying, Set thine heart to grieve over this generation, over a multitude led by rumor and by secret words, for they will not hearken unto my words, but they prefer mischief. They have made the day of the LORD an allegory, a song from the complacent, saying, “Nought shall overtake me.” They provoke a reaction only to condemn it. “No action leadeth to good or evil, but power decreeth.” Choose to do good, saith the LORD. But they say, “Choice is not ours but God’s. If our feet be laggard, is it not the LORD’s doing?” Shake thine head soulfully, and say, Alas, an end hath come, an end on the power of the ancient and established. Swords shall fall and borders shall be redrawn in blood. For all this is required by their hard hearts because they would not hearken unto the words of the LORD. They built the ways of the LORD by fad, and they tear them down equally.
2 Behold, saith the LORD of hosts, I bring such days as thou hast not imagined, and pleasant days few have enquired to discover. They come as unto the birth of a baby, after the travail and the anxious hours. I bring days upon the trickle of this generation as have not been seen for many, many evenings and mornings, for many still autumns. The earth is struck with a mighty jolt, and out of the valley of decision cleaveth two ways. From aHinnom who can see the house of the LORD for the multitude of dwellings that magnify themselves? But from bKidron look up. So is the dwelling place of the LORD seen first by the wilderness, and it is clearest even in the dark of night. A beacon of hope and comfort is the name of the LORD and his Holy One. Delight in the captivity’s end, all ye of this generation, for the days of Hinnom shall come, wherein they shall seek the LORD by ways others have set, by alleys and byways between the tall buildings, narrow walks and culverts, wherein there be many who tempt and who are set
3 Ho! How he bringeth fat days upon them that love him! He bringeth his children out again to wander in the good grass, back to the nursing stocks of their olden days, to enjoy the peaceful habitat of the LORD. Send forth they who sought refuge into a green and fertile valley.
4 Straighten ye the way of the LORD, ye who go to the fertile valley. Come out of my refuge and see the land remaineth, the hamlets are peaceful, the houses have arbors hanging with fattened grapes.
5 Go gather and eat, cultivate and plow, tread out the new wine. Feast unto the LORD, for he is good. They that sought the end are gone; the fox is left off the land and the tender grape shooteth forth again.
6 Thy day is as a day before me, saith the LORD. Rest ye the Sabbath Day and let no man oppress you. Lift thine arm to remove the yoke. Let this be thy Sabbath work, a true work unto the LORD. For in six days did the LORD do all his work, and in the seventh did he rest. Therefore fill thyself on the Sabbath and feast on what the LORD hath done. Rejoice in the pleasant days to come, after the LORD hath removed the din. Make it a day of gladness, make it a day of Spring, a day to hear the pleasant waters, the trickle of the brook.
7 Thy year is a year before the LORD. He hath been forbearing. He hath ransacked the nations of their goods, and he bringeth the latter harvest to Zion. What great patience requireth the LORD if he knoweth not the duration of thy travail, or wherein is his mercy a sure rock if he knoweth not its urgent need? Look back and see the history of man, how the LORD hath endured the violence of the nations and taken the goodly shoots in their time. How patient is our God! How beautiful are his ways! Longsuffering is our God. Who can move him from his purpose?
8 But look ye to the nations and their follies today. The LORD bringeth their last days to pass, and the second time to fruition. And the LORD shall say to them in that day: “Here is your desire. But why do ye have confusion of face?”


New York is chided for its wickedness. Its destruction is foretold. The New Jerusalem is alluded to. We are reminded of the destruction of Tyre and Zidon.

THUS saith the LORD, What of mockery have ye found in my ways, O city of excess, that ye should mix my name with profanity and that ye should regard urine the comment of aprofundity? It is because mine eyes are upon your neighbour for good, and yours are upon him for gain, for covet and for evil, for ye seek to be lordlings and care not for the LORD’s reproof. Wherefore find ye reverence in your heart for a carved stock, that ye should walk on your knees? but your neighbour ye turn him aside for trivialities. A dunghill is your bTel, and it is the place of your horn of wisdom. Lo, it shall come to pass in the days of the mount of the LORD that ye shall be ashamed of your profanities, your lewd pictures, and your spoilt heart.
2 O thou New York, thou mighty city of pinnacles, I, even I the LORD, shall make thee a scape of mountains and thy homes hillocks of rubble. Thou hast made of mankind a sewer, and thou art a caster of snares. Thou art a crown of culture, and therewith thou art become a polluter of inspiration. Thou hast built many a grave, but none so much a monument as the mountains that shall come from thy rubble. Thy byways shall be impassible, thy streets valleys and stagnant bogs; thy marbled porticoes deep caves. Thou shalt no more profane the name of the LORD, but thou shalt be the place of the hermit, and the lodgings of wailing, and the grazing of herds.
3 Though there be many days until thy fulfillment, it is because I extend them for the sake of Jacob, and not for thee. But it shall come to pass soon, saith the LORD, that aI shall build me a city and an house. In that day I shall also prune thee of my people; and as thou sawest the nations usher to thee, so shalt thou also see them exit. I shall draw unto me their tender shoots. Unto me shall all of them be brought. And I shall plant them in Zion. I shall leave them grafted, and I shall graft them in with Israel, and my vines shall yield a sweet fruit, and I shall be surrounded by all my children, saith the LORD.
4 Jacob shall play at my feet, and the nations shall be as Edom. Yea, the stranger that sojourneth shall sojourn no more, but shall be bounced upon the knee of the LORD.
5 Come unto me, saith the LORD, for I have not the spirit of a man that I should waver and be flattered. There is no turning in me, O Israel. There is no sudden fury, no faltering mood. My spirit is steadfast and great and doth not falter. Leave behind thee the coast of Tyre and Zidon to the bcormorant, for her coasts will no more be inhabited, nor shall they hear the barking of merchants; but there shall be instead the barking of the seal.
6 Howl and bemoan, oh, bemoan! for Tyre that great city, which was so great, is uninhabited and a wasteland. O thou Zidon which rang of liberty art become a snare and a trap, a prison, and thy rulers bailiffs. Israel laboureth to the tune of a requiem within thy walls. The baritone voice lamenteth.
7 I have spoken and it shall come to pass. I say come unto me. I am not like man, but I have created man like me.
8 Surely, if thou canst love thine own parent, thine own children and all that which is thine own, then thou knowest how to come unto the LORD without hint of gain or desire to deal.


RETURN unto me, return unto me, return, O my beloved. I see the fruit trees. I lay hold of the golden wheat chaff. I consider the proportion of all things ’round about me. What bearing tree, bringing forth its food, is so high above that I cannot reach and taste the LORD is sweet? Tell me their numbers; tell me why none towereth high like the pine. Yea, all are within my reach.
2 What is the purpose of the sycamore or the cedar and the great sequoia that is so high? Upon them doth no man subsist. Of their fruit doth no man winnow. Upon luscious fruit, even nuts and roots, doth man subsist and not on the branches of the uppermost pine.
3 All I see about me is marvel. The swift is easily brought down by man. The sea is thy fruit basket, O son of man. Cast thy net and take of its bounty freely given. Pluck fruit off the fruit trees. Breathe in fresh air because of the pine.
4 Consider the proportion of things all ye sons of flesh. Thresh wheat in its season and sift barley to overflowing. Walk amidst the corn and take of its sweet ears.
5 Let the fool climb to the tip of a pine. Let the ignorant gnaw on the bark of an eucalyptus. Nay, there is no man so foolish that he will not pluck off a grape in its season and reach for a peach in due course.
6 Shalt thou herd lions, O fool, or shalt thou herd sheep? Shall the lowing of cattle cause thee startle as unto the roar of a tiger? Dost thou contemplate breeding eagles that thou mayest feed mankind?
7 Consider the proportion of things, O ye sons of men. Take not for granted the stars, nor forget the clapping thunder, the sprinkles upon thy face ignore no more.
8 Though thou canst not reach to the moon, it bringeth to thee fish in its given season. The sun is forever out of thy grasp, O man, yet it bringeth forth thy herbs from day to day.
9 Consider the grass that is soft upon thy feet, a sole for thine arch as thou journeyest on thy way. Consider the drink of life, O son of man, that of all things water becometh lighter when the harder, the longer it endureth cold. It sinketh not, but floateth upon the sea, and therefore all ye sons of men are not squelched from off the Earth.
10 All things cater to you, O sons of flesh, therefore take ye heed, for surely wrath shall come upon men justly who say in their heart there is no God, who say of their right hand, “Thou art my god; I fashion what I will;” and of their mind: “Thou art the lathe upon which I shall form him.”
11 O foolish mortal, thou canst not see the glory of God about thee. Thou hast taken for granted a agilded habitat, and how can he who readeth no blueprint fashion God?


The prophet did not ‘seek’ his calling. The turning of Israel to Christ is foretold. Blessed is the Lord who foretold the Babylonian captivity. A last captivity is alluded to.

GOD knoweth I did not seek this avocation, nor from wrestling at the word of the LORD would he remove his hand from me. The LORD hath purposed, and it shall be done. I wrestled in vain at the word “Thou shalt surely be my witness to Israel” in the day that he visited me, for who can say what shall come of this? Yet I know I have spoken rightly before the LORD the King, the God of Israel. Of all that he hath done since the beginning he hath well done, and blessed is the man who, so understanding, saith, “It is well done of my Lord.” It is right, yea it is exceedingly right in his eyes, that he should turn Israel. It shall be in that day a sign and a bconsummation to the Gentiles so that the remnant shall seek the LORD.
2 Hear, O ye Gentiles, he hath set me as a teething bone unto the nations, but I shall not be devoured, for he hath surely spoken, I will not deliver thee into their hands. But the LORD shall provoke Israel against your provocation. And in his cunning Israel shall hear, and ye, O nations, shall be astonied!
3 Yea, blessed is he the LORD who declared with a strong voice our calamity in the day before our calamity at the hands of the Babylonians. Yea, blessed is his spirit that led us no more into idolatry from our smiting. Yea, blessed is the terrible day of the LORD to come, that he declareth beforehand the smiting that should come, so that in that day we shall no more delight in the captivity wherein we have remained captive, so that we go not to the grave in gloom.
4 He is merciful in his doings, for generations that come shall recall these the works of the LORD that I am sent to declare, and shall wondrously marvel. How the LORD hath revealed himself! They shall know that all that hath been from the beginning is of the LORD; that he is righteous and consuming in his ways. He striketh dumb earth and giveth life by his breath. The LORD grant me a quiet blessing, and give me the peace of his salvation. How well hath the LORD done in all his creation!


AND the word of the LORD came unto me, saying, Take a child, a boy of 11, and set him to hold his hands in piety. Place upon him a atalis of btichales and white, having him gird in black. Teach him to repeat: “Give me, my father, whatsoever I ask of thee.” Let him bow three times before his father. Let him approach and walk around him thrice. Let him say: “Give me my bread and I will help thee when thou art old.” And when his father in the midst thereof doth strike him on the cheek for his selfishness, say unto Israel, SO SAITH THE LORD UNTO THEE!
2 Is this not this Israel before me? saith the LORD. So have I seen their insincerity. So do I see vain gestures, and empty words do I hear all the day long. Away with it! My soul loatheth it! Your souls are not made cleaner for the vanity of your words. They make you not clean but filthy.
3 Behold, foolish people, man is not greater than God. He is not deeper than the ALMIGHTY. His eyes are not sharper that the LORD is so dim. Nor is his perception so sensitive that the LORD is dull. There is no creature that can make itself small enough to escape his wrath, nor is there one so base as to be unworthy of his salvation.
4 But the haughtiness of this people maketh them dumb to reason. Are ye not moved to indignation and can ye not see the selfish acts of your children when they supplicate in such a manner? Shall you endure them? I think not, saith the LORD.
5 But this people is ignorant, saith the LORD. They lift up a shield of my law; on the outer face thereof it is written for all to see, but their face is to the underbelly wherein is written their own law: ‘Thou shalt seek thy want more than anything.’ O ye hard hearted and foolish hypocrites! Ye cannot keep my law without first your heart. Behold, it is right, saith the LORD, that I should smite you grievously this time; that I should strike your shield and break it, that ye may bend to pick up the pieces and there again see its face and my laws written thereon, lest the world should say of my great name, He spoke not unto us from Horeb.
6 My mouth shall devour you, and the sword of my vengeance shall cut your hearts. Speak now, and declare if you can, when I commanded in a corner that ye should love the LORD your God. Set your mind to recall. I cannot not, saith the LORD. I mumbled it not from under a stone that ye did not hear; but the whole mountain quaked at my word.
7 Turn ye unto the LORD from now on and forevermore. Plunge your hearts into the LORD and rest ye there assured. For surely the LORD saith, the God of hosts, This shall silence the impious lips. Justifying tongues I do not hear. It is as language to the deaf. But love the LORD your God more than anything, and then shall your prayers issue from your soul and the LORD shall say: This day I have heard you. This day I have made your fears acceptable. Then shall ye know he is deeper than a father and more knowing than the wisest of men.
8 I see your heart and know your impiety, saith the LORD. Your words and rituals do not fool me. They make you not clean but filthy.


THUS saith the LORD of hosts, the God of Israel, Hearken Judah, art thou not in captivity in thine own land? Hearken Jerusalem, art thou not the city of the great king, but abhorrest his crown? Why tremble ye at your neighbours? Is it not because ye have turned from me unto the land and because thou, O Jerusalem, abhorrest that which is thy glory? Now do the wise of your children walk in the nations as upon egg shells, and the man of wisdom placeth his forefinger upon his lips as counsel.
2 Yet though ye discern the times and their rough edges, ye cannot incline your heart to discern the ways of your God. Ye who pride in being my chosen pride not in him that chooseth thee, I the LORD. Ye know not even what ye are. There are those who say they are Jews and are not, so that they may milk your cow and gore your ox. Wherefore bring ye upon you men of different customs, brutish men, men of other religions who say they are Jews that they might live off your wealth? Because ye are foolish, saith the LORD, and know not even what ye are, also whereof setteth ye apart. Is this not remarkable, saith the LORD: the left hand and the right hand join only when ye sit on them.
3 Furthermore, saith the LORD, Did I scatter you amongst the nations that ye may settle by a neighbour, and say, Unclean, thou unclean! so that ye may boast of thy heritage? Nay, ye know me not, even what is clean and unclean.
4 Even in simple things have ye trespassed against the LORD your God; and your hearts have been double sided like a coin with two faces engraved thereon, in that ye have taken my gift and ye have straightaway thrown it back in my face, for I have heard you say of my Sabbaths, They are not a gift; and that my day of rest, It is a day of merit. Behold, ye have made my rest work, in that ye say there shall be merit from it. Ye break my law and ye mock my heart, saith the LORD. Keep my Sabbaths as a gift from me, not as an investment for a reward. Indeed, ye trespass in simple things.
5 Thou trespassest in more than this, and I the LORD have seen it. For thy heart is surely foolish before me, and thy fears are born in a cold and guilty soul. But thus saith the LORD, My thoughts are not the thoughts of a merchant, that I should set in store for a profit. Thou canst give me nothing; and if I commanded thee to keep in order to get a return I admit I have want. Then am I a merchant and not God, but I am as the dumb idols of the nations which need men to carry them. Are they not created by the mind first, before the hand layeth hold of a tool? So are the gods of the nations the potsherd by which men pour their own wisdom and from which they balm their own guilt.
6 Hast thou played upon the bands of Saturn? Hast thou put thy foot upon the dog star to rest thine arch? Hast thou set the galaxies in their place and began evening and morning so that all things revolve? Hast thou formed wisdom from thine own bowels? I need nothing from thee.
7 Canst thou count the number of my days? Wilt thou lead me when I am old when I have no age? Dost thou generate life from within thyself? I was not. Nor can I become, saith the LORD. I always am. I AM BEING. BEING I AM BEING.
8 If there is an act awaiting— behold, I am already there. Is there a time to come?— Lo, I have already formed it. How can thy rest make thee acceptable to me? I set thee at liberty that day, and thou madest it a burden. Indeed, your hearts trespass before me even in simple things.
9 Thus saith the LORD moreover unto this people, To what end did I say ‘Love thy neighbour as thyself’ if thou knowest not love? Thou art not that far lost, O Israel, else would I destroy thee entirely. Children of this confused generation, hearken unto me! Thou art dumber than an animal if thou knowest not love.
10 Wilt thou claim my words were edited, that thou knewest not these things? If thou knowest to love thine own, thou knowest how to love the LORD more dearly.
11 Where is thy pride in my law, O man, for thou didst not add one measure to it, nor counsel me one iota in one of its jots? Yet thou actest as though it is thy glory that it proclaimeth rather than thy shame.
12 For if thou wert righteous, why then must I restrain thee with laws? If thou wert wisdom, why must I dress thee? If thou wert not a child, why should I feed thee?
13 Thou bitest mine hand, and braggest. Thou piercest the feet that led thee, and decry, It is not He. Indeed, thou trespassest even grave things.


The Lord hates divorce. Those who love him will not do it. We are commanded to love others and do good to all men. Love and common sense are more important than rituals and tradition.

AND moreover the word of the LORD came unto me, saying: Take unto thee a foolish child, an adolescent, that she smoke in the face of her mother who is ill and cannot bear the vapours of it.
2 When she cougheth, will she bless thee? With every breath shall she believe thy words of devotion?
3 Thus saith the LORD: So have I said I hate divorce. Why doest thou it then if thou lovest me? Why do the things that I hate and say “I love thee”? I will not be fooled. If thou lovest me thou wouldest do what I delight in and needest no commandment.
4 And the word of the LORD came unto me, saying: Command a child in secret, tell him to take of thy soft and luscious cake a wedge and tell him when he walketh across the room, through the gathering of elders, that he pelt it in the face of a man.
5 How long shall it be before his father grab him by his arm and squeeze him until pain overfloweth his eyes? In shame shall he drag him from the room. In shame shall he leave and with stripes will he howl.
6 The LORD commandeth not good deeds to give thee righteousness, but to care for his creation [other children]. If thou canst not stand to see thy child abuse another and cause upon thee shame, what thinkest thou of God?
7 With what spirit did I breathe into Adam?—was it not mine own? saith the LORD. Thou art surely made in mine image, O man, and have no excuse in that day. Thou shalt cry “The love of God was different” and thou shalt be condemned.
8 I have no double weight, but thy love hath a double weight toward me: fat toward thine own and lean toward me. Therefore do good unto all men. Thou shalt receive no reward. Thou shalt do it unto the LORD, knowing they are thy Father’s property, and he doth care for what he hath made.
9 If thou lovest me, and admirest, and makest thy boast that thy God is thy father, then wilt thou love the works of mine hands. Thou doest well in all thy boastings if thy boast is not words but deeds.
10 Though I hate putting away, yet love I my works. All things are mine, and there is nothing that doth not belong to me, saith the LORD God.
11 If a wife is sore abused by her husband, then separate her from him and punish him alone, for he hath abused my property, and took no thought of what I made; for I will have mercy and not affliction, and the love of God over the potentate of men.
12 Other than this and adultery, if thou puttest away, thou doest the thing I hate. If the man repenteth of his arrogance before God, then let her return.
13 Search the book, make it sure, and see what is written therein of me. For a meal I overlooked rituals, for a full belly in them that love me did I cast aside my strictures. This covenant with David shall never pass. It is as the ordinances of matter. Unto them to whom I say Live, shall no man say Die; and unto those to whom I say, Friend, enjoy, be merry and be free, shall no one make into a servant. There is no more haughty person than he who maketh my covenant a burden to any. But a haughty person I will bring down.
14 David need not sacrifice and offer, but had a heart after mine own heart. Surely the mercies I showed unto David shall follow them that love me; and surely they who make my covenant with David a bargain shall I bring down. To him whom I call a son, I shall never make into an accused.
15 I spoke unto thee face to face and thou sawest me not. Wilt thou now believe me because now thou knowest I am God? Was it the mountain trembling that thou hearkenedst to, or is it the substance of my words?
16 Yea, had it been that thou wouldest have believed me though my voice was meek and my breath did not disturb straw.


HEAR the naked truth, O Israel, and be ashamed at its telling! Let the veiled head bow, and the haughty thinker have confusion of face. Did I not free the black man, and bring to the dust empires? I multiplied the Arabian in the desert, and brought the Huns from the Steppes. I caused to inherit Britain the Anglos and the Saxons from the hinter forests and the Normans from France; and they are not yet removed from their lands. The Spanish came from Spain at my command, and the Americans from the uttermost parts. Mine eyes are upon my creation to do according to what my spirit listeth. Mine eyes too are upon them that love me, and my soul delighteth in him that keepeth my commandments.
2 Wherefore glory ye in your flesh, and wherein find ye rest in your land? Is your flesh and land more than I gave others? Then consider to what end I placed my name upon you, ye idle thinkers of Judaea. Then consider why ye are still in captivity and moreover scattered among the nations. And no man asketh: Wherefore hath his hand been so severe on us alone? Then hear ye this word: Thus saith the LORD, I shall not be severe on you after a time; but I shall gather you, and ye shall put down roots in Zion, and ye shall not be plucked up. Cast off your cynicism and your habits, and prepare ye for the day, for surely it cometh. I shall remove the jealous heart, and replace it with humble knowledge.
3 No more shall ye speak great swelling words and on your lips will not take my name. When commanded I this hollow respect, and when did I say I crave worship? Prostrate yourselves before your parents and measure your works on a scale to calculate your reward. See if they shall be moved with compassion for your double self-seeking hearts. Ye shall not inherit of their estate, but your selfishness shall bring you to want, to make you a castaway. Why do ye think ye shall inherit of the LORD’s estate, when I can see every thought of your hearts?
4 Your mindless offerings, O people, are a burden to me. Your prayers are gibberish. I wish I could drown them in the ocean, that I may laugh at the sound of them. But your prayers are not humourous and your ignorance is offensive. Ye read the words of others, but care not for the words of the LORD.
5 O Judah, thou that dwellest in dark shadows, I have made thy cynicism a boil unto thee. Jerusalem, thou that shouldest be his bright spot, is forsaken. Instead of casting a light, ye draw your curtains. Thy children make love into obligation, sincerity into appearance, and think that I cannot understand what is in their hearts. Ye delight not in my words, but ye put your faith in your strength, and your counsel cometh from the valley of your sojourn.
6 Is it such a marvel that thou dwellest not in peace, O Jerusalem? I have afflicted thee, but thou hast not grown wise from thy stripes. Thou thinkest with thy flesh, why then hast thou not learned from thy stripes? Instead of thy crown, O Judah, Jerusalem is thy last bastion. The LORD shall plead his cause by his sword, and deliver thee by his mighty hand. What shall your pride be like in that day, O ye stubborn of Israel and ye haughty of Judah? Shall ye speak out of form that day, and bring insincerity in your basket of offering?
7 But speak ye every day, The LORD hath holpen me; I know not all. Evil hath betimes come to me, yet I knew it not, for the hand of the LORD delivered while I slept. We shall rejoice in the sun’s rising as in the day of our deliverance. Perform not the covenant of the LORD with an eye and heart to getting a reward, lest ye perish as the LORD’s enemies in the day of your deliverance.
8 As thou seekest the best for the things which thou lovest, so more shalt thou seek after the LORD thy God to do his ways. With all thine heart shalt thou seek after him. With all thy soul and thy strength thou shalt love him.
9 Then, saith the LORD, Peace shall I bring. I shall make your things heavy unto you, and the love of God an easy thing in that day. Is it not an easy thing to hearken unto your creator? The LORD hath never commanded usury of men. Think of a time when he laid a burden upon your backs. It is the LORD, even I the King, the God of Israel, that freed you out of Egypt. But ye are as a wound upon my side, a pain in mine arch, and a buzzing in mine ear.
10 Calculate not the measure of thy will with me, nor incline thine heart to consider the measure of thy soul. Thou canst not look into the abyss and there is not weight and form to thy righteousness.
11 I have shed love upon the Gentiles, and given thee laws for the betterment of all. Measure therefore the righteousness of my ways, if thou canst. Draw a line upon them. Find a scale upon which thou canst bring to harmony the weight of my ways with thine. If I should give thee the Universe to heap upon thy side of the scale thou shalt be found wanting in that day.


BEHOLD, the LORD knoweth that thou canst not see him. Nor can thy light reveal his countenance. Therefore is he pleased with faith, and he hath made it as the sure foot of the babe running to his mother’s comfort. He shall hear thy cries, and he shall be quick to comfort.
2 Why should the LORD judge a man by his works? A peaceful time breedeth peaceful men; and the righteous of an easy season could very well be the transgressors in a hard season, at the time of the LORD’s testing, at the moment of decision; and contrarywise he who is a rock in an hard time would be overbearing and an offender in an easy time. When the ax is laid to the stump, could not he who died exalted in a peaceful time, falter in a calamitous time? Therefore are the works of man an uneven weight before the LORD. But faith abideth in any time, and the love of God is a steady weight to weigh faith more precious than gold and more enduring than time, and of more value than flesh.
3 Why seek ye one and all the LORD by the light of your own counsel? But hear these words, O Manasseh, thou who followest thine uncles so close, and hearkenest not unto the LORD thy God. Thus saith the LORD, for thus ye are quickly gone astray: even because the light of the anxious is dim, and it lighteth only their countenance. The LORD is as unto a mirror, and he revealeth thy face. Therefore, ye sons of Israel that follow the sin of Manasseh, ye keep your light dim, for the sojourn of such as ye is as in a dark tunnel.
4 Thou too labourest with but a dim candle in a dark tunnel, O Judah waiting for redemption, because Manasseh is thy light, and he is thy younger, and Ephraim is belligerent and leadeth with shouts; thou seest not anything but that which is around thee. Whither thou goest thou knowest not, hither by what route thou camest thou hast long forgotten. Thou knowest only where thou art, and the circle of darkness encircleth thee closer. The sum of thy ways is lost. What hath been thou canst not remember, and whither thy way now wendeth thou canst not imagine.
5 Interpretation is a dim candle, and rationalization is a brittle wick. No man hath seen his heart while he liveth. Therefore walk after the way of the LORD. He declareth unto thee again, thou hardhearted— Ephraim, thou hast made of thyself a god of thine own imagination, and created me in thy changing image. Thou wilt not speak in my name, but thou wilt command and declare thy traditions to be holy and thine oracles to be those of mine own mouth.
6 Therefore have I spoken clearly unto thee, O Israel, while Ephraim gropeth the walls, and while Judah waiteth to see what shall become of Manasseh. Behold how I, even I, saith the LORD, speak unto thee plainly that thou mightest know in the day of my smiting thee wherein thou hast sinned, and so cry unto me and I will hear thee, and I will turn thee unto me, saith the LORD God. Thou shalt recall my words and thou shalt turn unto me and I will deliver thee out of the troublous hands of thine enemies.
7 I have written upon mine head Faithful, and I shall call ye back. I the LORD do declare it. My word shall stand, O my people. I shall not see you destroyed anymore. I shall perform my words which I speak here upon you. I shall wound and I shall heal. Though ye have been halt for so long, your legs shall tighten in their joints and spring ye into balance, and ye shall leapcall at my words as a young calf. Ye shall cast aside your dim candle, and ye shall place your feet on the steps of Shiloh. No more shall ye have an idol of your minds— no more shall there be an high place in your hearts, in the day when I bring you back from your coasts and restore you to your dwelling places. Henceforth and forevermore from that day Israel shall say, I am the LORD and Thou art my God.


I DO declare faith unto them that have not faith. Unto them that thought of me not, shall I be as a fountain of life. Faith I shall give as water that a desert may bloom. As a chorus of fine instruments stirreth the soul, so shall I cause a rushing in the heart. The Gentiles shall see thy resurrection, and they shall come forth to life. For faith is life to a body. It is the picked chord from my soul, a highway from mine heart. Faithful am I, saith the LORD. I shall call thee forth and set thee up as aforetime. Death, get thee from me! Away, thou evil affliction and curse of man! The LORD mocketh thee from his heaven.
2 If thou be plunged within thine iniquities as in a churning torrent, doth it require much faith to know the land shall support thy foot? Stretch forth thine hand. Come from the river crimson and be thou blotted clean by a clean cloth. Be anointed by a fragrant oil and let thy sins be blotted away and left without trace. The LORD shall change thy countenance with a touch, and he shall give thee comfort to abundance.
3 For the LORD’s wrath caused the whip to crack, and for his glory sake he was far from us. But the LORD’s mercy is everlasting, and his faith the finger that doth pluck the chord to thine heart and cause it to come to life and hum a new song. He doth declare: I shall make thy children as an ancient, and he who hath few days as if he was from the beginning. My ways have not changed, saith the LORD. As a mother loveth her child and as a father kvelleth for his son, so have my ways not changed, and so my ways shall remain forever.


WHITHERSOEVER I send my word, it is the breath that cometh before my body, as the shout of a caravaneer before his train. Hearken unto the LORD, O ye mountains of Israel and ye parapets of the free cites, and ye towers in the cultivated fields. Let his words reflect from off your souls like the sun off the purest gold. Send forth the message: The distant land trembleth before my words, and my caravan is a mighty army. Entreat the LORD while he approacheth, and harden not your hearts or make dull your ears. Let not the battle be set in array. Your troops are but a line of ants before me, and your great men but a bug of a bigger belly. If ye entreat not, then be as wise as the ant that fordeth up for the flood of the LORD, for the LORD sweepeth over the land, a sword from Galilee to Gaza, from Acre to Elat, as unto a winter flood before he shall sweep over the land as unto a spring flood. In that day the LORD shall reveal the beauty of his countenance, and in the interim ye shall come from the American wherein ye sojourn, from the nations wherein your feet are not sure.
2 Come ye that make haste, and make ye haste indeed; come from the wilderness in that day, for the nations conspire wrath. Come ye a rejoicing, come ye with haste that see the LORD’s doings; that rejoice in anticipation of his beauty. Zion is bare. Her ground is smooth by reason of flood, and not tilled; her seed waiteth to spring forth. Some shall spring wild and some shall wait for the tiller’s plow.
3 Hear ye now even the word of the LORD concerning this Zion that languisheth by reason of its hardness. I have given thee glory in the nations, O Zion, O crowning mount and choicest parapet of Israel, and made thy glory as unto many springs in a dry place. Yet thy garden hath not grown, nor the beauteous flowers of spring bloomed. I have made thee beautiful, and thy people as the beautiful bodies in the sun of Elat, of tan skin and white breast. I took away from thee the scourge of Europe and the falsity of impression. Admirers have come with flatteries, and thou hast hearkened unto them. They sought thee as the bodies of Elat, and they delighted in thy flesh, and thou wast flattered.
4 What good was their counsel? Was it not from the lust of their eyes? Where now is the abode of thy glory? Those that remain to flatter thee are few and foolish. Where will be the unterlickers in the day of judgment? Behold, it shall be so: the flood shall cause them to cease first in its undertow.
5 How thou hast delighted in usury, and banked thy flesh unto thy flatterers in the nations! Thy credit is near at an end. Why didst thou not deal in my word as in sacks of grain, and as in the bounteous harvest? where money cannot affix a value and no lien shut off its reaping.
6 But thus saith the LORD, Because of thine unbelief I have removed thy flatterers and made thy borders to quiver. I have taken the fine bodies of Elat and replaced them with the black hat of ignorance, and the coolness of the seaside breeze with that of the presumptuous mouth. Not because of thy flatterers, but because thou wast smitten by their lies. And why wast thou smitten?— because thou believest not in the LORD thy God. Turn your heart unto me, ye captivity, even now, saith the LORD, even now, and I shall hear you. How can your heart be right if ye do not believe, and how can ye obey if ye do not believe? And how can ye believe and not obey?


BEHOLD, I knock down the pillars and the roof shall fall; I kick out the braces, and the walls give way; I remove the floor from under this generation, that he who standeth by faith may be declared unto this perverse generation.
2 To him will I look, and I will make him a pillar to come. I will put my heart into his bosom, and my words into his mouth. Even to one as this shall I look favorably: he who standeth by my faith, and shall not yield to the multitude of perverse counsel; that saith not of tradition, “It is the will of God;” or of things wherein man delighteth, “He hath declared it.” The generation that shall come shall call him a prophet and a prince, he who standeth by faith and putteth aside the vanity of this wicked generation; that knoweth and declareth to this people that traditions are the will of God only to those without faith.
3 I shall strip this generation of its walls and its foundation to see whose faith is in the LORD. I shall strip them as an army defeated is stripped of its armor. And no more shall I be called Idol, and no more shall my words be called Totem; but they shall know me again, and they shall scamper to do my words.
4 Upon such an one that shall stand by my faith I shall place my name, and he shall declare me his God; and I shall be his God. The evil of the days that shall come shall be as a coward before him. He shall vanquish them as days that are already long forgotten and not to be seen hereafter again.
5 Faith is a rock indeed, and he shall say of the LORD, “Thou art my mason.” Blessed is the man who saith of me “He Liveth,” and the son of man who saith “He is my rock.” I shall guide his paths, and all the days of his life he shall know that his God liveth.


AND the word of the LORD came unto me, even the burden of the vision of Judaea, saying, Go my prophet to the place of the hatching of crocodiles and to the breeding ground of cockatrices. As the eggs of the serpents hatch serpents, and cockatrices hatch cockatrices, why then doth Israel’s eggs hatch forth a worse generation than them that laid them in store? Was the former not bad enough? As serpents’ eggs hatch so hath the self-righteousness of Israel given birth to worse ignorance and ignorance to greater presumptions.
2 Declare unto them, peradventure they shall hear thee: Behold, the LORD shall be as a vulture to this Judaea, and I shall swoop down and kill the serpents a laying. And I shall be as a badger, and I shall steal the unguarded eggs and take them thence to another lodging, and there I shall place them by partridges and train them at their hatching and teach them they are not serpents, that they no more know the ways of their fathers, whom I slew in my wrath.
3 The LORD enquireth of Judaea, Doth not a buzzard cast a shadow for a time to come? Therefore take this as a warning, O Judaea, before the buzzard descendeth. Ho, all ye of Judaea! I speak plainly unto you. With no rhyme, poetry, pictures or prophecy will I thus again declare unto your hard hearts the superfluity of your ways. I speak plainly, and put no fine point upon my matter with you: Ye are rude. I pass by your marketplaces and your sacred meetings and, behold, ye are a rude people.
4 O Judaea, thou braggest of the law so thou coverest thy droppings lest my spirit see uncleanness in the land as I go about the camp. Thou delightest over a tree, yea thou gloriest over a sapling, and makest thy rivers clean and thy hills green.
5 Thou makest the land a clean place and the environment a shrine in the name of the LORD; but thy sins stink more than thy sewers, and no sewer can discharge thy filth.
6 Your rudeness is more offensive then your draught. Sins ye cannot bury under dirt, my people, consider; but your sins ye cannot bury under dirt, and with time they do not decompose and feed the soil. They rot the land and corrupt your generations after you.
7 Put thy sins from thee, O Judaea. Love the LORD thy God with all thy heart and call him not a liar. Hearken unto his word, even from the beginning until now, to believe and to do it. Let every man love his neighbour, do justice without reward, and I shall see no uncleanness in the land and my soul shall not abhor thee.


WHEN indeed hath Israel believed upon me, and when hath any nation embraced me? Who hath called upon my name that I had not appeared unto first, as unto the morning star?
2 They see me from afar. They see me early; but no man approacheth. Yea, no man draweth nigh to the place of my habitation. No man keepeth my sight in his heart as he goeth upon his courses.
3 The sun casteth a shadow upon them. Its shadow is a burning canopy. All they that walk upon the earth tread in a desert place. There is no tree, nor doth rock and cleft give coolness from the sun; but its own shadow casteth the sun. Their light causeth dimness of their eyes, and the lids thereof cast a shadow over their whole hearts.
4 Night cometh and even this light is removed. Man stumbleth in the evil thereof, and terror is his companion. The darkness of their noonday yieldeth to the bleakness of their night, gloomy darkness, stillness, except for the surefooted approach of calamity.
5 And as dawn approacheth yet again, and the fear of gloomy terror is removed, and the heat of day not yet full come, man considereth the evil of his ways. He looketh off to the morning star and considereth his ways yet again.
6 So hath been man before me all his days, saith the LORD. Why wilt thou not remain content, O man, and keep the dawn vision before thee? The sun shall not scorch thee, nor a mirage seduce thee in thy desert journey. The terror of night shall keep to its abode as thou passest the way thereof.
7 No nation hath called upon me, saith my Lord, and no man can boast himself of me, saith my God. Who is there among you who looketh to a star where it be not?
8 I plundered me Israel upon whom my name is called. I plundered me the nations, who called upon my name. Out of many, I took many, out of much I took plenty.
9 But no sign holdeth a man for long, nor can the image of it remain in his pupil. He goeth back to his ways. The sun casteth a shadow upon him and he cannot behold me. He squinteth his eyes; but his heart closeth his ears.
10 I call not out; but I shall be found of him that considereth, of him that forgetteth not the stillness and peace of the early dawn vision.
11 Ah, to what end availeth it a man that he should boast of my name for prestige and know me not? saith the LORD. What is this saying, my prophet, that the children of Israel have appropriated amongst the nation in which I cause thee to dwell? —we must keep up with the Joneses.
12 Set thyself against thy people, and prophecy: In like manner doth Israel call upon the name of the LORD. The heathen boasteth of wealth, and Israel boasteth of me; but it is a false boast, saith the LORD. Oh, how my soul groaneth at he who boasteth of my name to feel the better amongst his neighbours! Of they who journey in the desert, there is none so foolish.
13 They construct a pleasant mirage, a beckoning oasis in the desert of their day. They lie amidst the palms of their fancy, and in the cool breeze of their imaginations do they lie idle. They drink the elixir of deception; and none knoweth that he withereth in the sun. They who make it to night shall be delivered to the terror. They shall not keep strength to pass through to the dawn. Their redemption is ended.
14 Hearken unto the LORD, O Israel: I chose thee not, O Israel, but I chose thy father Abraham. What good dost thou see in thyself? Say not the LORD chose me for this. I chose thee not.
15 When I promised thy father, to set thee apart, to what purpose was it? Did I not magnify the nations that day, the day I honoured thee with my name?
16 The LORD set thee as a light unto the nations. Yet thou drewest very few. He who setteth the tune and writeth the lyrics thereof, for whom doth he do this? Is it not for all who shall hear?
17 Oh, how valuable the nations that I did raise up so great a light! I made thee the holder, and my candle to shine forth.
18 Yet I look about me, and I am grieved. There is an empty holder, and a man tendeth a brittle wick. Behold, over the nations darkness and a gloomy bleakness. I am grieved for there is no man to strike a light.
19 Therefore the LORD doth set his light in the tumult of thee, O Judaea— a light as unto the morning star. Remove ye the brittle wick, my people, clean the holder.


PREPARE ye to hear a sound in Moriah: “Let us reside.” I say ye, an echo in the courtyards is heard. Leave off thy labour and come and worship the King. Lay upon his steps, and shed tears upon his feet; and be thou clean every whit.
2 They that counsel in blood cannot be found, and he that seeketh them knoweth me not. Blood I abhor. How my soul loatheth death, and my heart the soul, the thought of him who intimateth death. The pit beheld me; at the day of its forming it dreaded my coming. No place was found for it in the earth, in the day of its begetting. Corruption was afraid of me; for my abhorrence of death it would not draw nigh. As God liveth, so do they who call upon my name live forever. What hath cattle death to do with me, and where can its place be found in my abode?
3 The ways of the LORD create peace, and they cause the flower of Zion to bloom; but the slaughter of thy flocks created a cold heart, and one not inclined unto the LORD. But come ye to the LORD, for he is comely, and of a gentle hand upon all those who shed tears. Be thou forgiven at the sight of the LORD. Kiss him as a beckon before he cometh.
4 Hear, O Israel, declareth the LORD with a mighty voice, and all ye nations that call upon the name of the LORD, offer now of your hearts offerings unto the LORD: peace, graciousness, and a meek spirit, love and benevolence, oppress no more the hireling, and give unto all a fair measure for their labour. Ye who shorten the hours of an hireling that he might not earn his bread, shorten no more. O vexed land, be thou clean, and set not thy cleverness to cunning.
5 Rejoice O land that is muddled, and O ye careless thinkers be subdued. For the LORD, for his great namesake, shall subdue the impudent brow, and he shall cause to cease the perverse tongue. The circumspect man shall be a congregation. He shall declare the great name of the LORD, and take courage and inspiration from his doings. For the LORD is honour and dignity, he is the ancient and honourable, and the noble Lord. He mindeth not small things that he might lay a snare. For his great namesake he shall never run before his enemies, nor see them dash to pieces his people. His crest is upon him and his holy name gird about his waist. By liberty and abundance doth he conquer, forever conquering is the Mighty God and never oppressing. Liberty conquereth; she is forever in his hand; oppression is not her scepter.
6 The liberal shall be elevated, and the seeker of iniquity cut off. In place of the grasping hands, the giving palm; in place of the clamorous mouth, circumspect speakers. Wisdom shall choke out weeds, and shall cast its pollen in the wind until thy land, O Brier, is a land of flowers and berries. Beauty as the thorny rose shall pierce those that draw night unto it, that it may be regarded with respect. So shall the LORD clothe the land by his wisdom, and place over Israel the apparel of beauty, and so shall he cause all those who approach to respect her.
7 And we shall dwell in peace and surety. The hours of the hireling shall not be stopped nor shortened that masters may make long their income. He who is skilled shall not be treated as a migrant. In all the land there shall be plenty, that a man may call a stranger friend, and friend his brother.
8 Woe unto him who deviseth mischief, whose counsel is set to find means of annulment and circumvention. The LORD shall not set him in an high place in that day, nor him whose mind is set to extract money, who thinketh long and hard on how money may be gained. Woe unto the government that setteth money as the annulment and as the redemption, for their clerks govern them and their officials are money changers and their judges are reapers of lucre.
9 But rejoice thou land of adders’ tongues, for the LORD shall give unto thee the eloquent man, the artificer of beauty, the clever wit, he who maketh profound his music, the builder of gates, and the judge who judgeth rightly by the heart of the LORD. In that day the adder shall withdraw into its den, and for lack of air and stalking it shall die. Great shall be the death thereof, that the adders’ dens shall cave in by the multitude of their rot— and the place of their nesting, the chief habitat of their domiciles, shall be called the valley of silence for the depth of the valley that shall remain. And ye shall no more be vexed by the adders’ tail. I have heard this from the LORD, and so shall it come to pass.
10 Behold in that day a sound, in Moriah a sound: David singing to his lover. An offering from the LORD: flesh reappearing. The LORD of hosts shall perform this.
11 (The oracle against the heads of Ephraim)
12 Thus saith the LORD unto the towers of Jerusalem, and unto the mountains of Judaea, I call from the horn of Jacob— and who is he who answereth? He is gathered as unto the fallen stones and dispersed seed. A call to assembly is heard in the plains, and a gathering is made of armies in the ruined places. Moreover, thus saith the LORD who calleth from the horn of Jacob and maketh it the sounding of his voice: Come ye from the houses of death, ye within the cities. Let the watchmen of your gates see the gathering of banners. But no man stirreth, and there is pity because none answereth. The houses of death have done their work, and the watchmen are next. They shall come out and join the army, and leave off the artificer of death.
13 Is this not the state of the wise of my people, saith the LORD? Have they not dealt in natron, instead of the fragrant spice? and in detestable things rather than pure.
14 Bile is the broth of their ointment. In your hunger ye went to them, and in your thirst ye drank of the wisdom of mankind, bile unto the LORD. And then as ye withered, ye turned to false teachers and yet ye did not grow fat. Your ways grew thin. Your laws and your traditions were as parched skin on dried bone. There was no substance and ye could see no substance.
15 Speak unto them this word, saying, Thus saith the LORD, Is this people’s pride not a stiff neck or is it a weak heel? Yea, saith the LORD, it is a weak heel. I have afflicted you, O captivity, and yet ye would not turn unto me. Because your withered teachings told you to regard my words as less than those who scavenged them, ye could not believe.
16 When my words were spoken, your masters snatched them from you, saying: “We too act on behalf of the LORD.” A word here. A word there. Let us make it into a mountain impassable. They weighed my words falsely, saith the LORD, and in the balance they added their own words and tipped the scales to anger me more.
17 Therefore I speak clearly in my wrath, saith the LORD, that ye may know I am, and that ye may be sure it is I who bringeth this sore chastisement upon you. And that ye may also be sure, saith the LORD, that it is mine hand which bringeth also the good, in the day in which I turn you unto me, to make you a peculiar prize amongst all nations; that ye may know from hence forth to walk in my ways, to teach all nations. For I will teach thee once again to be a glory, O Jerusalem, and thou O city of David to be a fair virgin; Ariel to soar, where my justice dwelleth. Thou shalt hearken unto my words and I will guide thee. What is not clear I shall make as glass. What man hath made murky, I shall distill.
18 Thou shalt surely soar with Ariel that day, for I have promised it, saith the LORD. Thou shalt swing from Orion’s belt, and converse with Cassiopeia; Pleiades shall be instructed at thy voice. Thou shalt say to Dov, “Come, hear;” and thou shalt take of the ladle, even the greater and the lesser; and thou shalt extol the name of the LORD thy God, whose hand hath made all these, and whose hand hath chosen thee. Soon thou shalt giggle at the heights. Yea, thou shalt laugh at thy former ways, and the philosophies inspired by rubble. Thou shalt not mourn at thy turning for long, and shall humble thyself at the graciousness of God.
19 For in that day you shall see that I AM, that I AM God, because I draw you unto me as tender children, so that not one of you faileth in the way. Now shall I arouse the envy of Jacob, saith the LORD. The languishing of Ephraim will be no more. He who is exalted from on high shall be the envy of Jacob and the pattern for Ephraim. Laughter setteth well on him who despiseth petty things. So shall Jacob and Ephraim scorn the teachings of your Polish swamis, and so shall they shake their heads at the cowherds and barbers ye made Rebbes. For Jacob’s envy of the LORD hath waxed strong, and Ephraim’s desire shall be to his God.
20 Thus saith the LORD, be not like unto them. They are not the ancient and honourable, and their seed no older than 10 generations. They are mystics whose souls soar as the crow; but as a crow landeth on a pig so too do they haggle in common courts. They taught you to round a corner of your heart that ye may not serve me, and to weigh my words, and of their study they make a false science.
21 Upon their women they require a covering and then make it a false covering of hair that they may mock substance and make it look as if there is no covering.
22 Better not to be born than to do shallowness in the name of the LORD. The sins of my people have a false covering of righteousness, and your bandage, ye Perushim, causeth their sores to fester, and the Pious to wax as a canker. I see them dance as do the primitives. I see them carry my law as a token and as an idol of men. But they know not what is in it, nor do they understand.
23 See from afar off, ye mystics; let your souls seek the past, even the mists of Europe, to see what I have done to the place of your nativity. For your father was a Pol, your mother a half-cast passing thought, and that place became a desolate inheritance. Mend your ways while the LORD speaketh peace.


THUS saith the LORD, The embalmer’s art doth speak. By strange practices the heart hath been preserved, though withered and empty. They who escaped of my people went thither unto the house of death, unto the artificer who preserveth, unto the vats of natron to be immersed therein. Thus they hid themselves from famine. Corruption did they not see, neither did they live and thrive.
2 Therefore thus saith the LORD, I am against you, O ye Pious, the chief artisans of vanity. According to your vanity will I do unto you, and according to this will I accomplish your rebuke: Behold the crow and her kin. I have arrayed them in black that they might scavenge and not be desired. They come from their place with a loud noise, and no man careth for it. But a loud report sendeth them on their way. So are ye crows, and your conclaves the roostings of her kin: the magpie is black and white and hath a beak called beautiful; the raven maketh a threatening sound, and the rook appeareth wise. The jackdaw congregateth. But they are all scavengers of the odd and unusual, and all squawk an offensive sound. That which delighteth their eyes take they to their nest. So do you scavenge the words of the LORD, but only of those things which attract you, and so do you take them back to the place of your nesting and do nothing with them.
3 Are not the master’s birds fed at his aviary? but the scavenger feedeth without. Bend your ear unto this condemnation, ye artificers: thus saith the LORD, your ways have arisen from the wilderness; your food was retrieved from the unfurrowed lands. I commanded Moses from Horeb, and I spoke through the Prophets, but spoke I not from the groves of your dispersion nor from the mountains of Poland. Keep your 613 ways, divide them as it is pleasing unto you, and at the time of your gathering unto your fathers ye shall say, “We are the flesh for which the seething is prepared.”


MOREOVER, the word of the LORD doth declare, O ye shallow and blind-hearted, not a double way, as in your own, but a single way. I shall plead wisdom to my people with a rod and a sore humbling. I shall make it as the exchange for barley and for wheat, and I shall exchange therewith and feed my people. No more shall they who sit in conclaves teach my people. And no more shall their lurching prayers declare my spirit. They are as those who pass stones, and the deep contortions of their faces have marked the passing of offense into the bucket.
2 It shall come to pass in that day that all those who keep the things whereof I gave unto Moses, thinking that he shall gain from me the resurrection, shall be as they that sacrificed in secret places. He shall be called ‘He who maketh the LORD into a usurer and merchant.’ He will hide in the graveyards, and the things of the LORD shall be a shame unto him. He shall preach to the gophers, and he shall root as the hedgehog, and the bats shall be his commiserants.
3 But who is the man to whom the LORD shall look upon with delight? even this: he who should love me more than anything; he shall be as my child and I shall be his father. He shall keep my ways for he seeth that his father feedeth him and clotheth him, and freeth him from the hand of man’s oppression.
4 Is there any father among you, saith the LORD, who placeth a burden on his son or delighteth in keeping accounts with him? It is this that the LORD hateth: that we know not that our piety is sin. We all Pious are dried sore as a well with no water. We all made his laws selfishness. Yea, self-obsession is our light; it is waxen gross upon us like the bright spot of disease. Our sins are grave indeed, but, behold, it is our hearts that have truly transgressed, for they roar like a lion, and we boast like unto the cockerel.
5 Let the lion roar no more, and let the cockerel see the roasting pot, and leave off its boastings. But hear ye the word of the LORD: Ye say I clothe you— but I recognize you not. Ye say ye brag of being my people— but ye fear every man, and a dog maketh you to tremble. Your eyes wander at a count to 10, and for fear ye will not admit the number. How deep ye are! How shallow must my spirit be if I walk with you. Rather should my people eat of swine’s flesh and break a dog’s neck before me than cast my name unto the carnival and tie my laws with the knot of the superstitious and fearful.
6 The heavens rejoice at my glory. The Universe trembleth at the awakening of my wrath. My glory causeth the angels to burst forth.
7 But ye are as brave as your conclaves and as mighty as your inability to count to 10. Call yourselves not my people, for my sons would be as me. Neither the coming of the night nor the heat of day would retard them. Mercy they would run to. Graciousness would light the paths before them. A whirlwind they would tame, and a burp they would not consider.
8 Behold, they whom ye have detested, I have not detested. And they for whom ye had no regard, my countenance hath looked upon. Though they be not like you, because they be scattered amongst the nations I shall gather them back and give them the land of Israel. And many peoples shall run for refuge unto the LORD in that day, and I shall plant them safely in the land.
9 But be thou Samaritan, saith the LORD, for thy ways shall not be linked with me, saith the LORD God of Israel. Whence cometh this foolishness that I see? Behold, they who are called the most pious amongst you serve other gods, and your hands lay hold of a chicken wing for justification. Ye are as they whose hands caress stones, and as they who covet a tree to make of it what they will. Be thou Samaritan, for thine abominations and sacrifices do make thee as Bethel, a place of false altars, and thy heart the hob of false fire. Thy flesh is a false sacrifice, and Gerizim a seedy mount; and it shall come to pass that as the Samaritans thy flesh shall be false and thy ways far from me. Thou shalt be no more Israel, and Judah shall not accept thee, nor shall Moriah be thy mount of rejoicing. But thy ways shall be the ways of mutterings, as thine incantations; and ye shall be cast off, every one who corrupteth his soul with the flesh of beasts and the sacrifices of hen’s blood.
10 I seek to rejoice, but it is far from me; for this my people hath corrupted their way. Their hands fondle birds and their hearts utter strange spells. This people is iniquitous; the branches are foolish and the stock is dry. Why? Because guilt hath made wise their own knowledge, and the people shrug at indifference.
11 Come ye to the graveyards, to the pits therein that ye have dug, and sacrifice to the idols of your own incarnation, for no more shall the light of day bear them, or the sun cast its rays upon them. They are for the moon, and for the deep and shadowy haunts.


THE LORD speaketh bold, he proclaimeth clear from his mouth his holy oracles. Let all men live by them. Let them rejoice at their understanding, in the day of their understanding. Let them not forget the LORD their God, for he is a mighty terror unto the nations that hate him, and a sure rock for those who call upon him. Blessed is the man who shall live by the LORD, who calleth unto him in passion “My God, My God.”
2 The LORD is not joyous when the wicked perish, and he hardeneth his heart only to bring to balance the scales, that no man should say of his creation: “It is my trough,” and of his fellow man: “He is my ladle.” But the Earth is the LORD’s, and all they that labour and all they that rule are the LORD’s. Let no man say “Grace hath given me the right,” for who art thou, O man, to always think of gain and consider thyself in the measure of things?
3 But upon whom will the LORD place his rebuke, and who will the LORD harden— even him who esteemeth himself by grace and who useth grace as an excuse. To him will He make His works a burden, that grace may have no form, that pity may have no meaning, that the works of God may have no substance, so that he might stumble and fall, and be cut off from the name of the LORD. Even such an one as this will God harden, that grace may be only word upon word, work without deed, feeling without substance, precept without purpose, that they that teach grace without mercy may be snared at the heart of God, and destroyed. For him will the LORD’s words be winnowed, strained and sieved, that the LORD’s wrath upon him shall come and not tarry, and that he may not see the days of grace that shall come. They are chosen for destruction, and grace to them will be without mercy, grace without form, word without deed.
4 But let your hearts go forth. Let them fly from you as a swallow, that ye may visit all men and be messengers of the most high God. He is the LORD your maker, the great king, the God of Israel. Blessed is the man, yea, blessed is he whose feet weareth bells sounding the good tidings of the LORD; whose heart chimeth in tempo, proclaiming the lyrics of the doings of our God. It is he who craveth not worship, nor commandeth appearance, nor accepteth persons. It is he who is your God, calling the heart to repentance. He delighteth not in a heavy rod, nor doth he come with scales that his words might be the barking of merchants.


THEREFORE thus saith the LORD your God, who is he that is foolish and what maketh a man to delight in a stupour so that he will not stop and consider himself and the sum of his ways? Is it not he whose mind and heart is always to his own gain? Thus saith the LORD, this is indeed this people of mine. They have indeed become stupid, for only one thing is before their face, and this causeth them to interpret my law: even their own gain and their constant thought of rewards. Therefore I shall bring up with me always they of the Gentiles who shall believe upon me. Because their fathers also saw my terrible works which I wrought in Egypt and came forth from Egypt to hear me at Horeb; and because they came to me with no works of gain, but sought the Lord while he was near; if my words should ever pass, if my way should ever end, so shall the remnant of the nations end before me. I say unto thee, Never shall they of the nations cease to be a people before me, to tread my courts, and to praise my name. The LORD thy God hath declared, and so shall it be. I shall never make an end of grace, nor shall pity cease before me. They are as the ordinances of the heavens: they shall never cease. They were spoken in the beginning, and they shall not cease to be spoken after the end. They are the works of mine hands; the labour of my soul.
2 Mercy, mercy, hear the armies of the angels sing before me. See my throne carried from on high, for I the LORD do mount up my hosts. Trumpeters sound, tambourines are beaten, the host move forward. Who will stand before me and put up his hands and say “I cannot find my covering. Where is the place of my kippa?” I send forth mine angels, they who have stood before me, and where is their covering, and what cloth is so fleet that it may match their speed as they go forth?
3 I proclaim it as I am true and that there is no other God beside me, saith the LORD. I look down from my heaven, and marvel. This people hath become shrunken and blind hearted. Ye are shrunk within your wall, ye Perushim; it is as a band constricting you. Therefore, thus saith the LORD, I shall appear first outside, and I shall marshal mine army against your wall and against your masonry, and your gates shall not withstand the army of the LORD.
4 If my ways are small, saith the LORD, and if my mercy should be set in bounds, my goodness drained as if from a bucket, so shall Israel remain a remnant before me, enclosed in high walls, shrunken, picayune and without knowledge. But as my mercy is a torrent, my nature a never-ending fount, so shall I as a flood course through Israel, even Judah, and I shall make your remnant as a multitude, your hearts an open green pasture; and Israel shall not be again made unto a remnant, but the sons of Isaac shall be many, many as unto the stars of heaven. Your walls shall I bring down in my flood, and my torrent shall disperse the masonry of your hands. So shall the LORD do this, for your masonry is as unto an idol before me, and your shrunken laws as useless as a lifeless form which cannot speak, even to say Ho! there is your God, O Israel, he cometh, he cometh hither even to shatter me before him.


O FOOLISH people, hearken unto your God. Ye of the seacoasts, prepare! Ye of the mountains, look afar off to the east, to the north and to the south. Place your hand upon your brow and squint. Set a watch. Set a watch for a sandstorm, for a wall of destruction, and a bitter overthrow. Sound a trumpet at the sight. Ring the bell of warning. Let him sink in the valley of decision, and cover himself with the LORD.
2 If ye believe upon the LORD would his scorn be injurious to you? Why suffer it! Why endure ye in the dry and desert place, only to come to the darkness of your ways?
3 If thou believest that I am, O seed of Jacob, why dost thou tempt me? Why dost thou walk a desert place? My water is for thee to drink. Why then hast thou poured it upon a desert weed that it may grow? Shall a weed give thee shade from my wrath?
4 Thy potsherd hath committed sore abomination because of the wickedness of thy soul. Thou hast poured it as magical potion, thy magicians declaring “Make a curse into a blessing, and rejuvenate this land.” Thou hast poured out thy soul as blood in the doing, and wherewith will thy soul now be rejuvenated? Is my law a riddle? When I gave thee plain riddles, thou understoodest them not. When I speak plain, thou sayest “eh?” Your captivity languisheth; its feet laggard, its heel a lead ball. But ye masters of foolishness snatched away my words lest my people should consider and repent.
5 Ye are scattered about the Earth, to the four winds. Jerusalem is in desolation. Ye are in captivity. Was it sin or righteousness that caused this to come upon you? But ye say my words are of no moment anymore. We shall hearken unto the Elders. Let them tell us we are beautiful and that our souls are clean.
6 Therefore, thus saith the LORD of hosts, hear, O Israel, the hard way that thou hast chosen. This last time I shall afflict thee. Affliction is a hard tool, and a rod from Syria shall I bring upon thee, and the Egyptian from the south. I shall lift up thy filthy skirt so that the American no longer adoreth thee and plieth for thine hand. He shall not deliver thee from the affliction that I shall bring.
7 Go call him the eagle if thou wish. But he shall have a woman’s head and a man’s desires; a scepter she carrieth to tilt the scales of justice. The LORD is a mighty archer, and I have brought me down many a swift bird of prey, and lured many a chicken hawk from the nest of its neighbour.
8 And the LORD instructed me, Go place a caldron at Damascus Gate, for out of the north I will bring tumult on this land and on this city Jerusalem. It shall be a river. The American shall pass through this gate to Joppa way, as a river also, and he shall no more return. For I make Jerusalem a caldron and the Syrian as the boiling water seeking its stony hearth.
9 For they have provoked me in all that they have provoked, saying, The American will deliver us. I am angry with Jerusalem and discontent with Tel Aviv. I shall make Jerusalem as the handle of the caldron, and Tel Aviv a morsel in the seething therein. I moreover shall make your walls as the potsherd and Tel Aviv as the shards of its residue. Hear this word that I have spoken, O Jerusalem, and turn and repent that I shall relent. Cast ye off all the malnourishment of the dispersion, wherein ye hearkened to foolishness in the poverty and famine of your souls, for I did not speak unto you then, nor did I counsel your fathers, nor would I hear their prayers and guide their dreams. None came into my presence and sought my counsel, nor instructed I them in anything. But you have sought the American, and you have desired the nations. Even now do you desire them to deliver you from hard times; but ye know not the LORD your God.
10 Yea, surely all they that walk within the desert walk alone. They seek a companion; they look for footprints to guide them. Yet they who come to the night seek to be alone; fear of footsteps in the darkness, a companion coming through the unknown. Before the dawn breaketh upon thee, O Israel, that companion shall afflict thee. In the darkness before dawn, the terror cometh upon a drowsy slumber.


Destructive and apocalyptic events of the future foretold. This chapter addresses both Judea and the world, and may span three separate events. Verse 9 showing that the destruction of Jerusalem will forshadow that of the Nations/Gentiles and then the world– “even as the world as upon Jerusalem”. First God will end Israel’s “surety on the nations” as God’s sword passes “quickly over Jerusalem” and its “desolate mount”. Then after Israel’s pain war will secondly precede to the Gentile nations of the West. Either coincident with this destruction or “after the days of Israel’s rejoicing and recovery”—thirdly a apocalyptic cataclysm involving some type of solar event will bring heavenly destruction on the earth.

THE word of the LORD that came unto me, saying, Speak unto Israel, even Judaea and Jerusalem, and reserve a word against that day that cometh, and say: O ye scattered captivity and thou entire Palestina— Ye have chosen a hard way. A fool’s ears are on his back, and with a rod must he be taught. Ye that pass through these gates, that have made Dung Gate a highway and Valley Gate a river, say not “We come nigh unto the temple of the LORD” while ye betimes do business. “By the hand of the LORD, by the hand of the LORD, the nations preserve us.” Thus saith the LORD of hosts, the God of Israel: Pass no more through Dung Gate, for I shall make the nations a heap and a stench in Hinnom by my fury. I pour out my fury on them, and I upset, and make them to bewail; and ye shall enter Sheep Gate for the stench thereof shall be great and the heap thereof a source of scattering.
2 O ye muddled and wearisome, ye make long your avenue of repentance and short your avenue of pain; long distant your place of confession. Each one flattereth himself and expandeth the chest in boast. By ignorance ye boast of the nations, and by foolishness ye set no watchmen upon the walls, that ye may make long your deception of surety within. Hear ye these words, for the LORD God of Israel is he who lifteth up his voice in the gates, and his cry from the walls. It is just that I should make an utter end of you for your arrogance, saith the LORD, but it is not just that I should cause sudden wound unto mine own heart. Therefore I will not see you cut off as a people, saith the LORD, though schlunder ye make your pace and laggard your heel. Thus saith the LORD, It is I who did scatter the Ishmaelite and the Palestinians around about you that I might bring this day to birth, even the day that I wipe away your pride and blot out your transgression.
3 I have waited for the day, and now I speak it. I form it with my words, and I prepare your hearts to hold it. Even while your fathers sinned I preserved them, even while ye sinned I wiped your enemies from you these last [45c]55 years . Do ye think it was your own power which dissembled them? I set in store for this moment. Ye shall never perish before me as a people, nor shall I make an utter end of you from the land. I speak it now forever: it was not to preserve thy flesh that thou shouldest be preserved before me, O Israel, but it was for this generation to see my great namesake justified in all the Earth; that they might be raised up, and that Israel should bear its place, a nation of believers in the LORD their God. I shall get me honour in all my creation that day when all the Earth knoweth I have prepared this day from the beginning, and now I speak it.
4 Hearken unto me, for I will not part from my purpose. For surely, saith the LORD, I make an end of thy surety on the nations. Thy rest upon the Gentiles is vanity, and thy embassies to America to deliver thee pointless. The Lion of the Isles will not come to thy rescue. But I say, Nay, go thou not up, whole Britain, nor send thou the Scot with the American, lest thou sufferest a greater wound from thine ally. They shall not thwart my purpose nor douse my hot sword from the smithy’s furnace, for I set over the East Gate a two-edged sword is in mine hand, against thy rest and against the nations it shall burn.
5 Kedar shall not be a safe exile for you in that day. It shall be a gathering of armies, and into every wilderness ye flee ye shall be within the scope and not be hidden. For my sword shall swiftly streak over Jerusalem in that day, toward the West, and it shall cause the great sea to boil, and the strength of the occidental lands to fail. It shall cut in pieces the priests of Baal-America who bestride Valley Gate in Charisma-Hinnom, saying, “By the temple,” but denying I am He, and it shall dash even the armies that come not hither, in every wilderness yon. Because of the nations and their priests of Charisma and their lying tongues is my wrath sore upon this place.
6 Have a dull ear, shake the head, pull away the shoulder. Ah, think thyself the wiser for thy implacability. Let the cynic be raised as a standard; every tiller of the ground and plowman think himself a prophet in that day. But I shall bring my word to pass, saith the LORD, though ye say, “God cannot speak;” and though the guardian of customs maketh himself bold: “Let us hear him then, if so he speaketh. Was he not the invention of our fathers?” Do they not provoke me to anger, saith the LORD, though I will not be provoked? “Speak not a word against our customs that set us apart. Say not God is not, but speak thou not in the name of the LORD.” Though it is a provoking, have I provoked me that my soul should lash out?
7 Stand ye aside from the gate! What aileth thee, watchman of the LORD? Have we not called thee our brother? Wail not in the name of the LORD, thou Nazarene. We hear no marshaling of troops. Shalt thou, my servant, be provoked, if I am not provoked? saith the LORD. The voice of Hananiah from America doth magnify himself as Hananeel , and declare the LORD hath not spoken unto me harsh tidings, to thwart thy people that they should repent. Behold, they say let all worship what he will; the LORD causeth this peace, and he is found in whatsoever causeth contentment.
8 Behold, saith the LORD, do they not make a mockery of me, saying this is my peace, these whoredoms they have pronounced? Therefore thus saith the LORD, though they provoke, it is their contentment that shall cause sore pain upon them. For this I will deal terribly with them, for my people are corrupted as unto the Americans without, and thus they hear not the marshaling of troops. Though troops marshal not, I shall destroy them; them that marshal I bring unto this place. Ye shall flee via Dung Gate, and cast behind you Hinnom and its baalim. Content therein is every man in his valley. Everyone seeketh distinction, rewards, and power. The most judgmental are called liberal; the searcher of iniquity is called tolerant; and he who defendeth himself is called hateful. As the kingdom of Jeroboam the son of Nebat, are they any different than the Canaanite about them, and any less venal than the Phoenicians in their day?
9 Thus saith the LORD, O ye foolish custodians of vanity, ye that say God is our expedience: Behold I, even I, saith the LORD, bring convulsions upon your gates, and grave fear the nations; even from the Dung Gate south unto the Sheep Gate, from the Horse Gate east unto Jeshanah, even as the world as upon Jerusalem; and ye shall be as enchanters who have lost their arts and flatterers who have lost their guile. I shall pour out my fury and mine anger as bitter wind upon the nations; the horse shall lose his rider and the oxen their yoke; and thy yoke off Israel I shall take. And it shall come to pass that they who be left shall tread my courts with gladness, and lift their song in the house of the LORD, where there will be no more enchanter and no more gainsayer.
10 In that day my mountain of fury shall fill the Earth, and it shall rise forth as a smoke and a thunderous mounting upwards. And there shall be no place wherein a man may run and say he hath excuse, for my wrath shall scorch even the hinter forests wherein dwelleth the reindeer.
11 Search ye now for the fox’s roost, or for the place of the dwelling of the unicorn, for surely if ye repent not now at my words ye shall flee and hide from me. No scorner shall remain in all my holy mountain. For my wrath shall not be quenched upon the nations, saith the LORD; my fury not made short until I have sunk the heart of every man, and removed the adder’s tail from every mouth; the prophets of Charisma from Hinnom’s gates.
12 Flee unto the multitude of cities, but a flood shall overtake you all. Flee unto the sea, but upheavals shall upset you. Flee not and stand haughtily in your place, but the green fire of heaven shall descend upon you, and ye shall lose your hard eyes. Thus saith the LORD, seethe your meat in the caldron, and draw the flesh upon a seething fork, that ye may know the LORD’s intention upon you in that day. For thus saith the LORD of hosts, I shall cause great fear to come upon all the northlands ; and bodies shall make their homes their tomb. The American shall walk on foot. I shall bring up they from the south for fear of what shall befall. The seething shall take them; it shall consume their tongues first; their eyes shall be consumed, beast and man, great and small. Yet for all this I shall not speak peace upon the earth, nor stay mine hand until I make an utter end from the Old Gate westward, and a wind to cleanse upon the East Gate to the islands afar off, until the houses of their god’s are bare and their gold an abomination.
13 I shall speak unto the deep, my voice shall reach unto her lowest abodes: Bring up Leviathan, that king of the sea, that coiled armored serpent, to be discovered from the place of his myth, into the harbours, for too long hath the LORD been declared myth; and as he breatheth fire so shall the LORD declare his vengeance upon this generation; and they shall no more say, “He is a myth.” See your stars crash down, they which ye have placed in orbit. Who can turn the moon, and who is he that bringeth the heavens upon us? Who can change man’s speech by waves ye know nought of? It is I, the LORD. Glory is my going forth. Justice is my burning fire about me.
14 And astonied I prayed against the dread which was to come, saying, “Lord, have mercy upon this Earth and turn thy face from thy fierce wrath.” And the word of the LORD came unto me, saying, I shall have mercy upon the Earth by my fierce wrath. Thus saith the LORD, as the Ishmaelite burneth his own wealth to spite the nations, so hath this generation burned its own mercy before me and halted its own rise. I shall plunge it low and utterly purge it before me; I shall utterly bleach it in the depths of its iniquity, and that which escapeth shall be escaped in mine hand, for an upward thrust maketh the LORD, and a sudden deliverance. No more shall they kill and eat their children; no more shall the meek be a prey and the speaker of justice a target. They shall pray unto me, but I shall harden their hearts that they reprove, even reprove the LORD God, that I may bring upon these nations the wrath they have courted for generations. For too long did they raise their bloody hands to me in piety and praise.
15 And ye shall set watchmen upon your walls in that day, in the day wherein ye need them not for the desolation that I shall bring upon the face of the earth. And they shall look for men, and they shall not find them; but they shall find the unyoked oxen; and the place where the horse was tamed, lo, there shall he be wild.
16 Say not the LORD will not do this thing. I have made it long, that ye may know the prophecy cometh and tarrieth not, cometh even unto your gates and unto your desolate mount, and extendeth even beyond the days of your rejoicing and recovery, that ye may take warning from the bitter overthrow I have brought upon the nations which cast me off, and ye shall trust in the LORD your God, and ye may have peace because he cut off all they who would not walk circumspect upon the earth.


Instructions for actions to be followed in Daniel 9’s “70th week of the Gentiles” are put forth. Israel will be turned to a true knowledge of the Messiah as they follow these instructions. Those who fail to accept the prophet will be cast off as Moses said. Israel shall correct the Gentiles in their Trinitarian ideas of the nature of God. Compare chapter 23.

AND the word of the LORD came unto me, saying: My prophet, speak thou unto Israel this word, also this word to lay up against that day, a word to bring down the high places of Rome and Carmel, and a word to shake the powers of the nations; to lay in store, a day to build the shield of Jacob, that I may bring the younger to age and set them up in that day as an anchor, a reserve I shall not deplete. No, they shall not be depleted, but they shall be a fine oil, a fragrant oil in a jug that I shall pour out on all nations and yet it shall not empty nor its line decline.
2 This is what they shall do to lay in store against that day: In the year of the 70th hebdomad of the Gentiles, counting from Passover unto the 50th day, for I am the only shield and buckler unto Israel;
3 Therefore in those 50 days, let them enquire of me thusly, for I shall hear them, and there shall be no doubt. Enquire of me of thy whole heart. There shall not a man or child waver.
4 Enquire of the LORD your God: [46c]Did I come in the flesh amongst their fathers at the time appointed by my servant Daniel? I shall not hearken unto a lackey, or of him that doth not enquire heavily of my spirit to know.
5 They shall enquire thusly:
6 In the volume of the books is it written that I should do this, that Israel should not hearken as a body, and that [46d]I should go out unto the Gentiles, and that they should hear me?
7 No more of their excuses. They shall read, and they shall enquire of me during those 50 days. They shall enquire of me and study my words daily. They shall pray with a humble heart to know.
8 If they hearken unto thee, and if they should believe in the LORD their God with a whole heart, and if they should enquire of me with a whole heart, I shall answer them, and I shall deliver. Lo, they have hearkened. I shall keep my words whereof I spoke unto Moses, and they shall not be cut off; for, lo, they have hearkened unto me, and I shall swell their hearts and enliven their spirits, and I shall remove their tremulous hearts and their tense inward parts, and I shall give them a new heart; and I shall give them peace.
9 They shall bow with their hearts to the ground and pray to me, without book or rehearsed speech shall they pray unto me. They shall pray unshod. They shall pray as they walk, and as they cook, as they study and as they dine. They shall be unshod; for I shall pass amongst them to look upon them; and I am holy. I shall pass over them not as I did in Egypt when I passed over their fathers; but I shall come to the humble heart that seeketh and shall not pass him by or be far from him.
10 In those 50 days my spirit shall search out the heart of Israel to see if they shall abstain from their ways and from the idols of their minds. He that crosseth the lintel of the beams of the frame of his door, I shall visit. The LORD thy God hath come to thy house to establish it. He that placeth it as a charm or as an idol, I shall not come to. See, I am spirit, and man must worship me from a right heart.
11 I shall open the synagogues, and Israel shall teach the nations. As Jerusalem yielded to Constantinople, and as Constantinople yielded to Rome, and as Rome yielded to Wittenberg, so shall Wittenberg yield back to Jerusalem. The time shall return. But ye shall not be like them, unto their ages and times, nor walk according to their ages and times, saying what happened therein was precedence of the LORD, and I shall not humble you before them.
12 Thus thou shalt not drink of the cup of the nations; but thou shalt drink of the juneval headwaters of the LORD. His water is pure indeed, at the mouth of the rock; but, lo, the further the water floweth the more impurities it picketh up, and there where it sitteth it becometh brackish and unsound for mind and body. So shalt thou consider the day of salvation as the juneval source of the LORD. Ye shall hearken unto Moses and all the prophets, and all that I taught your fathers in the day they would not hearken unto me before my face before I scattered them upon the face of the whole earth; and ye shall repent.
13 Ye shall repent. Every man and every child. Ye shall repent. Your wives and your daughters. All that is within your household. Ye shall return and turn unto me.
14 Ye shall correct the Gentiles in their ways, for, lo, they have corrupted themselves; in things old and new they have corrupted themselves: in matters pertaining unto the powers of the living God they have corrupted themselves, in that they say I am not one. Lo, I Am One, saith the LORD. JHWH is my name. I have none other. My Spirit is holy and my tabernacle is Saviour. I am Saviour, and beside me there is no god. There is no other path but mine. [46e] I split not asunder. Thou shalt not be instructed of the churches, but thou shalt instruct them, for indeed have they corrupted themselves before me; and my spirit shall come upon you to teach the nations.
15 Behold, they have kicked fat, being fat and spoiled; and having not seen me each fancieth his spirit’s indulgence. None prospereth, and no hands join for a common good, for all seek only what is pleasing in their own minds. But put ye aside your witchcrafts, astrologers, your palmists, the workers of Wicca, your wizards and enchantments, your quartz charms, and those who work with familiar spirits and speak for dogs and animals. Cast away the bones and carved lewd images. Bring out from you these abominations that it may be well with you, for by these arts doth a haughty mind deceive himself. Those who claim a familiar spirit are abomination to me, and those who declare “It is a gift,” lie in their deception. Put these away and cleanse your souls that it may be well with you in the day of my wrath. For all this mine hand shall not be stayed; but I shall utterly purge the nations wherein they have committed these abominations, and wherein they pollute my holy name.
16 Who layeth it to hold that the LORD is holy? And who understandeth his great glory? As East is from West, so are my ways mysterious to man, and my ways approachable but never surpassable. Know ye not that the LORD is honour, and without him there is no dignity. There is none who can command of my spirit that I should perform it.
17 Shalt thou see me as I am? Shalt thou say, Lo, God speaketh to me by each evening’s twilight? Nay, there is no creature that can bear my sight as I am. I croon not by the window of maidens past their prime. I visit not underachievers to give them their daily pride. Behold the great powers of heaven— it is as straw before my glory. But by my words ye shall know me and by my doings ye shall see me.
18 I am the LORD: I speak and it cleareth the muddled mind. I breathe and it giveth wisdom. My words do not prolong, but they give fruit an hundred fold. It lingereth not in the ear, nor doth it remained caged within the heart. Understand they not, nor doth flesh comprehend, no mind hold, that no one can stand before the LORD as he is; no creature can behold. No man, yea, no angel, hath seen his face. No creature can withstand my glory; and as I live, saith the LORD Most High, I will not change my glory or sully it. Fire would quench your land, glory blind your eyes, and your earth set a smoke.
19 Therefore I did a wise thing, and there where I placed my spirit mine house was honoured. Canst thou lock me in a house of stone, saith the LORD? Rock and metals cannot hold my spirit. No, nor can the piercing of flesh destroy any man’s soul. Therefore did he walk among us, and spoke unto us face to face, as we are. And who is there that understood, and who is there that comforteth? We all are ignorant. We all comprehended not. O Emmanuel. We called upon a temple of stone, and we delighted in a place that did not speak, and no man called upon his tabernacle. But we shall call upon thy tabernacle forever more. So shall ye call upon me in that day and my voice ye shall not ignore, and ye shall know that I the Lord, am the LORD your God.
20 Who knoweth the heart of men but the LORD? I see thy pride, O Israel, and I shall hone it after knowledge and not after foolishness. But the stock thereof, thy pride in me, I shall let remain as the shaft of the beam that I shall hone. And with it I shall support the uppermost works of the house.

Important background scriptures concerning this chapter and Old Testament prophecies concerning the scattering & gathering of Israel in conjunction with their belief in the rejected Messiah. include Daniel 9:25–27. “after (Note the Anointed one or Messiah comes in conjunction with the destruction of the Holy City & Sanctuary, which is fulfilled at 70 AD, not 156 BC). Also Jeremiah 31:31–35 God says he would make a New Covenant or Testament with Israel, after they brake the old, and he would forgive their iniquity, but they should never ‘cease to be a nation before him’. In Genesis 17:1–22 & Abraham 18:1–33 shows clearly that YHVH can have an anthropomorphic aspect and has appeared in human form and not simply in vision (along with two angels). For instance, to Abraham to first establish His covenant. The Lord again takes anthropomorphic form in Exodus 33:17–23, when he explains to Moses that no man can see His full glory or “see his face [in glory] and live.” So Moses is instead shown God’s hand & backside.

Isaiah 7:14–25 gives a sign to Ahaz that the virgin would bear the child Immanuel, whose name suggests that once again God would take on human form and ‘be with us’–this time in flesh. This sign would be accomplished after Egypt & Babylon were no longer threats to Israel. Isaiah 53 details this Messiah who would be wounded for our transgressions. Even the great Rabbi Rashi proclaims that Isaiah 52:13–15 speaks of the Messiah. And that Immanuel who was both ‘God with us’, and God’s Messiah & ‘suffering servant’ should be an archetype of God’s people, the national of Israel– should be clear by Isa 41:8–9 & 42:19. But that the servant cannot be solely Israel, but primarily an individual should be clear by all the “we” of Isaiah 53:2–6, since the “we” that despises and ‘rejects’ the servant is undoubtedly Israel! (how can they despise/reject themselves? see the debate here.)
-Moses in Leviticus 26:27–33 prophesied that if Israel would not ‘harken unto Me, but walk contrary to Me’, God would “scatter you among the nations[or gentiles. v.33]”. But once their ‘their uncircumcised heart be humble’, God would ‘remember’ and restore them (Lev 26:41–42).

Amos 9:9 reiterates this saying “I will sift the house of Israel among all the nations [gentiles], like as corn is sifted in a sieve”
-Ezekiel 36:19 prophecies explicitly of the scattering & gathering of Israel saying “and I scattered [Israel] among the nations [ie gentiles], and they were dispersed through the countries; according to their way and according to their doings I judged them.. [but] when I shall be sanctified in [Israel] before [the Gentile] eyes…  I will take you from among the nations, and gather you out of all the countries, and will bring you into your own land“. See also Deut 28:64, 1 Kings 14:15, Ezek 34:8–11.  

In Dan 12:7 it says, “when he held up his right hand and his left hand unto heaven, and sware by him that liveth for ever that it shall be for a time, times, and an half; and when he shall have accomplished to scatter the power of the holy people, all these things shall be finished”. This is nearly exactly the time of Israel’s captivity given Daniel explains that one ‘time’ is 490 years (or 70 weeks of years), and time,times & half time or 3.5 times after the destruction of the temple (70 AD), and scattering of holy people (in 132 AD) is 490+490(x2)+490(/2)=1715yrs after those dates. Thus 70 AD+1715=1785 AD & 132 AD+1715=1847 AD. 1799 was when Christian forces under Napoleon first captured Israel (Battle of Acre) & 1841 was the first official political Zionist movement between Moses Montefiore & Damascus, British consul Charles Churchill. As well as the year LDS apostle Orson Hyde dedicated Israel for the gathering of the Jews. 1847 being the year the LDS saints enter the Salt Lake Valley and cross the Jordan River and settle the New Jerusalem. (with uncanny geographic resemblance to Israel with the Dead sea/Great salt lake, Galilee/Utah Lake & Jordan River). See also Isa 62:8 & Jer 22:22–26
-Daniel 7:13 says Daniel saw YHWH (in vision) saying, “I saw in the night visions, And, behold, there came with the clouds of heaven One like unto a son of man, And he came even to the Ancient of days…”, and Jesus claims before the sanhedrin to be that Messiah in Mark 14:61–64 saying, “again the high priest questioned Him, Are You the Christ, the Son of the Blessed One? I am said Jesus, and you will see the Son of Man sitting at the right hand of Power and coming with the clouds of heaven.”

Moses prophesies of Messiah in Deuteronomy 18:15–19 saying, “And the LORD said unto me… I will raise them up a prophet from among their brethren [of the children of Israel], like unto thee [Moses]; and I will put My words in his mouth, and he shall speak unto them all that I shall command him. And it shall come to pass, that whosoever will not hearken unto My words which he shall speak in My name, I will require it of him [hold them accountable]. See 1917 Tanakh versions.
Both Isaiah & Daniel prophetically use the same terminology of being “cut off” referring to Israel’s rejection of Messiah. Isaiah says “For he was cut off from the land of the living; for the transgression of my people he was punished… My righteous Servant shall justify many, For He shall bear their iniquities” (Isaiah 53:8–11). Daniel says, “after the sixty-two weeks Messiah shall be cut off, but not for[/only] Himself; And the people of the prince who is to come Shall destroy the city and the sanctuary



HEAR ye now the cry of Jacob, a swaddling cry! From baby to manhood he groweth, for his hand is in mine hand, saith the LORD. I teach him to walk again, and I bring him forth and guard him through the travails of life. How love cannot choose! One is bound! Love compelleth! So am I bound to Jacob, saith the LORD, and he will not earn me by knowledge, or by craft, nor will a work endear him. Speak not to me of thy merit; gratitude I am tired of. But come all ye who are compelled toward the LORD, and receive everlasting life!
2 Behold, saith the LORD, though I gather Israel slowly, or gather I them fast, I honour my words, and they shall be gathered.
3 In that day thou shalt go up Nebo. There thou shalt take within thy fist the dust of the earth. Mingle it with clots of clay, hard earth mingled with dirt, clotted earth. Mix within it pebbles. Within thy fist clutch it. From thy right hand broadcast it before thee with one broadcast. As the dust scattereth and findeth no foundation so shall I disperse the power of the nations about thee, and as the pebbles hurl to the earth in one gathering, so shall I gather Israel and scatter the power of the nations about thee; and as the mingled clumps of clay and earth shall fall around the pebbles and intermingle so shall they be a bulwark about thee, O Israel, a bulwark from thine enemies in that day.
4 Fear not, for I have scattered the power of the nations ’round about thee, and I have driven them to thy borders, beyond the river Jordan, beyond Galilee and Golan, and even unto the river of Egypt; and thou shalt go up Nebo and thou shalt perform this sign before Israel; that it is of the LORD their God, that he shall perform this, at the time when I have turned them.
5 I shall give them laws in that day, laws from my heart, saith the LORD. Laws that are good, good for their souls and good for their bodies. I shall codify my laws; laws to live by; and all Israel shall hearken unto me, saith the LORD; all they of the nations with thee shall hearken unto me; the kohenim, the prophets, the seers, and all they that dwell within the land; and they that cling to the LORD his God to love me and to keep my commandments.
6 Laws they shall be to impart unto the people my ways; from a right heart they shall hear and they shall do; laws that shall not tip the scales of my words; but laws that shall be from an even weight before the LORD. I shall bind them to their feet as sandals, and I shall engrave them upon their hearts, and in their minds will I rehearse them.


The work and ordinances of the third temple are set forth. Comprising chapters 48-60.

WRITE this in a book and set the words in store against that day, against the resurrection of mine house, for the keeping of mine house, and for the ordinances that I shall give thee, for all who shall come to my house to worship. See that mine house is built according to all the manner and custom; and according to the need for size; that the plan of the inner court and land oblation be done as I gave unto bEzekiel— Was he not thy predecessor?— in the day that I gave it to him.
2 At the base of the cross thereof, according to the design I gave him, I shall meet them. It is where I place my feet. It is my throne. It is the holiest of all. That place shall be holy. It is not an idol for the people, nor is mine holy name an idol to be cast out, now allowing, now forbidding. But this is my throne, and the outer chamber wherein there is the candlestick is my footstool. Thou shalt worship before me. This is not thine house, O Israel; this is the house of the LORD thy God. This is not mine house in Jerusalem, among many houses in other nations. This is mine house. I am the LORD thy God.
3 No more shall they demean the kohenim in that day, nor make light of them, saying, “It is only symbolic,” but they shall hearken unto my word.
4 The kohenim shall keep their place in mine house, but him that polluteth the office, whether by deed or by mouth, saying, This hath no weight— he shall not serve until he hath repented before the LORD.
5 And the kohenim shall comfort they who come to worship. They shall walk the courts of my house and they shall walk among those that worship. He who is in distress and weepeth shall they comfort. They shall walk the courts, whether they be the courts of Israel, the women’s courts, or the courts of the nations; they shall walk them and perform their duties. They shall comfort and edify all who come, whether from the nations or from Israel; for this is the house of the LORD your God, and this is the service of his priests.
6 And I shall look upon their soft hearts, and I shall have mercy upon them; and the comfort wherewith they shall comfort people shall be my comfort, for I am an holy God, and I do look down upon the humble heart and I do see the soul in distress. They shall call upon me, and I shall hear them, and the kohenim shall comfort them and shall bless them.
7 With harp and chorus may the Levites play before me, in a great congregation before me in the inner court; and they shall sing a solemn sound before the Most High. With Kantor and with psalms shall thy songs be acceptable to me, whether base, tenor, and soprano voice. And the people shall sing unto me. Even the voice of the boy and the voice of the old.
8 The Kantors shall enter the holy house, and they shall sing before the LORD, before the holiest of all shall they sing. With base, tenor or soprano voice shall they sing. They shall sing in exultation, in solemnity, and in adulation. They shall sing with loud and with temperate voices.
9 This shall be the mood that ye shall keep in all my holy mountain, in all my courts, and in the passageways: Let their be joy and a rejoicing, and let all who come remember this is mine holy house, an house of prayer and peace, of stillness, and of a burning heart, a lump within the throat, and a penitent heart. It is the place of my feet.


More details concerning the ordinances of the third temple are described.

LET the Great Basin be used for baptism. Let the priests lay hold of they who come, and let them anoint them with oil for comfort and for healing. Let them pray unto me, and I shall hear the right heart.
2 Let also the baptisms be done in order, and once only; once for each. Let the children come forth to be blessed. Let them be blessed and the babies also, before the house of the LORD in the inner court by the Great Basin. Let the sojourner that sojourneth among thee, even he that saith I shall not be separated from his people, nor from the land, let him come to this place, and before the priests let him be purified by the house of the LORD. There I shall see him, and there shall he be a Jew to keep my ways before his eyes all the days of his life, and his children shall come also.
3 Let the priests remember before whom they stand when they shall perform their oaths and their duties before the Great Basin and the house of the Most High. For they who come, come to me, and man may not prevent a sincere soul from coming before the LORD God at mine holy mount in Jerusalem.
4 This shall be the law of the nations who come before the LORD, to be baptized, to have their children blessed before the LORD, or for the sick to be anointed before the Most High, to be comforted before the eyes of the Almighty. From the side doors of the inner court thou shalt set a barrier, a barrier of fine ringed cords, royal cords of purple and gold; and thou shalt extend it to the Great Basin, in the form of a right angle shall it lead up to the Great Basin from the door to the inner court; and on days set for the baptism of those of the nations, or on days in which they shall bring their children and their babies, ye shall admit them to the inner court of mine house. Ye shall ring off the soreg, and let them pass through; and they shall approach the basin in order. They shall not step over the royal cords, for I have given that unto Israel to worship me any day or night; to bow and sing to me, and for the Levites to harp before me. It shall be a solemn place, an holy place to worship the LORD for Is
5 But on sundry days, or as the need alloweth, thou shalt admit the nations into the inner court, all they to be baptized before me, and to have their children blessed and the sick to be comforted and anointed. This shall be the work of the kohenim, and ye shall keep the barricade, for as I covenanted with thee so did I go out amongst the nations and they heard my call and came to the great king, to his kingdom. Therefore they shall be admitted into the inner court on sundry days and times and occasions as is necessary; and shall walk within the cords and approach the priests of the basin, those who perform the things of the Great Basin wherewith I charge thee now.
6 There shall they be baptized unto repentance; there they shall bring their children, their sick and their babes; their old and their maimed, and I shall look out upon them, and thou shalt bless the humble heart. Let not he who is proud approach me, no not of the nations, no not of Israel; for I am the LORD God, and thou shalt minister my things before me and be a light unto all who come, warning and cautioning that they who come walk on holy ground; for I am holy, saith the LORD.
7 But he who is baptized unto the baptism of Jewry, he shall tread mine inner courts as a Jew. Whithersoever the worshipers be gathered before me of Israel, there shall he too be.
8 On the days, and on the occasions wherein ye minister the things before me on behalf of the nations, on these occasions ye shall open the opposite door of the inner court— doth this not lead to the court of the women? They may approach as far as the royal cords wherein walk the nations, and they may worship the LORD their God within the inner court where all Israel doth worship. They shall worship before me, and they shall be dressed modestly. They shall not come with makeup or with jewels, nor great rings and plenty. They shall come modestly attired, and with a humble heart.


THEY who come of Israel, male or female, and they who come from the nations, whether male or female, shall be baptized and anointed by the Great Basin. Upon the steps they shall mount to the top, and by the Great Basin they shall be anointed.
2 And this is the baptism wherewith ye shall baptize them: They shall kneel upon the platform, by the brim of the basin, upon the platform ye shall make for to access the height of the Great Basin, and the priests shall dip a large golden bowl into the holy water of the Great Basin, and thou shalt pour it over their heads, for I shall pour my spirit upon the humble heart of him that cometh before the LORD his God at Jerusalem.
3 Let it be done in order, without rush or expedience, for ye do administer before the LORD your God, before his holy house. Each in turn shall ye do it, and priests shall keep the basin full so that the chief priests among you shall continue to baptize they who come to the Great Basin to be purified therewith. I am the LORD thy God that watcheth thee, and thou shalt not perform this grudgingly or with an empty heart. This is the law of the baptism of the Great Basin, whereby ye shall baptize Jew or Gentile before the LORD.
4 But the baptism of a convert ye shall immerse. Water shall be taken from the Great Basin and placed in a lesser basin which shall be at eye level in the holy court aside the Great Basin. There ye shall immerse he who cometh unto you, to cleave unto the LORD your God; and he shall remain a Jew all his days. He shall not depart from the ways of the LORD, nor his wife nor his children.
5 The lesser basin shall be of aurichalcum, as the Great Basin, supported not by the symbol of the might of the LORD, but by four horses set as steeds facing out at each angle; for he who cometh unto the LORD to be as one born in the land shall be carried upon a mighty steed to declare the ways of the LORD all through his life, in his manner, in his ways, in his voice and appearance.
6 If a man or woman seeking to cling unto the LORD God at Jerusalem, to be as one born in the land, shall have a spouse that consenteth not, let there go from amongst those who know him, or those of your company, and let them reason with her or him. If they shall not be moved after several times, then let that spouse still come to me to be baptized with the baptism of the convert, for he cometh to me, and nothing shall prevent him or her. I am the LORD, and all things are mine, and none shall come between me and they that love me to come to me and keep my ways and take upon him my holy name.


THERE are no gods of the nations, saith the LORD. I have never been formed in stone, nor hath paint found mine image. There shall no one come into my courts with a graven image. Nor shall anyone come to be blessed in the inner court as one that maketh the courses of diverse religions to be blessed. No one shall be blessed of me who supplicateth to krishnim and baalim, and whatsoever idols and gurus they have. The LORD your God is not one among many. I am the LORD, and there is no God beside me. He who cometh to the LORD, cometh to him who IS, and he cometh knowing fully well that there be no God but JHWH.
2 Herein shalt thou keep mine inner court holy and pure: on the days that thou shalt admit the nations, thou shalt not permit any graven image before me. It is abomination. No embassage shall come before me of the nations to gawk. Thou shalt not make a spectacle of the blessings of the LORD. But thou shalt minister before me in the blessing and the rituals of they who come to appear before the LORD.
3 Thou shalt not receive money of any suppliant; no donation. Gifts shall be given unto the LORD for the keeping of the courts at another place; and it is another matter whatever. The gold of him who thinketh he buyeth of the LORD shall be a curse to him. And the priest that taketh things for his service shall be cast out into the nations.
4 For no man keepeth the LORD, and he that bringeth gifts, doth not the LORD also give a portion unto you for your keeping? Therefore ye are kept by me, and ye shall receive nought of payment before the LORD. Take care, lest the LORD see abomination before him.


AND on the day that ye shall come together to dedicate mine house, so that all Israel casteth its eye to this place to rejoice and to sing, on that day ye shall open two of the great side doors to the inner court; those that are further back from mine house, the doors wherein ye shall cord from time to time so that the nations may enter before the LORD to the Great Basin. Ye shall open them both, as they are opposite each other, and ye shall cord off the inner court in a straight line from those doors so that there is a walk between the cords from door to door.
2 After ye have dedicated mine house, and have worshipped and shed your tears of joy, and of sorrow and repentance before me, when and during your songs still coming up to me, at the moment of climax of your service before me, as ye begin your duties before me, ye shall open the doors and allow the nations to pass through, from one side unto the other ye shall let them pass, stop, bow their heads and lift their hearts to me, and pass through before the LORD.
3 And ye shall open the hinter gate of the inner court to the women’s court and ye shall let the women to enter and sing and worship before the LORD their God. On that day ye shall do this, and on days if the press is many and the inner court can handle it. But it shall be done peaceably. It shall also be done on especial occasions before the LORD, on the feast days, and days of great rejoicing and press.
4 Only the fool saith I covenanted with the nations with not the same covenant. Therefore ye shall let them pass through before me in the inner court. But the rest of this court shall be for Israel to worship, and it shall not be tread by the nations, save within the path that leadeth up to the Great Basin on those occasions wherein the priests shall perform their holy duties. Then a walkway shall be corded from one of the great side doors, and they shall approach the Great Basin. Have I not commanded thee already?
5 But Israel shall worship me, both in the inner and outer courts, the soreg; whether by day or night, they shall worship. With a solemn sound shall all nations come before to worship the LORD God.
6 The prophets that are prophets indeed may have latitude. If they should come into the house of the LORD, they shall be shod in socks of red, and wearing white tunics of the sort they wear, and their cloak, which is their fashion, shall be around them and upon their head— Is this not their custom before me when they worship? This they shall do, for I have set them apart as my servants, and I speak through the prophets. Therefore they shall have latitude before me, for thou knowest not if I command them. Only in their rough cloak and tunic shall they not enter mine house; but they may enter mine inner court dressed as unto the prophets’ dress before me, for I have set them apart.


THERE shall no gold or metal wrought, whether precious or blunt, that shall come into mine holy house— for it is an holy place unto the LORD’s name and a dedication to his laws and his ways—a fount of the purity of his way—that hath been wrought already into anything else, whether idol, furniture or object. All gold and metals that shall be used to build the holy house, the courts and their promenades, both inner and outer, shall be virgin from the earth, and no tool shall have struck them before their smelting save those to extract them from the earth. They must not have been fashioned into anything and then molten again: they must be virgin from the earth; this is the ordinance for the precious and blunt metals that shall be used in the house of the LORD, whether inner or outer courts; and likewise for the stone: ye shall use no stone that hath already been hewn by man. The same applieth to wood; it shall all be virgin before the LORD. No idol that is melted down shall have of its molten gold or other metals used in the house of the LORD. This is an holy place to the true God.
2 Save only for gems and precious metals. If they belonged to an idol, were its eye or adorned any other part of its false lifeless body, it may be brought before the LORD as a tribute: the eye of an idol crushed and broken it shall be called. It shall be laid before the LORD as booty, and it shall be honourable as prize of conquest over the superstitions of men. It may adorn rooms of the courts that people may gaze upon the gems and glory at what God hath made, ponder at what man hath corrupted its use thereof, and what it hath now become: spoils over the idols.
3 So shall be the law of gifts brought unto the LORD. There shall no idol be brought. But if an idol is brought, and it is of goodly stone or metal, let it be received, molten or hewn for the sake of the poor or for other service unto Israel or those upon whom my name is called. It is the dispersion of conquest and booty, and it shall be acceptable after it is hewn or molten. But no idol shall be sold in its form, for they are gods which are not gods, foolish lifeless stone and the incarnation of the ignorance of man.
4 Whatsoever gifts are brought before the LORD at his holy house, and shall be received, ye shall accept, and ye shall place where all Israel, and where all who may come to pilgrim themselves in the land or to the house of the LORD, may see and observe. But an idol ye shall not receive, no not even they which are not worshiped and which are of great value. Ye shall not receive them or sell them, nor broker them, for the kohenim serve before me, and the LORD is the only God. Ye are not to have anything to do with idols unless it is the casting down of them, and the taking of the eye of the idol. Ye may conquer idols. Ye may not serve their interests. Any man that serveth an idol of the nations shall not come into mine inner court.


SEE that ye build mine house and make my courts accessible to all. Ye shall abhor no one who cometh to the LORD to worship, neither because of skin, heritage, rich or poor, maim or beauteous. All shall come unto the LORD. But into the inner court only the nations may come at sundry times, within the royal cords, and there to worship and make peace before the LORD. Ye shall in no wise prevent them, or resist mine oracles, by hook or by loophole; but, see, I shall make your heart soft at your turning, and ye shall know to administer rightly before the LORD. Harden not your hearts so that you abominate not my holy sanctuary.
2 Thou shalt give no upper place unto the rich, nor cast back the poor. He that cometh shall worship at a place that is open to worship, whether rich or poor; in the outer courts whether Jew or Gentile. But the inner courts shall be for my natural son, for Isaac. They shall worship, sing and weep before the LORD here; and he who hath joined himself to them, as one of them; he shall be as they.
3 There shall be no permanent place for a worshiper; not one for purchase, rent or from custom. All shall be circumspect before the LORD, and shall quit themselves when they are finished, with circumspection. So shall I look favorably on the running of the temple.
4 They that come shall worship sincerely. For their sakes I have given them that house, and I do see the heart of them that come and I do not see the pretense. Let flesh look out upon flesh, but the LORD shall see thy heart. Cause them to understand, and let the teachers and the priests cause them to understand, that I flung the world into being, and all things seen and unseen. There is no greater fool before the LORD than he that imagineth that I cannot see the heart and that I only see the gesture.
5 Ye shall not abominate with hearts of insincerity before me, saith the LORD, for the visage of my wrath shall be upon this place if mankind should harden its heart and defame mine holy habitation whereupon my name is to be called.


TAKE care, and guard ye well, in the distribution of judgment, for many nations shall come up to Jerusalem, saying “Let us go up to the house of the LORD at Jerusalem, for we shall receive his justice there.” Let the judge put a knife to his throat, and let all they who come be heard. Let them not be silenced from the matter at hand, nor let the courts be run as if a game and a show, for justice is sought of the LORD your God.
2 Let no case be tried by less than 5, and let them give themselves to prayer and humility before the LORD, to render his judgments, for the name of the LORD is upon thee in that place; and many in the nations and in Israel shall say, “Let us go up to be tried and we shall receive justice from God.” Let no one who cometh to judgment render payment, but the judge shall judge from the heart of the LORD, with his words ever before him. Justice is no business before the LORD, nor cometh judgment by luck of the draw. Unto all an even weight: rich or poor, great or small, handsome or homely, Israel or the nations, for I am the God of all flesh, saith the LORD. And this is judgment before the LORD: equity. There shall be no expedience in judgment, no fad or precedence: precept upon precept, case by case, on the merits thereof, by the actions and not the defense of those who come to judgment shall they be judged before the LORD.
3 Take heed, O ye kohenim and judges, lest ye corrupt my name in judgment, for the world saith, “We shall go up to the LORD God at Jerusalem.” I shall hold him guilty of the punishment, he who goeth to the left or to the right of my judgment. I shall visit him with punishment in his life, and he shall not escape who tippeth the scales. So is the scale before the LORD: equal and even; he that taketh it shall be taken from that none may profit by deceit and treachery in the land. The LORD your God hath spoken.


THE royal courts thereof, the royal promenade of the main entrance unto the temple, even at the outer courts before all those who pilgrim and petition shall enter the perimeter of my holy mount, ye shall make deep and columned. Of precious stone ye shall make them, of pleasing colors, variegated, and the capitals thereof shall be covered with precious metal. It shall be a place for cover. In here man may teach and speak of such things pertaining to godliness. Ye shall have courts in the outer courts where ye shall hear cases, and ye shall be holy before the LORD in all your doings, even upon the most outer cloisters.
2 There shall no money or trading be done within my holy mount, nor anything done wherein one shall say, “We shall even up outside the house of the LORD.” Ye shall be holy.
3 Mine house shall be a refuge for the needy, a place of solemn worship and comfort; a place of edification and rejoicing; a sure rock upon which one may call upon the LORD God, and I shall hear him, the place I have tread.
4 He that causeth a tumult ye shall cast out until he repenteth. He shall come in and he shall repent before those before whom he caused the tumult; for mine house is an holy house. If he be a prophet indeed then it is I who cause him to make a tumult. Look then upon your ways and uncover your misdeeds before me. Cleanse yourselves and repent. No prophet shall cause a tumult unless grave abomination is being done or about to be done, and I raise him up to warn you.
5 In rooms within the cloisters ye shall have classes and teachers, and they shall cause thee to understand my ways. Ye shall likewise have a place whereupon priests shall sit in the seat of enlightenment to dispense my laws and instructions to whomsoever should come, they who need verification or instruction in my ways and in the equal weight of the LORD. They shall sit upon their seats and they shall instruct all who come, whether of the nations or of Israel. They shall have the books before them. All who come to enquire of the law shall have an answer of instruction.
6 The kohenim shall keep the temple always. They shall not be polluted, nor shall they pollute. See, I have set ye to your ways by inheritance. None hath earned of me. Rejoice in your calling, and possess hearts of flesh, so shall ye minister before the Most High day and night unto all who come. This is your lot before me.


YE shall have no waste upon my mount, nor shall ye make waste and cart it from the mount unto the sewers. Ye shall be clean as so much as it be politic. Ye shall not spit; none who cometh shall have an issue from his body; save only tears shall I accept, the washing of the heart. Places shall be provided within the lodgings of the kohenim for they who fulfill their course there, but ye shall not make stalls and places as a part of mine holy house. Let all take care before coming and when going. Places beyond the outer court shall be provided. Sneezes shall be held by hankies; wounds shall be bound.
2 Someone who becometh ill, seized upon a sudden, shall be taken to medicine. Ye shall provide a place wherein they may be taken in emergency. Ye shall have mercy, and it shall be as a river, yea, a flood, upon my holy mountain. He among the kohenim who saith “I am too holy to have mercy or to touch and be touched in mercy” shall be unclean before me three days. I know the weakness of flesh, and mine eye is upon the maimed, the injured, the distressed, and the aged. Ye shall be holy in all my holy mount.
3 The priests shall walk the courts, the open places and the cloisters, their ears diligently seeking the distressed, the plaintive and the tearful, and they shall comfort. They shall comfort from the rising of the sun and the setting thereof. In darkness and light, in heat and shadow, shall they perform the mercies of the living God, for my spirit looketh out. It goeth abroad from my holy habitation and scoureth the land, seeing who shall follow the ways of the LORD. Ye stand at my feet, all ye kohenim; be ye holy and circumspect. Ye who are too holy, I shall be too holy for, and ye shall not minister before the LORD JHWH.


THIS shall be the law of the High Priest. It shall be even as before. This shall be his duty upon the Passover. Upon the Passover, ye shall slay the lamb, and ye shall hearken unto the LORD, unto the laws I gave unto my servant Moses. Ye shall eat of the lamb as I commanded him. Ye shall not dispense with doing this. Ye shall slay the lamb before the people. It is not an offering. It is for your feast. Ye shall make no offering before the LORD, of blood or of flesh. I will not see it. It shall be as manna before the LORD, when your fathers gathered too much. It shall be rot, for ye are a bloody people before me; and if ye make it an offering it shall be as if ye heaped to yourselves an over-abundance, beyond the measure of the LORD; and it shall be a canker unto you. I shall be a canker unto you until ye put the abomination away and make penitence.
2 Each Passover thou shalt recall the acts of thy people, and their deeds before the LORD, and when thou slayest the lamb thou shalt rend thy clothes. Thou shalt (the High Priest) wear a red cloak, and he shall rend it at the slaying of the Passover, before all the people he shall rend it in anguish.
3 Ye shall eat of the lamb, and on the third day ye shall burn what remaineth, so that nothing is left to rot. This is perpetual before you. And ye shall remember that at Passover thrice the LORD passed ye over: at Egypt; at Golgotha; and even the day I turned ye again, when I came unto your souls. I am the LORD your God.
4 And if there shall be a great concourse of prayer and supplications at mine house, and the kohenim shall receive prayers from all who give them, petitions and supplications before the LORD. And they shall pray for all right prayers before the LORD; and they shall humble themselves and wear deep crimson over their tunics, for ye are a bloody people before the LORD; all the kohenim shall wear wool stained a deep crimson on that day before the LORD, about their courses.
5 And it shall come to pass in the latter days to come, saith the LORD, that when thou abominatest before me, even with blood and foolish things, things which never came into my mind nor ever did mine heart counsel, I shall send blood unto thee. Thy courts in which thou delightest shall be a mourning. The cloisters that once heard rejoicing shall hear anguish. The open spaces that were thronged by worshipers shall be a place for the laying of cots and for the stretching out of the wounded. Thou shalt minister before the wounded and the battle scarred, and thy feasts will be shrunken and without joy, for I shall bring upon Judaea, even unto Jerusalem, the sword that avengeth.
6 It is I the LORD who shall stir up the host of thine enemies, and the train of their armies shall cover the hillsides and encompass Jerusalem. As thou delightedst in the blood of bulls and goats, and in thinking the sound of the slaughter of thy herds should herald my forgiveness, so shall I bring upon thee slaughter and the beast. Away with your bloody hearts! The screech of an animal being slain shall not herald my forgiveness. If it shall expiate the guilt in thine own heart, I declare it a false expiation. Thy guilt remaineth, saith the LORD.
7 Then shall mine hand shame thee. By a people that thou hatest shall I restore my holy things in that day. I shall declare unto a nation that thou hatest, Bunyin, Restore, and he restoreth.
8 But if thou shouldest put away the pride and the abomination, even in that day that thine enemies are sore upon thee, I shall scatter them, and their standards shall not remain at the gates of Jerusalem. So shall I do. Thou shalt remove the abomination and I shall shame thee at the hands of the nations. And thou shalt know that I am the LORD thy God. What I have done can never be added thereto.
9 Why endureth the LORD the froward, the arrogant and the multitude of evil fellows? —only to declare those who shall follow the LORD, and to make them a light of his word, that he might be understood and justified when he bringeth judgment; and also he convicteth the presumptuous mouth— all they shall see what manner of men the evil are. And they shall know justice, and reconfirm it, and equity shall be their sword, when they see the LORD overturn a perverse man and a generation like unto a haughty, spoilt woman.


AND on the Day of Atonement, when ye shall come to the LORD, the chief priests shall come with the High Priest, the upper courses. They shall walk behind him into the house of the LORD. He shall bear in both arms before him an empty bowl. It shall be a plain bowl, a wooden bowl without adornment or mark, roughly hewn. And he shall set it before the holiest of all, before the curtains royal of the holiest of all, and he and all they in the house of the LORD shall cast their crowns to the ground, upon the golden floor, and they shall bow their hearts and their foreheads to the floor and ye shall declare: “Holy, Holy, Holy, is the LORD God Almighty.” And ye shall pray for forgiveness, and ye shall pray for the people.
2 And the curtains shall be drawn open on this day, and fastened, while the priests perform their duty, and they shall be closed upon completion.
3 And the High Priest shall rise up, and they with him, leaving their crowns upon the ground, cast aside, and he shall take from one of them a deep crimson cloth, made of wool and dyed a deep crimson. And he shall unfold it and place it in a golden bowl, and he shall there bleach it until the color bleedeth out and staineth the water. And the bleached water shall he pour into the wooden plain bowl, for plain is thy soul and empty and incapable of offering before me. But as he filleth it with the bleached water, so have I filled your souls with mine atonement.
4 And if one should shed tears, another shall wipe with a clean cloth, whether it be the High Priest or another. None shall wipe his own tears. Ye shall not let your tears fall to the floor.
5 And one of the chief priests shall place upon the High Priest’s hands and upon his unshod feet marks from the dyed water, stigmata, dyed with thick dye from a golden jar, mingled with the dyed water, so that it may be stained upon the palms and the back of his hands, and the same for his feet. And the High Priest shall walk outside the house of the LORD and he shall stand before the people, with palms out, he shall stand upon the steps leading from the house and looking out over the inner court, before the altar and Great Basin, and ye shall all recall your sin. All Israel shall humble themselves and repent of their sins, for I have atoned for them and shall pardon them. He shall call out: “Behold your sins; behold your atonement.” And ye shall consider, and ye shall recall your guilt, and ye shall recall mine atonement.
6 Alone of the chief priests shall the High Priest be unshod on that day before me in mine house. He shall not have socks upon his feet. The others shall have socks upon their feet; royal purple it shall be. But the High Priest shall go barefooted within the house of the LORD and without. The others may shod without.
7 And he shall take the bleached linen of wool and he shall take it to the altar, and he shall burn it upon the altar; and he shall sprinkle the fire with the crimson water thereof, from the plain wooden bowl, until it is gone. He shall do this before Israel, and ye shall know that I am the LORD.
8 Save only the first Passover, when thou performest this for the first time before me; then thou shalt not burn the bleached cloth of wool, but thou shalt fold it before the people, and keep it in a storage vault aside the house of the LORD that ye may look upon it from time to time; for surely its whiteness will fade and its fabric become mehrp.
9 And because this is an high day, ye shall open the opposing doors of the inner court, and ye shall cord the area, and ye shall admit the nations to pass through that they too shall see the work which the High Priest shall do.
10 Notwithstanding, after he burneth the linen, the High Priest shall mount up upon the walls of the surrounding cloisters so that he overlooketh the soreg and the outer courts, from the utmost heights of the surrounding cloisters of the inner court, at a place prepared. He shall overlook to the south; he shall overlook to the east; and to the north; he shall overlook to the west. He shall come forward and be seen by the multitudes; and he shall raise his hands, palms outward, and give the blessing of the priests to all the people, wherewith I commanded Aaron and his sons to bless. His voice shall be heard, and his hands shall be plainly seen, the stigmata plainly seen. He shall do this east, south and north, and west.
11 And this shall be throughout your generations, upon Yom Kippur, as a memorial to the people, and unto the nations, that ye are a bloody people, and I have brought atonement. I am the LORD your God.


UPON Tabernacles ye shall come as before, to build dwellings, impromptu lean-tos, and recall your wanderings in the desert. Ye shall build your dwellings where ye are able, and ye shall make them as before. Only now shall ye drape over them a blue cloth, made of linen, and it shall insulate your roof. It shall be for all your tabernacles for a perpetual reminder that the LORD your God causeth a covering for you in the desert, a covering from your sin.
2 Whether they be of Israel, or of the nations, they that come to build a tabernacle to dwell therein during the feast, they shall cover it with blue. All they who come shall cover it therewith. It shall be a perpetual memorial that I am the LORD your God; that I am the God of all flesh, and my covenant is my covenant with all flesh. Ye shall give no separate place unto the nations and unto Israel. He who cometh, cometh, and he who buildeth, remaineth at that place. Ye shall eat bread and honey, and your feast shall be sweet.
3 At the Feast of the Ingathering, ye shall open up the opposing doors of the inner court, and ye shall string off the walk between with the royal cords, and ye shall admit the nations; for so gather I all nations unto me, saith the LORD. And they shall walk between, and I shall have mercy.
4 Thou shalt be clean before the LORD Almighty. Thou shalt not eat anything prepared with sodium mixed with another chemical. Thou shalt not preserve thy meat with it, thy fruit or thy vegetables. Thou shalt not cook with it, or use it as seasoning. It is abomination unto the LORD.
5 In this fashion do all the nations that I draw you from abominate before me, and cause sore illness upon their own people. Ye shall not do so, for the LORD hath wrought a wondrous thing in his creation, and ye shall be holy.
6 There shall no man come to mine inner court bearing upon him a tattoo, save one burned upon him against his will. It shall be removed before he cometh into mine inner court to stand before me.
7 See, I have given thee these things, which thou dost not wish to hear, both symbol and meaning, that it may be a blessing and a weight upon thee. But thou shalt bear it. I shall give ye that house again, and it shall be a memorial to your ways and a light unto my ways that ye depart not from my ways again, to abominate before me.
8 Behold why I have made such symbols: that at thy corrupting of them, thy heart may be revealed, and the evil known for what it is, made manifest to all mankind.


LO and behold, I create a new day. I mend the rend between thee and the nations. I heal the injured and I broadcast wheat in the charred soil. A great [61a]sunflower taketh long to bloom, but then it is magnificent. Yet it dieth and decomposeth, and is food for the ground; but from its richness seeds there again springeth up another. Birds may eat some of the seeds and worms the saplings, but the seed of the LORD shall grow a mighty sunflower.
2 For they who are in a shadow there shall be no darkness, and they who are of his company dwell under the shadow of his wing. This generation shall surely say we are in the shadow of a time past, of things we thought not, of confusion and convulsion. But they that dwell in the shadow of the LORD’s wing shall dwell in the light of his countenance. Thus shall I preserve my seed, and none of it shall be eaten by birds or devoured by worms.
3 For, lo, indeed, seeds hath my sunflower cast to the ground and none have taken root. I shall let the head fall and embed the seed. A seed shall take root under the weight of the head, and it shall spring up and cast off the dead head; and I shall build me up a towering sunflower. Let the times pass as before, for the LORD remaineth. I create Jerusalem anew, and a new heart in my people. And there shall no more be there the peasant preacher, even the Perushim, and their gezeirah and minutae; nor the lackey eager to obey. But they all shall hearken unto the LORD, and their heart’s lust shall burn for me, and I shall care for them, and I shall there love my people again as the fatlings of my flock.
4 For, see, I cause peace. I shall tie my sunflower to a stake and fasten it at a cross stake. I shall tend it and it shall not be wild. This shall be its support, and it shall endure. Watch ye the ties, watch ye that they grow not brittle and frayed. Tend ye to my work, O ye in my garden, lest I try my ties and find them frail. For without support, when the head of the sunflower becometh full, it shall yield to its own great weight.


THE LORD sendeth a message; by his mouth he doth declare his judgments. Restrain thou my soul at the doing, restrain my heart at my passing, lest the dead rise before their appointed time; for the glory of the LORD passeth by; his feet touch the earth and if he should not restrain it should cause Sheol to tear open. Restrain, saith the LORD, restrain my heart lest all the sons of flesh are consumed. The work that I do is glorious, and the peace that I bring eternal.
2 Let Sheol tremble, for it is reminded that its day doth come. It languisheth not. Its door trembleth as in a pillar rumbling beneath its cornice in a mighty earthquake.
3 The dawn cometh again, and the vision in the cool of the purple horizon. The third day doth dawn and beginneth bold, and the way thereof to the gleaming beams of the LORD. For two days I wounded thee for thy sin. Now I say, Arise from the pit. Shout ye, declaring, Resurrection of our God, the Regeneration! We see again and pat the face of our beloved, and feel flesh again. Even if my shadow should touch a man he healeth, and the dead he riseth. Thy strength is renewed, O thee of my choosing. All ye whose faith is in the LORD, my beloved is justified, his name is magnified among they who heaped curses upon him, they who were once his friends. I stand in the sunburst, all ye inhabitants of the land, and what power can match mine, saith the LORD? They who heard the curses, curse not, and they who delighted in mockery are vanquished. A clean sweep doth the LORD provide; by a mighty wind doth his spirit breathe upon the face of the ground. The dust and the dirt is blown away, by a steady east wind it is blown
4 They who heard the curses now bless. They follow the east wind and brush their hand over the foundation. Upon this they shall build their dwelling. But they who cursed are blown, yea, blown far from the foundation. Sand is in their eyes and fret in their voices. The LORD hath silenced the scornful and diverteth their tongues; and their shaking fists are turned into groping palms. Truly, this is of the LORD.


AND the word of the LORD came unto me, saying: Give ear, my servant, if any of the elders of Israel come before thee to prove thee if thou hast spoken in my name, or to say outright thou hast not spoken in my name, sit before them and say:
2 Hard eyes, hard minds, see the ducks walk, see the geese meander, see them lead their chicks on their way. Are they not a sight? Though they lead, doth not they that follow walk even as they? Have ye not walked this way since your own youth? Though ye lead ye are a sight; the ways of habit, a musing and a source of laughter.
3 When a man walketh to, do they not even scatter and waddle away, parting before the greater force?
4 Even soon do I bring my word to pass, and ye shall part before the storm of the LORD. Give little attention to my words, ye hard-hearted? So shall the nations and peoples give little attention to it for the convulsions that shall be upon them. Each shall fear at his own fence and cast not an eye to Jerusalem.
5 Because ye sought the land to take comfort in it, and because the heathen proclaimed to you that land was the jewel of my covenant, hear ye this word from the LORD: I appoint you to 70 years of captivity again, captivity and desolation in your own land, captivity which ye expounders of false laws could not extract because of your hard hearts, and because ye sought land and not the LORD. Because ye sought a god of your creation I have given you no place to call upon.
6 Thus saith the LORD; Thy fence hath kept thee from my laws, but the storm of the LORD shall hurl his mighty dart, and he shall pierce the siyyag, and the balustrade shall cave in at that point; and though it encircleth, all of it shall cave in and bow toward that point.
7 The LORD shall not be a carnival to the nations, nor shall his mercy be made market for the comment of fools. But the LORD shall be spoken of with awe, and when his word cometh to pass he shall be praised, for better is the residue than the sauce, saith the LORD.


COME to reason, saith the LORD. O house of Israel, Come gather your wits, and consider the LORD your God, that he is a mighty shield and an everlasting hero. Consider what hath transpired unto you for so long. If the LORD bring upon you sore travail, a scattering, and a chopfallen countenance, if I can bring upon you evil cannot I bring upon you all the good and blessings that I swear to bring upon you? Just repent, turn from your hard hearts, and believe in the LORD.
2 If ye will not, but if ye remain stubborn, and pride yourselves in your stiff necks, behold, I warn unto you of the fox’s coming. Surely, he cometh to your tender vines. Doth the fox live within a vineyard or outside of the vineyard?— in the unkempt lands, in the unfurrowed lands the fox doth make his home. It is a brutish place where man stumbleth and where no foot is sure but the fox’s. The men of those places are brutish, and their minds not cunning. Their counsel is from stocks, and they seek counsel of vain statutes. They make themselves gods in order to sanctify the counsel of their own conceit.
3 Forasmuch as ye have sought the counsel of the American, ye have let down the fence and nurtured the fox. Hearken, Israel, if the land be the eye, is Israel not blind without the apple? Nevertheless, O ye sons of Aaron, ye minister only at the urging of the nations. Ye build and cultivate and cause to return fallow the desolate heritages which I made fertile; and no man counseleth the LORD’s part. America hath urged thee, O Israel, but mine hand hath forebearn that I should not let it be built. Why is this so?
4 Even because the behest of the foolish is vanity, foolishness of a people consumed with their own imaginations. Your sins and hard hearts remain. Therefore fear constricteth your heart; it constricteth your borders. Your tent is howled upon and fluttered by mighty winds; and ye seek the counsel of a merchant’s passing caravan. Yet again, ye will not seek the counsel of the LORD.
5 The bullock and the horse shall tread in blood— the bull behind the plow and the horse before the cart. Ye shall sow and reap, and no grain shall be clean of blood. Ye shall thresh with weapons and gather with coffins. Languish and lament shall stir your bards’ tongues. The banker shall exchange with blood; and the builder and the stone mason shall hew with implements and fend themselves with them as weapons, until ye vomit the land from your souls because of its abhorrence; because blood and iniquity hath become abomination before you; and ye can feign tolerance no more, even because you have become detestable by reason of your unbelief.
6 Until ye acknowledge again the LORD your Redeemer shall this come betimes upon you; and the LORD shall take you away from the land wherein ye dwell. Are there not many, many more sons of Isaac in the nations that I can bring? For your land was neither womb nor breast. Anguish was the womb that brought you forth to your land, and despair your pap. The German was your midwife; America your wet-nurse. What are they before the LORD of hosts?— even the instruments of a dreadful God.
7 For all mine hand hath made this: sowing and harvest, springtime and summer, flood and winter. I declared with laws the bounds of righteousness, and I spoke by faith the ordinances of holy things; and man corrupteth the way thereof. From start to finish, seed time and threshing, man’s desires are natural and primitive. There is none who hath declared righteousness before me; there is none who executeth judgment. After the similitude of beasts and man made he his gods; out of the vanity of his mind he hath broken my precepts. I am the LORD. I cannot be formed in stone, nor can man form me in his mind.
8 There are no bounds placed upon the limit of man’s presumptions aside from my law, and there is no wisdom that proceedeth except from faith in me. Each corrupteth his neighbour. The land is soiled with blood; it poureth out from the mind. It defileth the land. And why doth each man slip thereon?— even because his eyes burn with mischief against his fellow. He counseleth toleration that he may lay in wait for blood with him who delighteth in it. Judgment is brought hastily for nought, and for things of weight there is no counsel but wait, that ye can upset the measure, making the pim great and the talent small, the shekel justice, and the poor a prize. The orphan and the widow are considered for a write-off, and their deliverance is expedience.
9 Come, saith the LORD, though your sins be a river crimson, I shall make them fragrant oil, clear and distilled. Though your hearts be hard, I shall make them soft and pliable, and your mind of understanding. Come, enquire of the LORD. Come, trust in me, saith the LORD, for no disaster cometh nigh unto me, and I shall not have fickle attention and passing feelings for thee, O Israel.
10 O American that seeketh flesh, Thou seekest such wealth as that fadeth, and treasures that are of so much dung. Wherefore braggest thou, O Chaldean, over the Hebrew? Am I not the LORD that made them both, and that divided the Hebrew from thy river? Wherefore braggest thou Japheth over Shem? whose flesh is the same. Incline not unto the American, nor entreaty him with a wink that magnifieth thy flesh.
11 The LORD is thy boast, O Judaea, and he is the name that setteth thy forehead apart and maketh it holy. A fire driveth away the fox, but today’s sour grape protecteth the vine for another season’s sweet harvest. Stay ye within the vineyard, for the LORD’s foot is surer than the fox, and his cunning is better than a lion and his grip unrelenting like a badger.
12 Hearken attentively, for this is of the LORD: Thus saith the LORD, So do I make thy harvest a bitter one, and thy grape fit for the spitting out of it. Though I lift up thy skirt and offend America with thy nakedness, yet shall it be only for a season.
13 But I lift up the skirt of America and until the end I shall make them a proverb unto all nations. For I lift up their skirt to thee now, that thou mayest know what kind of lovers thy baseness hath taken to thee.
14 The nations do not consider, America doth not lay it to heart concerning my word. They shall say in that day “Israel is not worthy.” But the LORD shall answer them with a swift voice: Then it is not mercy. Hear now and pay heed, O giddy nation: Thou art wicked and yet I have not sent thy feet quickly to the dust. Thou art not worthy, yet thou hast tasted long of my mercy. Doth not the keeper of the king’s forest have mercy upon the tender sapling? Yet when the great oak is mighty but diseased and rotten, doth he not anon cut it down to make light for the sapling to grow? How much quicker shall it be done when the king himself seeth the forest and declareth and commandeth straightway that it should be so ordered? Behold, I cut down a mighty oak so that a tender sapling can grow.
15 In times of trouble shalt thou build, O Jerusalem, and thy array of battle a swaddling cloth. Thine enemies shall snarl, and yet shall thy labourers not fear their enemies, for I have enlarged thine house, and I have restored Edom as a bulwark, and I have replaced Moab as gates are replaced and as moats are redug; and they shall know I am with them.
16 Hear ye the word of the LORD, O seed of Jacob: Thus saith the LORD your God, I have brought me down many a conqueror, and many an empire have I buried in the dust. Have I done this for my amusement, saith the LORD? Or did not the wickedness and pride of those nations come before me?
17 Therefore thus saith the LORD, I pull the lobe and speak loudly: See how I disturb thee. Hearken, give attention and prepare for the day. America shall not deliver you, but I shall deliver them to convulsion, and they shall run when no one is chasing them. At a cough they shall be dissolusion. Out of one I shall make many, and the time of their passing they shall not see or consider.
18 Their cities are as heaps of fall leaves, of passing decay that rotteth, should it be left long if it heapeth. They are the gathering of bright colours; but they are brittle, and water only causeth them to rot. There is no regeneration for a leaf cast from the branch. Fire and wind are the only solution; so shall I burn some in heaps, what man hath heapt; and so shall I scatter some that a congregation of them rot not the soil at the time of rain, and the watering of the labourer.
19 Howl ye for the fine buildings; they shall come down slowly at their own hand, and with a yawn shall she depart from among nations, from being Queen of nations; for I have heard the cry of the black man and the red man wherewith they have cried unto me.
20 So shall I do unto that mighty people, for their skirt is a filthy one, and their houses of prayer whitewashed pens, and the land is soiled with bloodguiltness. I shall give their lands quietly to others that they loath. As they openly cheated, so shall those that come after subtly steal. For merchants rule over them and they think my blessings are in wealth and usury.
21 Woe unto that nation, for they kill and eat their children to sustain their old age. Their babies have no graves, but their cry cometh up unto me.
22 As they bled their womb, so shall I bleed their heritage, and unto a mightier people will I give their land.
23 They have removed life for convenience; I shall remove the convenience of life. I send them the bug. See a wonder: by a speck the Earth is destroyed; against the multitude of tininess can no army fight. The LORD hath spoken.


THE burden of America. Speak unto that nation, unto America, speak woes, prepare thou to take up lamentations, for great doth she fancy herself amongst the nations. Yet I know ye are clay and iron, and money is in what you trust.
2 O thou mighty land of the eagle, I shall make thee a land of the seagull, a place of nesting and thy shores as a mother’s apron unto thee, thou wilt not travel far from; thy wings clipped and not able to endure the flights of the ocean. The cormorant shall vex thee. The crane shall step on thine eggs. As none delighteth in the squawk of thy beak, so shall none care to stand under the path of thy flight. Thou makest noise and castest thou a shadow, but thou art no bird of prey; and the longer thou circlest the more they underneath feel thy waste, and sigh again at the cost of thine indecision.
3 Whom shalt thou deliver, and who trusteth in thee anymore? Strip Israel of its armor, lay out her soldiers naked in the sun, yet shall I, even I, saith the LORD, smite their enemies at the day of their turning.
4 And it shall come to pass in that day, saith the LORD, that there shall be a howling at your shores and weepings upon your mountains; thy sorrows as the flow of thy great river Mississippi. The majesty of thy mountains shall be sackcloth, ashes the mantel of thy prairies.
5 Forasmuch as thou sayest I bless thee because of thy wealth, so shall I make it plain that I curse thee, for thou makest merchandise of justice, and at the call for swift punishment thou brokerest law. Thou makest them bankrupt who defend themselves, and he who hath no money hath no advocate. Thou declarest the process and not the outcome to be justice. For a thing of nought thou lettest men be accused, and findest them guilty of suspicion because of the demands of the prudery of gainsayers and gainseekers. Seedy grandeur motivateth the arrogant, and for money thou wilt mull over a word to bring the innocent to book. The feet of thy constables are set to earn thee money, and the innocent and meek are ravished at the same time.
6 Behold, I have seen it, and I will repay according to thy measure; according to the smirk of thy hauteur. Thou art without knowledge. Canst thou elect it, O ignorant nation? Thou desirest only auctioneers to rule thee, and the oratory of the tradesman is eloquence unto thee. They stand at thy gates, thy beautiful gates wherein entereth the wealth of Cathay, the fineries of Europe, West Indies goods, the weavings of Britain, the carvings of the Latins, and the gadgets of Japan. Hear them bark: “Goods for all! Burn incense to enterprise! Is she not clever! Fineries, silks, gold, oil, yea, rum and sugar of the islands, the tool and the craftsmen… and flesh for the lording over by success— is not God with us?”
7 Therefore, saith the LORD, I shall send the piper, and he shall entrance thee from thy pulpit and lead thee from thy gates with a merry jig. Thou art foolish, O America. Thou shalt play them a tune and make them to follow thee. But thou knowest not where thou goest. The servant shall sit on the horse and play the pipe, and thy leaders shall hold the tail and dance.
8 Everything ye call a conspiracy I will make a conspiracy unto you. Everyone’s home shall ye make a fortress and your neighbour shall be your tyrant. The world shall pick your wealth. For when ye try and defend yourselves, even your leaders shall pull at the horse’s tail and upset your defense.
9 Thou hast made thy walls strong and thy gates a glittering with jewels, ears as unto pomegranates, eyes as unto rubies, and hearts as unto sapphires, cold and blue. Yet thy gates through which thou makest merchandise of the world shall be desolate. No man can bring them down. Hast thou not even magnified them unto God? Nevertheless, thou shalt return from thy jig, and there weep at the decay; in the cleft of thine elbow deep weeping; arms shall hide thine eyes, hide them from the desolation because the LORD caused them to decay; and the weeds thereupon shall embolden the predator and the small nation.
10 How thou magnifiest thy law! Yet it is not as old even as a new family, and thine orchards have not been planted long enough to yield their first clean fruit. What say ye of Precedence? —shall it make bribery not bribery; and extortion, is it any different? How the complacent braggeth! How the wine vat bubbleth with languish! What is left after one purgeth the winepress of the pulp? Bitterness is left, as a heart that is sewn with salt. No more can a good thing grow, or a tender shoot reach for the sun.
11 So is thy harvest, O foolish nation. I shall purge thy winepresses and lay bare thy vineyards. Long shall thy presses dry before a new sprig reacheth for the sun and a new vintner maketh wine in them from a new harvest.
12 Why seek ye such a companion, O my people, and why do ye rest assured in a people afar off? Their feet are quick, but their heel is weak.
13 Why do ye walk the wayside with such a companion when I plainly set before you the end of his ways? He who maketh all the ways of justice, chancery; and the law becometh dubious and dispute, that he might give weight to his spleen and its whims— even he is an abomination to my soul. Even as such shall America persecute thy seed that sojourneth. With loophole shall she overlook their oppression. Without leaders shall each town throw stones at thee.
14 Hear a gentle sound from afar? A subtle purr from America. They make bold their purr; yet now at the rebuke of the LORD their conceit only causeth them to mull. In any consideration they give themselves the best, and wisdom is tortured in the marketplace for the merriment of fools. They offer no introspection, and no man doeth anything but vent. The moment passeth, the evening falleth, a gentle purr resumeth, and barely doth a belch recall the day’s excitement.
15 Swiftly came entropy upon France, likewise upon Russia; so too upon China— the servant sat upon the horse and the princes walked on foot, the thing which I hate in mine heart, saith the LORD. Though swiftly it came upon them, slowly shall it come upon you. As a creeping fog in the night shall it come, and ye shall not be delivered after three generations except by division.
16 Thou art a wondrous flower, O America. Thy roots spread far, and it taketh much nourishment to maintain the beauty of thy petals. But when the ground is all roots, wherewith shall it be nourished? The great flower dieth and becometh the nourishment for seeds dropped by birds. The flowers that spring forth shall grow from thee. Thy flesh shall sustain five flowers and then they shall cast their seed and there shall be a garden.
17 The LORD hath sworn in his wrath. He shall not relent. Thou thinkest thyself so new, so original; but doth he not see the same sons of flesh as thy fathers? As he waited upon the times of the Amorites, as he surveyed Sodom, as he endured Egypt, as he judged Rome, as he humbled the Ottomans, so hath he seen thy ways, O foolish nation.
18 From beginning to end they have come before him. He lifted up thy skirt, but thou only saidst “I am now blind because of my lifted skirt and see not my nakedness.” Thou hast no knowledge, and thinkest that thou canst fool the Almighty?
19 O people of glass! Thou knewest thy nakedness was revealed, thy shame seen of the world. Thou hast fooled no one but thyself. As thou wilt not hearken to thine ears so that thine eyes may be opened, so thou canst not fathom thy end hath come before me, saith the LORD.
20 Why art thou also so blind, O Israel? —because thou trustest not in me, proclaimeth the LORD. What victories hast thou won? How hath America removed thine enemies from thy borders all these years? They make pretty their speech, but even the nations wince at its recital.
21 Thou hast lost land; thou hast lost faith. Thou waitest like a fat child to be served of the nations, and they have only robbed thee, and now they hate thee. The same that delivereth thee from bondage art thou then in bondage to.
22 When they had power they did not hearken unto my spirit, but burnt Japan with fire, which thing I commanded them not. I gave their secrets to others, and in fear did I give that generation life. Fear turned to foolishness, and foolishness turned to lies. For one tooth they took ten, for the lives of 1000 took they 100,000.
23 Behold, saith the LORD, weepings and howlings unto thee. I declare not joy. I repay according to thy ways. Oh the howl of the great city upon the river River and the bareness of thy columns, for that day shall come, and thou shalt not punish the Ishmaelite.


AND the word of the LORD came unto me, saying, The LORD will not relent upon the matter, even upon his issue with Judaea, for he hath an issue with the land, even Judah and Jerusalem, Samaria and Galilee, and the coasts of Gaza and Lebanon. He hath made it plain and engravened it upon their idols by night, that the dawn may reveal the LORD’s sacrilege of your dumb idols. The indignant brow he will break, and he will declare his mockery by the power of his doings. He hath an issue with the West Bank, with the East and with the North and South. Jerusalem is in desolation and no man layeth it to heart. There is bloodguiltness, and no man considereth.
2 Ye turn aside your faces from the merchandise of Gog, and the affliction of the maidens of Magog, in that they are caused to be made harlots. Therefore I have turned my face away from thine indenturing to America, and thou shalt be indentured for a season as the harlots of Magog, the merchandise of Gog and Damascus. But thy bed shall not cause thee to earn thy redemption. I, the LORD, shall redeem thee. I shall redeem thee from the indenture wherewith the maidens of Magog have been indentured, for thou lovest thy whoredoms and seekest not to be free of them. I shall smite Damascus in battle, for it is the head of a serpent that doth coil through aTyre and Zidon, bBerytus, and unto cAleppo. Its tongue dangleth out, and the venom on its tip is dAmman.
3 (The oracle of aRiyadh) Behold, doth Israel not know that the gopher is deadly in battle? unsetting the warhorse in its charge. Behold then ye fine men of Arabia and their embroidered trim of golden thread and their flowing linen of the finest cotton of the East. No covenant with Riyadh shall stand, for the LORD overturneth the counsel of sly men, and bringeth to nought the pacts of those whose purpose is underhanded. Fear not Arabia or her handsome princes clad in flowing garments, for when Damascus calleth for the light of day, in the day of battle, the House of Saud shall not bear it, as a burrowing creature cannot bear the light of day. So shall the LORD God overturn the House of Saud and all the princes thereof, and bring to nought the counsel of the beautiful men of the east and the priests of Mecca.
4 The word of the LORD came unto me, saying, Speak unto Israel, saying: Thou shalt not abhor the Egyptians, for I shall break the rod of Ishmael through them, and as cracks in a dam shall Islam break from Egypt, and the cracks shall spread unto Turkey. They shall rejoice in what they had before, and shall say unto the nations: Are we not a crown of the nations? Is not Greece our stepchild and Rome our admirer?
5 Shall the West brag over us? Is the West not our stepchild? We shall go to the West, to our stepchild. The desert shall teach us nothing, but we shall encroach upon the desert. Alexandria was mother and Constantinople our nanny.
6 Thou shalt also not abhor the Kurd, for they were thy kinsmen, and I brought them out of the Chaldees at the same time as thy fathers.
7 The oracle of Tel Aviv. She is new but languisheth. She is new and she magnifieth herself against Jerusalem. Thou shalt be brought down, thou pup, and the ways thou hast made look new shall be revealed as decrepit. It shall come to pass in the days that the LORD’s mount shall be magnified, when my people dwell safely; even in that day thou shalt be a valley and thy ways a stagnant bog that goeth no place and corrupteth the ground upon which it sitteth.
8 (The oracle of Iran) O thou land of the Aryan that treadeth on Media’s heel; thou despoiler of Persia and scorner of aFarsi, because thou enquirest of the watchmen when thou thyself seest, thou shalt go no where. To the dust, to the dust, go thy ways. Be thou sand; thy ways peeling stone.
9 And the word of the LORD came unto me, saying: When Israel doth not hearken unto my words for a season, for even now do their enemies encompass them and seek the land, speak unto them, saying: I have wasted Israel. I have punished them with sore reproach and with a heavy hand all these years; why will ye hearken not unto my words?
10 Ah, can it be that even I the LORD have forgotten? Thou hast made me; yea, that is the truth of it. I have heard thy philosophers and thy wise men debate it. Have them declare my goings forth unto you, if it be that they know me. Let them even now speak of what is at the threshold, for my words are nigh. Run to them during the day of my wrath, if thou canst find them. Ye foolish hypocrites, look ye now at your enemies encompassing you. When the defense bell is rung for you to rush into the walled cities shall ye cry unto me and proclaim “Great is the LORD for smiting Israel” or “I am a man blessed that the sword falleth upon me!”
11 Shout that at the nations and see if they mock you. If ye had my spirit, ye would be abhorred of your ways, and cry, “Just is the LORD for smiting me.” I have spoken, O Israel, and my words are sound and my words are life. They are honey to an empty belly, and they gush forth the ways of life and are water in a dry place.
12 Behold, how I desire to speak peaceably. Hear ye praise in Sinai, and rejoicings in Hebron. The wilderness of Sin is an habitation; the place of sojourn a city. The LORD hath enlarged the house of Israel. Negev and Zin are irrigated. He maketh a desert to bloom and the bob to plumb many houses. Shiloh, ring Shiloh, the LORD of hosts setteth a table in the desert. He gathereth armies to dwell in far lands.
13 Come, children of they who drank at the rock, acknowledge thy guilt. Turn from thy sins. Consider now thy lot, for thou art encompassed by thine enemies and they seek thy life, thy land and all that which is thine. I have spoken, O Israel, but thou wilt not incline thine ear. Jerusalem dimmeth its light. Judah closeth the curtain; and Ephraim boasteth from afar with false faith. Is it more painful for thee to turn than it is to endure the wrath of God?
14 Awake! Let thy reason return. Riyadh grinneth as a fat cat behind his shomahg. He careth not for the Palestinian. He seeth a plump canary. Damascus thinketh of battle, and Amman by reason of gain again longeth for thee, and Cairo forever waiteth as a maiden to greet them as one greeteth the merchants of Bosrah.
15 Thus saith the LORD, this shall not be. They are beasts about thee, and as a man leadeth beasts to water so shall they come at my beckoning, but not drink. Their counsel will not stand, nor their conspiracy triumph.
16 But hear ye this word, saith the LORD, this Israel hath taken upon her the ways of a shrew; and a shrew caught by her neighbours with her lovers, to whom must she turn for help? She durst not call her husband. She playeth the whore, and enticeth by treaty and by pledge to deliver her. Thou dost indeed speak softly into the ear of America to deliver thee from thine enemies.
17 Though I chastise her, it is to correct her and not to destroy her. I the LORD declare unto you before it shall happen. Send your armies back to the sun, ye of Arabia, hung shoulders and with sorrow on their faces. Damascus rebuild and fill thy time with contemplation. Riyadh, see a princeling become a king; a crown to come forth from Medina. Baghdad cast off thy brutish heads. I have declared: Israel is my chosen, saith the LORD. See Amman repent and Egypt seek peace, and make ye peace. Come and worship all ye nations. Grind your weapons into medicine, and your pride, transform it into humility. I declare unto you before it happeneth that ye may seek me and know that I have spoken and that there is no God but me, saith the LORD.
18 And thou, O shrewish Israel, brag not, for thou didst bring the American upon thee not as a wife but as an harlot, and they shall despise thee for this after a time. Thou spokest softly into their ears. Thou wast sure in thine imagination that they should deliver thee, and thou luredst them to go up after and against thine enemies.
19 Yet I shall confound them before thine enemies. They shall ravage the serpent’s head but be driven home by a flea. Thy pledge shall be broken, thy wealth no longer barter.
20 O America, repent of thy bitterness, for thou canst close thy loopholes. I shall not hold thou guiltless in that day when thou lookest the other way.
21 Turn unto me, O Israel, and I will fatten thy soul. Thou shalt swoon in the ways of my spirit and thou shalt delight to love thy brethren. Go out from thy flesh unto all mankind and cleanse the land of thy sins. Have mercy and declare thou justice, and I shall make thee to delight in the land. Thy belly shall be full of the new wine and thy palate shall feast upon the cream and honey, and thou shalt forever dwell with the LORD.


SHALL ye chide with the LORD, O house of Israel? Shall you become like the Jews of Jeroboam in his sight? they who became indistinguishable from Canaanites; and in such foolishness ye have spoken like unto the Canaanites of whose ways ye have become enamored again: “He is a phobic for not leaving me to my ways. A phobic! A phobic! He declareth there is wrong! A phobic!” Rather, turn ye one and all from his sins. Be not as they who say “There is no good or evil.” He that believeth in no good or evil shall be reserved for destruction; and a season that will not turn such as he shall be as a body that fighteth not cancer. He shall destroy the whole body; and the LORD shall consign your time to the fire. Behold, such a time the LORD now putteth before you. Shall ye choose to do right before the LORD and correct all your doings, or shall ye say: “There is no right. The nations have spoken truth; Wine is truth. It maketh one merry. We shall drink of the wine of the nations. What is calamity if we care not that it cometh?”
2 Sober yourselves early, saith the LORD, for such a numbing will the LORD remove from you; and there is no fear like sudden fear. It sobereth the soul when it is too late. Instead of the fear of the LORD, ye shall have sudden terror because ye walked in the ways of the nations.
3 Because he breathed his soul into Adam that he should live was he wroth with your fathers more than because of their vulgar sins. For ye know from whence cometh the fountain of your souls; that it is the LORD. Yet moreover he did give you his words, and he did declare them before the entire congregation his laws, that ye should know life and death, good and evil, left and right; that ye should live. Ye knew to love the LORD your God with all your heart, but ye would not. Therefore, O ye sons of Israel, are your sins grievous because ye reject the LORD your God and would not believe and declare his ways to the nations that they may repent. His own power brought salvation unto the nations, and no man shall make levity of the ways of the LORD again and thereupon not reap destruction. The LORD shall not let the canker grow until it destroyeth the whole body.
4 What think ye shall be your fate if ye now moreover become as the nations in their sins and the heathen in their backsliding?
5 Thus saith the LORD, he who inhabiteth eternity and changeth not: In days past I smote thee and scattered thee amongst the nations. I gave thee up to foolishness and the preaching of minutiae, minhag and gezeirah . I gave thee over to obstinacy. Instead of repenting, thou heapedst to thyself teachers justifying thy ways, and saying: “It is a blessing from the LORD to be persecuted.” Who can turn such as these? See what a heavy hand I had upon thy fathers because of their unbelief. But they went not after the lewdness of the nations, the immorality and decadence of barbarians in which ye now trespass, even in detestable things: homosexuality, adultery, extortion, uneven weights, conceit and strife, piercings and tattoos, thievery and every abominable state of the heart. Now ye have gone to the right and ye have gone to the left, but no man courseth true. What more are ye worthy of than they, and why should it not come upon you?


GO, I have thought it, my Spirit hath conceived it, my hand is now even forming the time: Make thou to know and make thou to understand, give them ears to hear and a soul that seeketh the deep things of God; for they enquire, and I shall not harden my heart against them as at the former time.
2 Give unto yourselves a span of rest, from Passover unto Pentecost, even for these 50 days give yourselves over to prayer and fasting. In the year of the 70th hebdomad of the Gentiles sustain yourselves with one another for these 50 days. Let him who worketh abstain, and let your congregations and those of substance amongst you lend support for those 50 days, that all Israel may abstain from their routines and incline their hearts unto the LORD their God, with deep prayer and fastings.
3 Give ear unto the sum of thy ways, O Israel, and consider if there hath been a time like unto this before? Have the words of thine elders come to pass or explained unto thee all that thine heart hath perplexed over, over all that thou hast kept in thine heart, and what hath happened unto thee and thy fathers, lo, these bottomless years of thy second captivity?
4 Then give ear, and incline your hearts unto the LORD, the God of Israel, and soften your hearts before me that I may pass amongst you in those 50 days and not harden my heart against your stiff necks and your foolish minds.
5 Let the dullness be removed from your minds, and let your foolishness flee from you as day vanquisheth night. In the 70th hebdomad, in the final of the hebdomad, let the veil be lifted.
6 Thou shalt measure the sum of thy ways before thee, and thou shalt hearken unto my servants the prophets of old. Thou shalt read them by books, and thou shalt above all bow thyself to the ground in prayer. Thou shalt pray unto the LORD thy God that he enlighten thee, that he will place thy sin before thy face that thou be no more deceived with thyself, and thou shalt hearken unto his words at last.
7 Whether thou be in the synagogue or outside the camp; whether thou hast taken a wife of the nations, or an husband of the nations, thou shalt leave off thy work, and thou shalt give thyself to pray and fasting before the LORD. Thou shalt meditate upon his ways, and thou shalt ask of him, “Are these things so?” Be thou humble, for the LORD thy God is a mighty God, and there is none before him.
8 If thou hast children by thy wedlock with the nations, thou shalt bring them with thee. If thou hast children by whoredoms with the nations, thou shalt bring them with thee. I do seek out all the sons of Isaac, and each shall stand on his own. This shall apply to all those born of any Jew, for I do call back my people, the seed of Isaac. Let him who is an Hebrew not call himself not a Jew.
9 Trust not in the vanity of thy ways, nor in those that teach thee that thou canst make of the LORD thy God what thou wilt. Nor take advantage of the span, to revel and cast aside thy sincere heart and make it a time of play and holiday. For, see, I speak clearly unto thee. Can the world bear it? Can the world withstand the glory of a sudden thing? Then understand, the LORD thy God causeth a wonder: slowly, slowly, day by day, Jew by Jew. The dawn shall rise and as a scattered army shall Israel trickle back, waves here, streams there, over the hills, with their shields, with their young, with their things, and with their households, so shall they come back from their desert journey to the dawn light of the LORD their God over the peak of the mountains.
10 I set in Zion a lodestone. And it shall draw my people, metal from amongst metal, wrought and pure, for I have wrought me my name, and for this sake I shall call ye back, lest the nations say of all that hath been “It was not of the LORD.”
11 See the desert in the dawn light. See the things move about: a line here, a group there, babes upon the shoulder. Like ants see them slowly come. See them rise up the incline, see them mount toward the top, over the peak to a new dawn. See them come home unto the LORD, the God of Israel.
12 Forsake your desert journey, my people. Neither ship nor horse, neither thing of the air or under the sea, shall bring you back unto me. Ye shall each one come of a way you have not known; and that way is I, saith the Lord.


SEND forth a message to Edom: Prepare ye to be reborn. Relay it to your kindred, Moab: Prepare to be built up. The walls bow out from Jordan to your borders, O Ammon. Israel swelleth with the early harvest. For I the LORD give ye each one this word as comfort, for a time appointed hath come, and a longing is satisfied. Jericho is an open gate; Jabbock doth flood from Jordan’s trickle. Dan is secure. Rueben is restored. Timnah’s skirt is enlarged. Hear ye a sound in Anathoth; her fallen stones stir. Succoth beyond Jabesh-gilead bloometh. Pelusium open thy gates, for Beersheba’s house expandeth. Mount Carmel rejoiceth with Tabor; Gilboa and Ebal look off to embrace yonder Hermon and even the mount of Lebanon. Tell ye all in Zoan, I cause to flourish the desolate heritage. O thou whole Phoenicia, cast ye off Islam’s yoke. Amman, thou shalt not afflict the children of Israel. My spirit cometh unto Israel. It rebuketh the cynic. It courseth in the hearts of men. Lay it in store against the day of their turning that it might enliven them:
2 I shall bring low the walls of thy cities, O Zion, and all thy far away outposts; all thine encampments shall have their walls leveled. I shall bring low the mountains first, that all they which are outside the camp may see the sunrise first. The babes shall speak. Prepare ye to nurture the little ones. Whithersoever thou dwellest prepare for the babes to knock on thy door. Marshal the troops. Bring down the walls. Let the sunshine shine on those within. Awaken them that sleep, ye rulers. The army of Judah hath arrived! We are made like unto the wicked of Israel, we who were princes are sent back to our fathers’ plows and our women are barren! Babes come upon the shoulders of them who are not their fathers. They all sing out “Our God reigneth!” An hundred generations cometh to the dust and in our place there are sucklings.
3 Mount up over the rubble of their walls, my children. Inhabit their cities. Come back, Jacob. The LORD hath done a good work. Thy swaddling cry stirreth my bowels with passion. The final battle hath passed.
4 Lo, here I am, saith the LORD. Call upon me again, O daughter of Zion. I am not far from thee, and my salvation is my breath upon thee. It shall cause thee to stir and to awake. Thy sleep hath been as unto an hibernation.


ARISE, arise, shake off the dust of battle, the dust of thy humility, the ashes of thy disgrace. Behold thine enemy fleeth across thy borders. His feet are intertwined and he tumbleth hence. Thine enemies are cast beyond the river and I give them into the hands of Edom and Moab and Ammon. Under the rubble of thy walls is buried an hundred generations of ignorance, and it shall be buried forever. I have declared unto thee beforehand that this day shall come, saith the LORD. Awake, it is time to awake! It is time for the healing of thy wounds. I shall no more wound thee, my beloved. Let joy form thy features. Let it cause thee to chuckle in awe of a wondrous moment.
2 For the day of understanding hath come, and the cloud of battle hath lifted to reveal folded hands upon knees. The LORD seeth thee now, and he will not harden his heart. Lift up thy head from thy humility, and rejoice! Wash and be thou clean. Put on thy robes of white, sing and rejoice. Feel life in thy veins, and bless the name of the LORD. Behold the repentant are as the river rocks, smooth and polished and without number. Thy people repent, my Lord, and this moment is for them. Thou hast taken them from the dust of battle and set them aright.
3 As a river thy spirit breaketh forth from the breach and sweepeth over Zion. The hard and jagged rocks are made cool and smooth. The tree branches stand up, the grass groweth again, and the fruit loseth its bitterness. Our harvest is at last sweet. We no longer walk upon the hot and jagged rocks. Our wounds are unbound and the scar fadeth, each and every one. If a man should let sunlight on it, it fadeth. If he should wash it in the river, it melteth away.
4 Behold, our God hath come unto us. Zion is blessed by the breath of his mouth. Thou awakenest us from our deep slumber with a jolt, but quickly thou embracest us in thy tender arms. Salvation! Shout it abroad! Salvation of our God hath come! I have seen thee turn Israel. I know thy word is good and it shall come to pass. Thou hast healed us and, behold, the nations come to gawk. Let them come, saith the LORD, and let them seek the healing wherewith I have healed thee, O beloved Zion. Let them join the multitude and walk in his steps and see my wonders again.
5 Indeed, a wonder of wonders, O my God, thou hast done a wondrous thing. With mine eyes I see thy salvation, that goodly structure, more brilliant than the blue of the summer sky, more soothing than the pink of twilight. Blessed are they who see thee as thou walkest the paths of Zion. Hallelujah, Hallelujah, Hallelujah, hear all nature rejoice. We have seen thy salvation. Our eyes are opened and our hearts have become supple.
6 Hearken unto my words and live, saith the LORD. Yea, hearken and live anew. I have abundantly shed grace like a rain. The dust no more afflicteth thine eyes. No more doth it bite thy taste. Look up and taste the sweet dew. The dirt and grime of a hundred battles melteth from thee. It is no more thy tears that fall to the ground. Ye are clean again before me, my people.
7 Go ye one and all to the place of wisdom, to the solemn moment. Go ye to Jerusalem. Weep ye for joy in the path thereto. I shall free Moriah of the nations. Violence shall not hold onto my holy mount and it shall not be tread by force, nor shall it be freed by multitudes. But by a lad shalt thou speak to them, and my word shall cause the nations to decamp. Come ye and build. O Come ye and hear the heavens set you a fine tune. Sing, thou Israel, weep and sing, for, behold, salvation hath come of thy God, thy stony heart is gone! Build ye, O Jerusalem, build ye a light, build ye and lay the path of the LORD’s highway. It cleaveth the murky waters; it is a solid road to Jerusalem amidst the mucky ground. Let the nations come and seek forgiveness. Let mercy flow out as a river, for there is no God but our God, and the ends of the Earth shall once again behold his salvation in Israel.
8 Cry not anymore. Comfort yourselves with my forgiveness. They that have sinned I have cut off, and they came into the pit wherein their own feet did lead them. But for thee, my beloved, I have filled in the pit that no more should enter therein, for my salvation hath come.


INDEED, a wonder of wonders hast thou done in all ages and for all times, O my God, thou glory of all times and seasons— my rock and my lot. Thou hast taken upon a face that we might see thee. Behold, I see thee and call thee Ishi. Thou speakest from a clear and sure mouth, and thou art not silent as unto stone. What fools we have been in our hardness! Pass us over with thy mercy, yet come quickly unto us. Look not at our sin and at the foolishness of our spirits. Shall we resist the knowledge of God? At such a moment shall our pride make hard our understanding and dampen our souls? In thy humiliation there is wisdom, in our gratitude there is understanding. Behold, is anything too difficult for God? Is anything beyond his measure?
2 Is it such a wonder that he should walk among us? Open the portals of thine heart, O Israel, God is God and his word hath come to pass. We have not been left in the cave of our shame. Come out into the light, saith the LORD unto thee. Come out!
3 Is the LORD not to be sought more than marble and the finest of goodly stone? Hear them shout without. The LORD is amongst us! Come out! Gold moldeth into any form, buildings are lifeless. Come out! Can ye not hear? Come out from the retreats of your dispersion. Have ye not seen what hath been done in Zion? Come ye to Zion, O all ye sons of Isaac, with your aged, with your bairns, with your servants, with your whole households. March on, march on. The report is true. God liveth. Yea, our God reigneth, and he calleth for all his sons to return. Return, return unto me, saith the LORD.
4 Hear, O ye nations, my people come out, my people come hither. Hinder them not in their way. For surely I am the LORD, the king of all the Earth, the dread Lord; and I call unto my sons; I reach for my daughters. What is there that I will not do to call back my children? I am a roaring lion, yea, I am a ferocious lion against mine enemies. I tear and I rend asunder to protect my brood.
5 Wonder of wonders, saith my soul. Wonder of wonders moveth my tongue. Who is like unto the LORD our God? I have seen the great King, he who is BEING. I am speechless. There are no words. Groanings of my soul cannot form them. Behold, burnings in mine heart cannot materialize words. What a wonder that he should breathe into man his spirit! Yea, I live because of the LORD, because of his burning fire. No heart can bear the compassion of his ways. I see no son of flesh who can stand before an ounce of his glory.
6 I have never seen beauty like this, like unto the LORD our God. Consider, O man, his doings, for eye cannot behold nor can heart appreciate his visage. At the healing of our wound, we do see him. At the gentle hour, we do hear his call. The LORD hath drawn his portrait and hath made me the frame. From beginning unto end, I have been written on by his hand, that all the Earth shall see and understand his glory.
7 Behold, behold, my face created all that existeth, worlds of worlds, cosmos and all therein. What face shall ye give me, and what features will you give my doings? Ye reviled my appearance, but the wonderful acts of God— who cannot see them? What is a tabernacle to you if it cannot speak? A face that cannot speak is no better than stone. Why seek ye mine image and yet hearken not unto my ways? With my mouth I speak of wondrous things, and with my doings I draw my face. Open thy soul, O son of man, and see me clearly. Cast thine eyes to the throng of repentance, and therein see the heart of thy God. Rejoice in his acts. Draw nigh unto his glory.


YO, all ye sons of flesh, all ye who seek rest, come with me to Jerusalem, to the house of the LORD our God, the great King. Ye thin and wasted become a fatling. Ye starving, be ye satisfied at a banquet. Ye maimed mount up like a joyous calf. Ye babes become princes. The LORD doth reign. How wonderful are they who joined the throng. Come, all ye Gentiles. Let your armies be conquered. Come all ye meek and subdue nations!
2 Drink at the fount of his throne. A river doth come out of Zion. The LORD hath sweetened it and anointed it with his kiss. His lips have flavored it with the words of his mouth. Come ye all, come ye all to repentance. Cast off your idols, for the LORD is our bridegroom. Many, yea, though many be gathered to his bridal chamber, only the single shall go in. Cast off all the idols, throw them down and be thou virgin again, O Israel, and be thou yoked forever, O daughter Zion, to the King, the great King.
3 The ground is tilled not, neither doth a man lay hold of a plow anymore. But the harvest groweth before our eyes. Fruit fatteneth upon the tree. Flowers blossom and are as numerous as drops of rain, the peaceful rain of spring. Springs burst forth, sweet waters. Lo, there is peace, and no man striveth with his neighbour. Each man careth for his fellow, and all lay hold of justice. No man extorteth from his brother. No more is there the cry of the orphan, and the widow and the spinster have children to abundance. If there is a cry, lo, the LORD comforteth as a rushing whirlwind. There is plenty to abundance, for, behold, I create a new heart in my people, and a new body will I fashion. Where are thy scars, O man? Where is the place of pain? It shall be no more. The abode of fear and its dark recesses are vanquished. Worry is gone, covetousness is vanished. Evil is no more and selfishness is as a scab dried and blown away. Worlds await thee. My world hath come. The dwelling place of the LORD is come; my par


LOOK up, O Israel, look up, look up unto the clouds driven by a strong wind. So the time presseth upon thee. Look up, O foolish people. What man can lay hold of a cloud or cast a rope around it? Run to thy vats, open thy barrels and prepare for the latter rain as before. My spirit shall be with thee, my Jacob, my beloved that delighteth in me, and I shall drive out thine enemies before thy face. With the bow and the sling shall thy young warriors defeat men of iron and their great rods. Thy young men will not faint, nor grow weary. Thine enemies shall flee and thou shalt pursue them to thy borders.
2 For my compassion is toward thee, O Israel, and my mercy made manifest. Thy sin is etched in lead. The sin of my people is engraven deeply in a thick slab, saith the LORD. Though thou buriest it, corrosion cannot remove the inscription thereon. So hath thy sin been uncovered time and time again, and brought thee accusation, and accusation misery and desolation. Only I can raise the slab from the earth and blot out thine iniquity before me. I have wrought me a great name, and my sword hath circumcised unto me a people, and they shall be blessed of the LORD forever.
3 And the peoples of the Earth shall say he is blessed of the LORD who believed and who hearkened before the day of the LORD’s chastisement upon Israel.
4 Thy days of being wounded draw to an end, and it is darkest before the dawn. The third day arriveth at an inauspicious moment. Prepare ye to be healed, O Israel. Rise again, O foolish nation. I say unto thee, Arise! Look up, O Israel, look up, for my words are at the door and my salvation draweth nigh. Now I say unto thee, Arise, and thou shalt live again; and the nations again shall see my salvation.
5 Hear now these words while yet thou may. For surely I have spoken again unto thee, O Israel. Surely as a crack of thunder and as a tremendous rumble I shall stir from my place and purge Israel for my great namesake. Turn unto me, O Israel, and tarry not.


SMITE thou the ground and I shall raise up prophets as the dust to afflict this generation. Look up Israel, look up, behold the latter rain as before, saith the LORD. Look up and feel the steady rain. Lift up the head of Israel, remove thou the plate. Hear the child cry from afar: The miracles of our God, the miracles of our God— a child is cleansed; a maiden is raised from the dead; a man without legs walketh. Behold again in the name of Jesus Christ this is done in Israel. Look up, O Israel, believe and greet thy redeemer as he cometh.
2 Send my knights before my face. Go, thy God cometh. I stand upon Zion and brace my scepter in the mount. I am thy great general and thy exceeding great hero.
3 And the LORD said unto me, How long did I wrest thee from the Gentiles and take thee unto thy people which thou knewest not?
4 And I said “40 years.”
5 So shall I turn Israel.
6 Yea, LORD, come. Blessed be the name of the LORD. I say ye, Blessed is he who cometh in the name of the LORD

See footnotes here


Excerpts From

ספר יוחאנן בן קאתרין – ספר בן-קאתרין (Hebrew: Book of Jachanan Ben Kathryn)

המשא דבר-יהוה  אשר היה אל-יוחאנן בן-קאתרין בת יעקב ואור-המשיח בן קארל הירש בן אברהם הוילער משרעינערס (סצ’ראינאר) שהיו בבוריסלאו, בן הלל, כאשר מסה ראשון יהוה  אותו מגוים ונוטה רוחו לדרוש את יהוה. זה בא לראשונה כאשר הוא היה על בן ל שנים, אומר במפורש: אתה בודאי תהיה עדי לישראל

The Prayer of the Prophet for the final Week

The prayer of the prophet, the son of Kathryn, at the beginning of the final hebdomad, October 31, 2010. (5771)

Thou hast not found righteousness that shouldest choose it. Nor hast thou said of Mercy, “Come hither and dwell with me.” 

   I have walked me the river of righteousness and I have found me its headwaters. Surely as a man breatheth, these things come forth from the soul of the LORD. 

   From the deep groanings of thy soul thou hast brought forth life. From the multitude of thy wisdom thou hast brought forth substance. Thy finger hath set the sun in its motion, and thou hast broadcast the stars as if grain. Thou hast not experimented with righteousness, nor hast thou made man the tool of thy whim. Folly doth not approach thee. It repelleth from thy beauty.

   It is unnatural for man to be separate from his creator. There is famine in my soul because I cannot breathe-in the presence of the LORD. My meal is leanness. Without the LORD it hath no savor. I try and breathe-in, but the air cannot sustain. I am as a man gasping for air, and the visage of my God is the breath to feed my soul.

   What doth Andromeda know of thee? Can Orion long for thee? They have not thy soul. Thou hast given thy soul unto me. Thou hast hidden thyself and whispered thy beauty. Shouldest thou set lust within a man for thy beauty and hidest thyself for so long? I cannot breathe-in full. My bones are coming undone. I cannot be satisfied.

   Yeah, thou beauty, from thy soul thou speakest wisdom. From thy soul in man thou hast revealed thy nature. Lo, can bitterness be removed from the heart? Nay, it clutcheth hold of the sinews and contricteth the soul. Death doth not relieve its weight. Man carrieth the bitterness with him. They that caused thee to dwell in anger and resentment have set thee a wound. Only reconciliation can remove it. Only forgiveness can bury it. Therefore, saith the LORD, I shall turn Israel.

How beautiful is the LORD in all his doings. How righteous is my God in all his ways. Set thy servant to thy task. In the days of thy choosing set him to comfort thy people that they may know that all those who trust upon the LORD shall be delivered from the evil of the days that shall come. Yeah, LORD, dwell again with thy people. Preserve Jacob and for thy great namesake set again thy firstborn before thee.   

The “70 Hebdomads” of the Nations

 In browsing the web, we’re gratified at how an earlier article, the Daniel 9 Cipher, has inspired a number of calculations. However, although some events and time spans seem correct, an evangelical theological interpretation is usually given for their meaning. As prophecies contained in the Book of Jochanan ben Kathryn are beginning to unfold, it is best to elaborate on one of the most provocative prophecies contained therein. Namely, this is the prophecy that God has assigned to the Nations “70 Hebdomads” in like manner as he assigned to us through Daniel in his Chapter 9. Unlike Daniel, however, the prophecy of Jochanan HaNavi uses only a starting point and then concentrates only on the last year, yet without calling it that. It is merely repeatedly referred to as “the year of the 70th hebdomad of the Gentiles” (עמים בניגוד ל- גויים).

   It doesn’t take much to reason why, since most of the prophecy is concerned with the ending of an age and the beginning of the final age of the Earth. To both of these the last year of the 70 Hebdomads is a critical fulcrum. We have touched on part of this prophecy’s relation to classic biblical prophecy and Daniel 9 in another article Understanding a Biblical Timeline. But in this article we will largely concentrate on the Book of Ben Kathryn. In addition to giving specifics about forthcoming events, God in his wisdom gives the key to unraveling time spans and periods by just focusing on the last year of the 70 Hebdomads. Let’s develop what’s in view.

   Chapters 21, 46 and 68 of the Book of Ben Kathryn declare in the name of the LORD that he has placed a period of “70 hebdomads” or weeks as the final era of the Age of the Nations. Within this time the fullness of the Nations will come in, God will implement his judgment on the wayward Church, and he will commence Israel’s spiritual reawakening. Chapter 21 sets the beginning with the Christian Reformation, October 31, 1517. Seventy-sevens (70 hebdomads) would seem easy to calculate as a period of 490 years.

   However, if 490 years and 2007 were ultimately the object, it would have been easy for God to move the prophet to say “490” years. Obviously, “70 hebdomads,” as in Daniel 9, is the key to something far more complex, and it is the pathway to more than one event. “Seventy-sevens” immediately strikes one as invoking the Sabbatical Year countdown, which is 7 sets of seven years and then an inter-calculated Jubilee year. This would make “70 hebdomads” into a 500 year period (there are 10 Jubilee years in 70 sevens). This would make October 31, 2017, the end date for the 70 hebdomads.

     This is now far more provocative, for like Daniel, Jochanan HaNavi mentions a period of “70 years,” and this period clearly seems tied into the “70 weeks” like was Daniel’s.  In Chapter 63 he declares that God has appointed us 70 years of captivity in our own land. By this we are given a rather clear primary meaning. Captivity had a very specific ancient meaning, and this is the meaning found in the Bible and echoed in the Book of Ben Kathryn. It meant for a people to be deprived of the cult statue of their god. For Israel which had no idol, it meant the absence of the symbol of God. In other word, the Temple. To be without the Temple is to be in captivity, even while in Israel. Thus the 70 years of Chapter 23 is easy to calculate as May 14, 1948, to May 14, 2018, the 70th anniversary of the founding (independence) of the State of Israel. It is more than coincidental that 2017 is exactly “70 weeks” from the Reformation, and that this falls just one year prior to the ending of a crucial 70 year period in modern Israel’s political and religious life.

   The intentional relationship of these two years (and periods) is underscored by the instructions of what we are to do, thus implicitly preparing us for major events in and around that time. Specifically, beginning at Passover that year we are to take a spiritual Sabbath for 50 days until Shavuot to prepare for a great spiritual awakening as God’s Spirit moves amongst us. It seems hard to believe that this spiritual awakening does not come close to some event significant in symbolism, such as the regaining of Mount Moriah in Jerusalem, which has eluded us for so long.

   The interrelation of this 70 years with the 70 weeks is undeniable. The happening of a crucial symbolic event at this time is further strengthened by more discoveries. We know just by the use of “70 years” and “70 weeks” that the Daniel 9 cipher is being invoked. As we developed in the Daniel 9 Cipher, Daniel was inspired by having discovered “by books” (studying) that the 70 years of desolation (singular) that God pronounced through Jeremiah was actually a key to a subtle pattern of 3 sets of 70 years in the desolations (plural) of Jerusalem,  each of these 70 year periods symbolizing a period of desolation. The first was a physical desolation of people: 606 BC – 536 BC (physical captivity); spiritual desolation 586 BC – 516 BC (we were without the Temple); and 516-446/45 BC, political desolation (Jerusalem was finally restored, the wall was rebuilt and the law was read to the people). From this comes the key to understanding Daniel’s 70 weeks determined upon the Second Temple Age that began in juxtaposition to these sets of 70 years.

   Thus we consider that we are being directed to the same pattern today in the Book of ben Kathryn. By mentioning this one 70 in chapter 23, we are not just being given another key that highlights 2017, we are given time spans between political/religious that take on greater symbolism when calculated from this year. In many respects they mirror Daniel’s discovery of those very provocative 3 sets of 70 years that inspired his 70 weeks.

     Let’s begin with political restoration. Zionism is the organized restoration of a Jewish State in Israel and the intentional act on the part of Jews to return to Israel to bring this about.  Politically it began in 1897. On November 30, 1947, it achieved its goal of partition in Palestine and the creation of Israel, sparking civil war with the Arabs. Formal independence took place on May 14, 1948, sparking the Arab-Israeli War. Yet in all this time Jerusalem eluded the Jews. It and Moriah, the holy place, were in the hands of Arabs. Amazingly, the eye of Israel and its apple (Moriah) remained outside of Jewish ability to retake it. In 1967 it finally happened in the Six-Day War.

     As follows

     1897 to 1967, finally achieving control of Jerusalem, the goal of Zionism  =70 years.
     1947 (UN vote and declaration and partition of a Jewish State, the first goal of Zionism) to  
     2017 (spiritual reawakening) will be 70 years.
     1967 to 2037 will be 70 years (Temple rebuilt?).

   Stretching it, wishful thinking? Let’s look at Daniel’s 70 years again. (See Graph)

     The 1st 70 years began in 606 BC with exiles being taken away. It ended with the decree of Cyrus allowing Jews to return and build the holy place. The next started in 586 BC with the destruction of Jerusalem and the Temple and the rest of Jewry carried into Babylon. The last began in 516 with the Temple’s rededication and ended in 446 with the rebuilding of the walls. Notice the pattern?

   It is: 20 years of the first 70 years proceeds the next. Then these two 70 year periods overlap 7 sevens (50 years), and then the 2nd 70 continues on its own for 20 years and then the final 70 begins with no overlap until it ends.

     Sets of three 70s beginning with 1897 are almost an exact reverse graph of the above.

   They are: (See Graph)
   1897 to 1967 = 70
   1947 to 2017 (20 year overlap 1947 – 1967) and then 7 seven overlap to 2017 with the last 70
   1967 to 2037 (20 years no overlap from 2017 to 2037).

     Do you see the one significant difference in the overlaps between the Daniel 9 Graph and the Ben Kathryn Graph? This set of three 70s starts with a 50 year (7 Seven) period, then the 2nd 70 overlaps it 20 and then the 2nd 70 overlaps the 3rd 70 by 7 Sevens (50 years) and then there is a clean 20 years of no overlap. Did you uncover the similarity in Daniel’s division of weeks?

   Nowhere in the Book of ben Kathryn is it openly said that these “70 weeks” are a reverse of those of Daniel. But considering the events repeatedly mentioned, it is logical to take them as such. The crescendo of Daniel’s was the destruction of Jerusalem and the beginning of desolation. The culmination of those given to Jochanan HaNavi is the restoration of Israel.  This is seen throughout the Book of ben Kathryn where it is clear that the Temple’s restoration is a pivotal point. It is also clear that events surrounding it are tied into the “70 weeks of the Gentiles” and especially to the last year, 2017.

     A divine hand guiding these events and their symbolism becomes far clearer when we go back to the “year of the 70th week of the Gentiles.” Always “the year of the 70th week.” That year is not only regarded as crucial for events coming, but for the cipher it is the fulcrum by which one calculates time spans and reveals a prophetic pattern. In Daniel’s time “70 sevens” meant only one thing, the Sabbatical Cycle. Today, however, it means two. There are two ways of calculating the Sabbatical Year Cycle. There is the Church way (biblical) and there is the rabbinic or modern Jewish way.  The two differ by 10 years. The difference is caused by Jews leaving off inter-calculating a 50th Jubilee year since in the diaspora it really didn’t apply, in rabbinic views. There was also some disagreement whether the Jubilee was the same as the 49th year. We’ve seen above, however, that the inter-calculated Jubilee is used to calculate the “70 weeks of the Nations.” Considering the rich symbolism involved, this is to be expected. The Church has fancied itself the inheritor and supplanter of Israel. The Church was not in diaspora; it was Israel. A Christian would calculate the “70 weeks” via the biblical method of a Jubilee. A Jew, however, would calculate according to the currently accepted Shmita Cycle. Amazingly, we find that 1517, the beginning of the Reformation and the “70 weeks of the Nations,” was also a Shmita year. The final year of Jewish reckoning would indeed be 2007, yet another Shmita year.

     Although the rabbinic Jewish Shmita Cycle is not the primary means of counting down the 70 weeks from 1517, it is a provocative overlay. This reveals interesting time spans, all from Jewish apocalypticism. As the Qumran scrolls show, Jews were expecting the then-Age to end with a 40 year testing period because it had begun with a 40 year testing period in the Sinai wilderness. This is seen in the crucifixion in 30 AD and the destruction of Jerusalem and the temple in 70 AD. This coincidence is repeated today. Jerusalem was finally recaptured and, briefly, so was Mount Moriah in 1967. Jews mounted the holy place barefooted to worship. It was a clear sign to the Church of things to come; that Israel would seek total restoration. 2007 is 40 years afterward.

     This time span is significant as a testing and warning period to Jews as well. An intense national desire to rebuild the Temple is not going to be set in quick motion by a 50 day spiritual Sabbath in 2017, no matter how positive. This began to germinate in 1967 already. 2017 comes as an apex, and 2037, presumably, for when the Temple is dedicated. Thus we see 70 years of spiritual regeneration symbolized, capped off by the dedication of the Temple.

     It is beyond coincidence that in 1967 the modern Messianic Movement truly began to take form. Toward 2007 it has become hotter and attracted far more attention until it is obvious it is a spiritual aliyah from Christendom. This will continue to build until Israel, no matter how cynical some might be, takes the warnings to heart and engages in the 50 day Sabbath in 2017 to finally inquire if God did indeed come forth and walk amongst us so long ago.

     Overlaying Shmita years with the “70 years” of captivity and the “70 weeks of the Nations” uncovers the relationship of both timetables.  October 31, 2017, is clearly the end of the “year of the 70th hebdomad of the Gentiles.” It falls mid “week” in the calculation of the actual Shmita Sabbaths. More significant, October 31, 2014 (Shmita) to May 14, 2018, the 70th anniversary of Israel’s independence and the ending of the 70th year of captivity, is 1,290 days, an odd coincidence with the end of Daniel’s 70 weeks and a period of 1,290 days from the “daily” and the abomination of desolation and the destruction of Jerusalem. Thus both countdowns intertwined reveal a span and dates significant to both.

   The Jewish Shmita Cycle directs us to other events parallel  with Daniel’s symbolism. One of Daniel’s 70 symbolized exile.  If Ben Kathryn’s is a reverse, could there be 70 years tied into aliyah— to repopulating Israel? Curiously we find there are, and they are related to significant years in the Sabbatical Cycle.

   The first Aliyah began in 1881. 70 years later is 1951, the first Shmita year in the land of Israel as a nation. Within this 70 years the largest amount of ascent to the land had happened, occurring in major waves of aliyahs, both before and, of course, after World War II. Can you spot or propose other 70 year periods? Are they interrelated to the Shmita, the “70 weeks of the Nations” or to the 70 years of captivity? Can you spot other coincidences with Daniel’s 70 weeks?

   The “70 weeks” of Daniel began about 11 years before the final 70 ended (557-446) when Ezra read the law during the Sabbath Year. In like manner the Shmita countdown today shows us the ending of the Nations, by Shmita reckoning, was in 2007, 11 years later in 2018 a new age may openly begin with recapturing Moriah. Has a 70 weeks began already for the final age of the Earth? What events will 2037 bring? Will the Temple be dedicated? Will there be something else? I’ll leave it to the reader to work on figuring out the Aliyah sets of 70 and their relation to the others and the events prophesied in the Book of Ben Kathryn and Daniel. The years 2007, 2017 and 2018 turned out to be the key, remember. Three symbolisms involved, two timetables— Jewish and Gentile— that intertwine.

   Along with the similar symbolism, we have discovered all these countdowns are interrelated and on top of that they concisely echo those of Daniel, only in reverse. The Biblical Sabbatical Countdown gives us 2017. The modern Jewish gives us crucial Shmita years. Major events span symbolic periods of time, as in the Bible and Daniel’s 70 years and 70 weeks. All revealed because of that prophecy in the Book of Ben Kathryn and how it hinges on an ending year.

   Such a pattern cannot be manipulated. These events and time spans should no longer be denied, nor our duty to hearken unto the 50 day Sabbath in 2017. It is far more than coincidence that God planned for the Christian Reformation to begin on October 31, so long ago, and that this date has poignancy only now when comparing it to events in Israel and the current Shmita. These are not dates that would easily go noticed either. Ben Kathryn does not mention them. He is only given the clue: that the “70 weeks” of the Gentiles begin with Ezra of the North. Israel’s independence as a nation and its 70th anniversary are not dates any calendar can manipulate. God intended it to fall on a specific date. No one can manipulate Israel not getting repossession of Jerusalem until 1967 and then prevent it from getting Mt. Moriah— of all places right in the heart of Jerusalem— all these years. God is specifically planning an event and, for our faith, giving us some clues.

     Is this all coincidence? Was it not said in Luke’s gospel that Jerusalem would be trodden down of the Gentiles until their time is fulfilled and then God will go out to Israel again and recover his people?

   Something else happened in 1967. Let’s touch on it again. Messianism took off during key events and has made its own aliyahs. In a time of question one’s norm and habits, many Jews began to rediscover and believe that Jesus is the Messiah. The Messianic Movement of today has its roots in the antiestablishment era, in that 40 years of testing between 1967 and 2007 when it began to catch fire. It was only in  the last couple of years that a huge upswing happened within the Messianic Movement when it actively tried to break off from Christianity and declare itself a form of Judaism. This Movement, the genuine Nazarene Jews, can no longer regard themselves as creating a “Jewish space.” They are the vanguard of restoration. A spiritual captivity and exile is emerging from the Nations, and God will not let it be stopped. It is also not a remnant. God will eventually turn Israel, as he said he would. Spiritual Aliyahs will continue.

   “The 70 weeks” of the Book of Ben Kathryn put into words what we would not expect. It is not outright stated that this prophecy is a positive mirror reflection of Daniel’s, but there are some interesting coincidences that must be kept in the fore of our minds. Daniel’s prophecies were for the ending of the  last age. They culminate in the destruction of Jerusalem and the Temple and the desolations that follow. Destruction of Jerusalem and the Temple in 70 AD marked the beginning of the Age of the Gentiles. Upheaval is in the wind again. Yet the attitude sweeping Messianic Judaism is not defeatist. Its swaddling cry is that of Jacob crying out at birth again and returning to his God.  

     The problem with Christian eschatology is that it is “apocalyptic” and based on books that even the Reformers and patristic church fathers questioned. All this apocalypticism has either convinced the Church (and unfortunately many in Messianism)  of a glorious rapture at hand or some bizarre “pre-millennial kingdom” where Jesus rules in person from Jerusalem. The signs of the time, however, are biblical ones, and they are for an ending of the age and the beginning of his full blown recovery of Israel (Third Temple Age). This is not being done to recover just a remnant. (See Amos 9: 11–15)

     The Messianic Movement best see itself in relationship to all these “coincidences” and be prepared to send forth the light of our Lord. Altogether they prepare one for the age soon to begin, and the trials and blessings that go with it.

The Daniel 9 Cipher (The “70 weeks” of Daniel 9)

Although Daniel is regarded amongst the Christians as a prophet, in which their bibles follow the compilation of the Greek-Jewish Septuagint, he is more correctly  enrolled in the “Writings” section of Jewish Bibles. The Qumran sect appears to have regarded him as a prophet, referring to him as “Daniel the Prophet.” And there is no question that his work contains prophecy. But his prophecy is more of foretelling in the way that seers speak rather than prophets. 

   Daniel was, in fact, a seer, someone who by vision or inspiration was given general glimpses of the future. A seer doesn’t necessarily understand what he sees or is shown. Rather, he relates it as he sees it, or as best as he can.  Much of the visions in Daniel are the result of a seer.

   Out of all of the prophecies, Daniel 9 has excited the most interest. It gives a timetable to the Messiah and to other key events in Jewish/Christian history (future from Daniel’s point of view). This involves the coming of the Messiah, the cutting off of the Messiah, and the destruction of Jerusalem following the “abomination of desolation,” the standing-up of the archangel Michael, and the Resurrection.

   Many have tried to calculate the “70 weeks of Daniel 9” from various starting points— i.e. the first year of Cyrus (536 BC), the 7th year of Artaxerxes (457 BC, when Ezra came to Jerusalem and reestablished the law), the 20th year of Artaxerxes (446/445, when Nehemiah finished the wall), to various and sundry points— i.e. the baptism of Christ, the Crucifixion, and to the destruction of the Temple in 70 AD. None of the computations, however, have fit. This is because all were using the standard interpretation of “70 weeks” as a period of 70 sevens, which is assumed to be the literal meaning; in other words, a period of 490 years. No matter which starting point was picked, no computation could collate into a 490 year period any or all of the significant events mentioned. Indeed, the starting and exact stopping points of the 490 years were still a matter of conjecture.

   Moreover, Daniel 9 is full of significant events being mention as occurring at points in these elapsing “70 weeks,” such as Daniel 9: 25: “Know therefore and understand, that from the going forth of the commandment to restore and to build Jerusalem unto the Messiah the Prince shall be seven weeks, and threescore and two weeks: the street shall be built again, and the wall, even in troublous times.” Why the division of the weeks? Why not just say 69 weeks? Yet another: “After the 62 weeks the Messiah shall be cut off. . .” This appears to be the crucifixion, the generally accepted date for which is 30 AD. This is supposed to end the 69th week. Yet the end of the 70th week appears very clearly to be the destruction of the Temple, which is evident to anyone is not 7 years away but rather 40 years away from the crucifixion. Therefore the “Sevens” of Daniel 9 don’t appear to be speaking of a periods of 7 years. Seven years from 30 AD brings us to 37 AD, in which nothing significant happened at all.

   Some have also interpreted Daniel 9 27: “And he shall confirm the covenant with many for one week: and in the midst of the week he shall cause the sacrifice and the oblation to cease . . .” as referring to the crucifixion. That would make 30 AD mid week— 3.5 years short— of the full 490 year period of the 70 weeks. However, nothing happened in 33/34 AD, which would in this view be the end of the 70th week.

     What indeed is Daniel 9 talking about? 

   Daniel is clearly being given a cipher, not a prophecy per se. All ciphers are incomprehensible without the key. Yet the key was provided; and, remarkably, in a very blunt way: The beginning of Daniel 9 reads: “In the first year of his reign (of Darius the Mede) I Daniel understood by books the number of the years, whereof the word of the LORD came unto Jeremiah the prophet, that he would accomplish seventy years in the desolations of Jerusalem.”

   Note the language change from Jeremiah 25 to where Daniel is referring the reader: “desolations of Jerusalem.” Jeremiah (Jeremiah 25) had said in the first year of Nebuchadnezzar (606/605 BC), King of Babylon, 11: “And this whole land shall be a desolation, and an astonishment; and these nations shall serve the king of Babylon seventy years.” Daniel had perceived something else, for he said “desolations” in the plural. There was the key; that, and linking it to the 70 years mentioned by Jeremiah. Like any key, it appears at the beginning of the matter it interprets.

   A small point actually contributing to this major oversight must be clarified first. Most every scholar has assumed that 539 BC was the first year of Cyrus, King of Persia, as king of Babylon; and furthermore that it was therefore in this year that he ordered that the children of Israel may return and build the house of the LORD at Jerusalem, thus ending the desolation. If counting from the 1st year of Nebuchadnezzar in 606/605 BC, this is hardly 70 years. It is short at least 3 years. Therefore some have sought to calculate the 70 years as 606/605 to 536/535, when the foundation of the temple was re-laid. This, however, was not the prophecy. The prophecy was servitude to the king of Babylon 70 years.  The mistake was in assuming Cyrus’ first year was 539 BC. Yes, he took Babylonia in that year; but he appointed aged Darius the Mede as king of Babylon (possibly Cyaxares II). Daniel relates a number of separate visions that came to him in either in the 1st year of Cyrus or in the 1st year of Darius. This can’t be the same year. How can Daniel calculate both as having the same first year? He could not. Cyrus was king of Persia long before he conquered Babylon and gave it to Darius. The only way Daniel ever could have experienced the “1st year of Cyrus” as king of Babylon is that Darius the Mede, who was 62 years old when given the kingdom in 539 BC, must have died in a few years. At that point Cyrus must have dispensed with a nominal king-governor to occupy the throne for a transition period, and took the title of King of Babylon direct. This must have been 536-535 BC. This became the first year of Cyrus as King of Babylon. Traditionally it is ascribed to about 538 or 539 BC.

     We must remember that Daniel’s life was Babylon-centric.  He would not calculate according to Cyrus’ regnal years as king of Persia (beginning about 550 BC). It didn’t matter that Cyrus had been the overlord or “king of kings” before conquoring Babylon. Darius was the direct king-governor over Babylon. Cyrus’ years would not be recorded in Babylon until he took the title of king there, which he obviously didn’t do in the very beginning since that title was given to Darius. Cyrus had a wise habit of installing a ruler in an area where this person actually had the hereditary claims to rule. This was noted even in Judea where he had made one of the princes, the son of one of the last Judaean kings, the governor. Darius no doubt had an hereditary claim to the throne, and could make the transition much easier for Babylonians facing Persian rule; a wise system, often used by the Romans who employed “client kings” in provinces where they didn’t want to hassle with the local problems. It was enough for the Romans, as it was for the Persians, that the installed ruler kept the taxes coming and maintained the peace under their law.

   In the case of Darius, being 62 years old, he didn’t last long. Nor at that age would he have been disposed to rebel against Cyrus. A wise choice on Cyrus’ part. At his death, however, Cyrus must have dispensed with a puppet king. Regnal years were now locally calculated by Cyrus accession to the Babylonian throne. Thus the first year of Cyrus could have been some 3 regnal years after Babylon fell to his forces and was placed under Darius the Mede. It does depend on what calendar and system of reckoning was used by Daniel.

     There is not the need here to get specific as to precise Gregorian years, or argue about what type of calendar system Daniel might be referring to. Those who wish to can consult Jack Finegan’s Handbook of Biblical Chronology. We must continue with the cipher, which will make itself very plain in a moment.

   According to Josephus, at this time Daniel showed Cyrus the prophecies in Isaiah relating to him by name. It was at this point that Cyrus insisted that God’s house be built at Jerusalem. The Jews were thus released, and the captivity of 70 years of serving Babylon ended.

   This period of 70 years is generally understood by scholars. However, Daniel and the other prophets understood more. Let us now examine the key. It must be said first that such discoveries do not come by intense study. Such knowledge as this, though study you must, will only come when God is ready to reveal it.

The Key of Daniel 9

The 70 years above was a period of enslavement to the foreign king. However, there would also come a period of fasting from God; and a period of physical desolation upon the land. Daniel now understood the “desolations.” Indeed, the Temple was destroyed in 586 BC and its rebuilding not finished and dedicated until the 6th year of Darius the Persian in 516 BC = 70 years. Both Haggai and Zechariah give prophecies in the 2nd and 4th year of Darius, each referring to “these 70 years.” They are speaking about the time period coming soon to an end. Yet there is another; Jerusalem is still in desolation until the 20th year of Artaxerxes— 446/445 BC— when Nehemiah finishes the walls of Jerusalem. 516 BC to 446/445 BC is 70 years.

   There are thus three distinct periods of 70 years, each encompassing three very obvious states of desolation: physical captivity; spiritual famine and fasting (as the symbol of God’s presence is removed); and the physical desolation of the holy city, symbolizing as it does all Israel (which was ravaged as well during this time).

   This is the key that Daniel is giving as the interpretive factor to unlock the “70 weeks” that are to befall Israel in latter days. Later in Daniel 9 he declares the prophecy:

   Seventy weeks are determined upon thy people and upon thy holy city, to finish the transgression, and to make an end of sins, and to make reconciliation for iniquity, and to bring in everlasting righteousness, and to seal up the vision and prophecy, and to anoint the most Holy. 25: Know therefore and understand, that from the going forth of the commandment to restore and to build Jerusalem unto the Messiah the Prince shall be seven weeks, and threescore and two weeks: the street shall be built again, and the wall, even in troublous times. 26: And after threescore and two weeks shall Messiah be cut off, but not for himself: and the people of the prince that shall come shall destroy the city and the sanctuary; and the end thereof shall be with a flood, and unto the end of the war desolations are determined. 27: And he shall confirm the covenant with many for one week: and in the midst of the week he shall cause the sacrifice and the oblation to cease, and for the overspreading of abominations he shall make it desolate, even until the consummation, and that determined shall be poured upon the desolate.

LXX 24 Seventy weeks have been determined upon thy people, and upon the holy city, for sin to be ended, and to seal up transgressions, and to blot out the iniquities, and to make atonement for iniquities, and to bring in everlasting righteousness, and to seal the vision and the prophet, and to anoint the Most Holy. 25 And thou shalt know and understand, that from the going forth of the command for the answer and for the building of Jerusalem until Christ the prince there shall be seven weeks, and sixty-two weeks; and then the time shall return, and the street shall be built, and the wall, and the times shall be exhausted. 26 And after the sixty-two weeks, the anointed one shall be destroyed, and there is no judgment in him: and he shall destroy the city and the sanctuary with the prince that is coming: they shall be cut off with a flood, and to the end of the war which is rapidly completed he shall appoint the city to desolations. 27 And one week shall establish the covenant with many: and in the midst of the week my sacrifice and drink-offering shall be taken away: and on the temple shall be the abomination of desolations; and at the end of time an end shall be put to the desolation.

   Seventy weeks are determined for several distinct reasons: 1 the finish the transgression. 2 to make an end of sin. 3 make reconciliation for iniquity. 4 to bring in everlasting righteousness. 5 to seal up the vision and prophecy. 6 to anoint the most Holy.

   Secondly, there is a noticeable division of the “weeks.” There will be 7 sevens, and 62 sevens. It does not say 69 sevens. There is a reason why there is a division based on 49 years. The above key is, if you will, an overlay or template.

606/605 BC to 536/535 = 70 years
586 BC to 516 BC         = 70 years

Notice that there is an overlap of about 49/50 years (7 Sevens) of the first 70 years by the second period of 70 years. 586 BC (destruction of the temple) to 536 BC (freedom from captivity)  = 49/50 years.

   Depending on when the exact dates by month and day began and ended, the overlap conceivably is 49 years, or “7 sevens.” We can understand in this respect why 7 “weeks” are separated in the countdown from the 62 weeks. The three sets of 70 above appear to be the template upon which the expanded “70 weeks” are based, and there is clearly an overlap in which 49 years of one of the periods of 70 years is concurrent with another. 

   The period of time that these 3 sets of 70 years encompass is 160 years. They are divided as follows:


   As the graph shows, the period of the 49/50 year overlap is preceded by 20 years and followed by 20 years of non overlapping time.  The first 20 years (from 606/605/ BC) is part of the 70 years of physical captivity to Babylon. The second 20 year period following the overlap is concurrent with the 70 years that the temple area was in desolation (Mount Moriah) and therewith not an overlap. This 20 years (536 BC to 516 BC), however, is the span from the end of the captivity to the building of the temple. Therefore there are 3 sets of 70, one with a roughly 49/50 year overlap with another. The major 70, that one representing the loss of the Temple, is preceded by the 20 years of physical captivity, and from the time this physical captivity ended in Babylon (536 BC) to the Temple’s rebuilding is also 20 years.

   To reiterate: Notice in the 3 periods of 70 years above, which Daniel had understood, 2 periods actually overlap. The spiritual desolation from 586 to 516 overlaps the physical captivity of 606/605 to 536/535 by 49/50 years (depending on when Cyrus first year began 536/535). 49 years is actually 7 sevens. The clear notation in the beginning of Daniel 9 1: “In the first year of Darius the son of Ahasuerus, of the seed of the Medes, which was made king over the realm of the Chaldeans; 2: In the first year of his reign I Daniel understood by books the number of the years, whereof the word of the LORD came to Jeremiah the prophet, that he would accomplish seventy years in the desolations of Jerusalem.” He “understood by books” the desolations of 70 years on Jerusalem is clearly the cipher key to the expanded and futuristic 70 weeks.

   The confusing point here now is: are the “70 weeks” 70 sets of 7 (490 years) and do these “Sevens” overlap by 49 years at one point? Or, more probably, are they seven sets of 70? Part of the 70 weeks of Daniel seems to include Nehemiah’s rebuilding of the wall in 446/445 BC. 25: “Know therefore and understand, that from the going forth of the commandment to restore and to build Jerusalem unto the Messiah the Prince shall be seven weeks, and threescore and two weeks: the street shall be built again, and the wall, even in troublous times.”  This definitely does happen at the end of one of the periods of 70 years (516 BC to 446/445 BC)

   If we are to figure that 160 years is the period of 3 sets of seven can we find the map, so to speak? To be more explicit: we definitely have an overlay. But over what do we lay this to unlock the cipher? Do we find other periods of 70 years between key events in Jewish/Christian history after the time of Daniel? Periods of 160 years?

   We do indeed. The cleansing of the Temple occurred in 164 BC, after the desecration of it by Antiochus Epiphanes.  A period of three 70s, as found in the key, from that point (160 years) comes to 4 BC, the year it is agreed that Jesus Christ was born. 70 years later is 66 AD. In February of that year Eleazar ben Ananias, governor of the temple, gained the support of the younger priests and, against the urging of the elder priests, committed a ghastly abomination of desolation. In the middle of this 70, Jesus Christ was crucified in 30 AD.

   According to Daniel 12, from the time the abomination of desolation is set up until the end there will be 1335 days, or 3.5 years. Counting from 66 AD until the fall of Jerusalem there is indeed 1,290 days, the span of time from the abomination being set up and the destruction of the temple. Then about about 45 days later there was the final fall and burning of Jerusalem, making 1335 days. Daniel: “And from the time that the daily sacrifice shall be taken away, and the abomination that maketh desolate set up, there shall be a thousand two hundred and ninety days. 12: Blessed is he that waiteth, and cometh to the thousand three hundred and five and thirty days.” It is interesting to note that even Boethius in his De Hebdomadibus (5th century) considered this 3 and a half years to be an extension on the 70 weeks. He considered there to be a time of seventy and a half hebdomads (Ebdomadias is Greek for “seven,” as in a set of time). And, indeed, it does seem that the “70 weeks” ends in 66 AD, and the period of the abomination of desolation begins for 1335 days. Also, note that in some texts, it reads in Daniel 12 that the sacrifice was “changed” at the abomination of desolation, not “removed,” which is indeed what happened in 66 AD, when the Gentiles were excluded from the offering.

   Thus the period of Jesus Christ and the gospel going forth, confirming the covenant, was a period of 70 years. “He will confirm the covenant with many for one week.” The writings at Qumran show that many Jews were expecting a period of 40 years to precede the end of the age, considering that 40 years began it in the desert after leaving Egypt. From 30 AD to 70 AD is 40 years.

   Therefore from the cleansing of the Abomination of Desecration in 164 BC (Daniel 8) to the Abomination of Desolation in 66 AD, we have encountered 4 sets of 70. Can you name key events that happened within that span of three 70 year intervals from 164 BC to 4 BC?  And can you count from the beginning and start the 7 sets of 70? I will leave the reader to ponder the words of the LORD to Daniel in the vision and not to forget the burden of history.

   Let us touch on one point before concluding this first article on Daniel 9. There are many who think that Daniel was written in the Hasmonean Period and is pseudo-epigraphic, a book merely claiming to have been written by Daniel, who, in turn,  may very well have been fictitious. The ancients were known to do that, and to have a very sincere motive for pseudo-epigraphy. The name of the book often had a meaning to it, and it set the tenor for what was inside. If we are to accept this, we can assume that like with the Book of Enoch a school of prophets wrote the book. This changes nothing really. They must have seen the cipher in history, noticing that there were three clear sets of 70 years corresponding each with physical captivity, spiritual famine and desolation, and physical desolation of the land and cities. The whole period was 160 years of trial, confirmation and judgment. Whether Daniel wrote this, prophesying what was to come, or whether a school of prophets noticed a clear pattern in history, nothing changes. God tipped his hand intentionally, giving a pattern to key events. And the prophets knew how to expand this. It is part key, part overlay and part template. It is quite complex, and it is designed to be very difficult to unravel. It is the key to the coming of what Israel long waited for— the Messiah— an event which Israel has forgotten today why it waited so long. Israel does not even understand why it should need a redeemer. God tipped his hand for a purpose. It is time to pay attention and prepare.

Frequently Asked Questions (

יהוה אלוהי ,מגן על האנשים שלך, ומוסר את הנפש שלי ממוות

Ok, so perhaps Frequently Anticipated Questions on Nabion and Messianic Jewry.

   You’ve no doubt noticed that Nabion has no contact link. From the beginning (January 2006), it never did. This is an outlet for teaching, inspiration and prophecy. . . but of a Jewish sort. So let’s clarify some things here.

   Recently in browsing the web, we’ve come across grotesque imitations of Messianic Jewry, horrendous and even libelous comments about others. Some sites have leaders who claim some edge with “Yeshua (Jesus)” and that they are the true, pure movement, with connections all the way straight back to Jesus. Obviously, it’s a jungle out there. Although Nabion has no connection with any congregation or group, it nevertheless has obligations to help steer people away from this. We are aware that our page “What is a Messianic Jew?” is one of the top ranked.

       Now, let’s get to Nabion

What is Nabion’s affiliation?

   None. Nabion is totally separate. It has no affiliation with any Christian church, denomination or group. Nor does it have any affiliation with any Jewish group. It cannot receive or broker donations of any kind. Nabion is both a teaching and prophetic outlet. Its mission is to convey to the Hebrew or proselyte that Jesus is the Messiah— God with us. Its mission is also to stop the gentilizing of Jews and to bring them out from scattering back to genuine Messianic synagogues or to the establishing of new synagogues totally independent of any Christian denomination or influence. No Jew is encouraged to leave an established genuine synagogue unless asked to go.

Is this an anti-missionary site?

   No. This is a Jewish site. It is just that 2000 years of history has wiped out the origin of the Nazarene movement, thanks largely to Catholicism destroying it in Syria. The movement lasted for hundreds of years. Non-Jews have little understanding of this, and are frequently trying to convert Jews. What the conversion amounts to is a conversion to Non-Jewish traditions, not genuine Christianity which was the flowing on Biblical Judaism. God does not preach customs and culture. (See Men & Brethren). God said he would come forth from his holy habitation and dwell amongst us. This is not referring to the rebuilding of the temple. The temple was standing during the prophecy. He who can never be seen as he is said he would come forth and dwell with us. “Behold, he is coming, saith the LORD.” This is Jesus, the very living temple of God.

Are you Judaizing?

   No. Judaizing requires that to inherit the Resurrection one must become a Jew. This is neither Jewish (even Orthodox) teaching, and has no basis in scripture. Some “redneck” Jews might have proffered that and this was recorded in the New Testament. But that is not reflective of proper Jewish teaching. Contrariwise, to Gentilize a Jew is not “grace;” it is customs and works. To teach a non-Jew of God’s covenant, rightly kept, is not Judaizing or works. It is the heritage of the Hebrews handed down to them by God.

   Salvation is not in view. This is a problem with non-Jewish Christian denominations. They are so saturated in passé Gnosticism and anti-Gnosticism that they have it ingrained that salvation is obtained (or reflected) by perfect doctrines and theories. When they become confronted by different customs, cultures, and theories they either judge the other person holding these as “unsaved” or fear for their own salvation. Not so. Too judgmental. The laws and words of God tell us when a church or synagogue has become wholly corrupt. If one loves God and believes that he has walked among us, that Jesus is, as Moses worded it ‘God standing upon the earth,’ they will go out and live his decent, godly life, and they shall inherit the Resurrection. Well, if you have a few quirky ideas and you can’t fully understand it all, that does not matter to the soul. God does not judge you by your level of knowledge. If he did, we’re all in trouble.

How can this site be called Jewish, in that you believe that Jesus is “God with us”?

   Just like in the above answer, there were and are unlearned Jews who do not know the scriptures. They comprise the vast element called “Club Jew” that basically think Judaism is as they wish to proffer it at any time. There is one site that despite its title of “realjewsforjesus” is an anti-missionary site. The author of the site, aside from frequently revealing he knows very little scripture and often reflects no solid evidence of knowledge in Judaism, uses some very peculiar, if not simple arguments. Such as:

1. God is not a man

   Quite correct. He is also not a bush. He is not a temple. Nor mortar, stone and wood out of which a temple is built. Yet his Spirit spoke from a bush. He also declared he would place his Spirit at the Temple. Yet God fills heaven and earth. He cannot be limited. He cannot be seen as he is. Even the angels have not seen him. Yet Moses declared he would see God with his own eyes; that his redeemer was alive and yet would stand on the earth at the latter day. Moses’ Song of Departure places God on earth lifting his hand to heaven. The son born to us in Isaiah would be called “the Mighty God.” Abraham saw  3 men, and one he called God.

   We are flesh. Into us God breathed his spirit, and Adam, that shell made from the dust, lived. We are men. The body came first, and the soul brought it to life. But for God who is spirit and cannot be seen as he is, well, to make himself a body– well, that is very simple. We are flesh first into which God breathed his Spirit. God coming to dwell amongst us in a body would obviously not be the same thing. His Spirit came first! Then the tabernacle was created. Inseparable– a body and yet not man as we are. Jesus’ spirit is not a separate, man’s spirit. His Spirit is God’s own holy spirit. Incomprehensible. A mind and soul that is not man’s; yet dwelling in a body. A mind and soul not a Temple, yet dwelling in an inner sanctum. A mind and soul filling heaven and earth; and yet not limited to heaven and earth.

   Pagans, all being sons of Noah, preserved a memory of the great Deus Pater– Father of Heaven– of Proto-Indo-European language. He was the sole God. Ancient man was monotheistic until he delved more into his own pagan ideas. God was warped into many idols and representations of Deus Pater– Jupiter, Zeus, Div, Tues, Ammon, the formless one. But because God revealed himself to Abraham Jews had not lost the memory that the living God was being recalled in God or Father of Heaven. By the time of Cyrus, Dyaus Pita was only one among other gods. As his name meant “Father of Heaven,” he became only one god maintaining his territory of Heaven. Thus when Cyrus declared that the “God of Heaven” has commanded him to build him a temple in Jerusalem, he believed he was re-erecting a fallen temple to one of the gods in the pantheon.

   Pagans twisted God, even his name, falling into ignorance and forsaking the heritage given them by their father Noah. Did they also twist the instinct God placed in us that he would walk among us? It is not overtly stated to Moses that “that prophet” would be God with us. . . but he understood it nonetheless, either by inflection or repetition. By God declaring at Horeb he would not speak directly except through “that prophet” to come, Moses’ song placed God on earth, and his book of Job declared that he would see God on earth. He understood that no man as we are will be able to speak directly for God. Pagans may have warped God’s plan into many gods taking form and incubi. But it does not stem from pagans.

   We can never see God as he is. The angels can never see God as he is. Yet even the man of God said he would see God upon the earth, and Abraham called “a man” God. God is not a man. Man is what his spirit is. God is what His Spirit is. God can easily fashion himself a body. He made a beautiful creation in human kind. Only man has warped and degraded it. Not God. He has done it honour by knowing he must be seen of us. We must have some point of contact with him. He has walked among us. When you see Jesus one day, you will know the difference. You will not be seeing a man. You will know you are seeing Emmanuel.

   Think about this: ancient Jews awaited the coming of the “Son of Man” of the Book of Enoch, he who went with God and with whom righteousness dwelt. He existed before the world was. Even before human kind was created in bodily form, this was the pattern God used amongst the angels. Even knowing that God is not man, they believed and understood the Book of Enoch’s statements.

2. The Messiah must come from the male heritage.

   Nowhere is that stipulated. The prophecy is for a virgin of the House of David to conceive. The anti-missionary site proffers 2 Samuel 7, 12-13, though that is not discussing a male lineage.

   The author of  the deceptive “real Jews for Jesus” also states: “There are a number of other Messianic prophecies that Jesus did not fulfill. Here are just a few: World Peace did not come at the time of Jesus (Isaiah 2:1–4), the entire world did not acknowledge G-d as the one true G-d (Zechariah 14:9), the Holy Temple was not rebuilt (Ezekiel 37: 26–28) and Jesus did not gather the Jewish people from all of the earth to land of Israel (Isaiah 11:10–12). There are many other Messianic prophecies that Jesus did not fulfill, the above were just a few of the major failures.”

   Zechariah 14 is not even speaking about the coming of the Messiah. Nor does Isaiah 2, 1-4; Isaiah 11 speaks of a remnant, not all Jews. The same as in Isaiah 49. As in Isaiah 11, the Gentiles will seek him, which they certainly did Jesus. Ezekiel 37, 26-28 also has nothing to do with the coming Messiah. The prophecies in Malachi make it clear the temple is already standing when the Messiah appears.

   This author, by his often dogmatic, terse, and unsupported assertions, reveals that perhaps he hung around a couple of Christians who don’t know scripture that well, or he uses his own exegetical straw man arguments. There is some doubt by his manner that he is even an educated Jew.

Is the Book of Ben Kathryn an additional book to the Bible? Are you his disciples?

   John ben Kathryn is forbidden disciples and, frankly, doesn’t care for any. He is allowed one permanent assistant (an “Elisha”) if needed. Jewish prophets eventually record or are told to write down the prophetic utterances. In that sense the “book” of John ben Kathryn is called a book, as Isaiah or Jeremiah. It is meant to be understood with, and indeed cannot be understood without, the entire corpus of prophetic books. It is not a handbook of a sect, a group, a cult, or any such thing. Jews really aren’t subject to much of that. You have to read it to understand its language. Accepting or rejecting a book in a corpus of others doesn’t really alter its content. The Book of Enoch has long fallen into disuse. . . but it was the most popular book at the time of Christ. Many of his sayings use it as an illustrative backdrop. The entire “Son of Man” analogy comes from Enoch.  Enoch should become mandatory reading for this purpose alone. . . though every word is not inspired.

   If what the book of ben Kathryn declares comes to past, Jews will have no option but to add it to the corpus of prophetic books. That will be a long day off, one which no one here will see. There will no doubt be other prophets to come and other “books” to study, as the Third Temple Age dawns, that will form a body that warns and guides and yet speaks the same as the compiled classical prophets. That is the wonderful mystery of the Spirit of God: how his spirit speaks through his prophets for the times present and yet it guides through the future times to come, and yet in retrospect true prophets have all said the same thing.

   Non Jews are subject to cults where their followers get new knowledge and means of attaining righteousness. A true prophet of God, to use a modern analogy from popular culture, is more like a Jedi Knight. They serve God and are usually rogues. John ben Kathryn can preach, teach, appoint and anoint, hire and fire, he can judge in matters spiritual and amongst the prophets . . .but he may not exercise political authority, civil judgment and administration. He cannot broker donations, earn wages as a prophet or convey or re-convey money. He may not be dependent on another person in such matters.

   The reasons for this are very simple: God requires the heart in all who come to him. If a prophet had the ability to set up a theocracy, the appearance of society would only be a veneer. Thus God’s prophets tell people what is right. God’s spirit goes about to see if the people hearken unto his words to do them from a right heart.  But if prophets could command, the heart of the people would not be changed. It would be caged behind deceit and compulsion. Moses could command because God gave him laws and provisions for a society to thrive by. David could be king, but still not break the laws of God. Samuel could judge the people, but he could not dictate to them. They refused to keep to the laws and words of God and became a gross society in which a man could divide a woman into 12 pieces and parcel post her around Israel. Everybody did what was right in their own eyes. God told Samuel they have not rejected Samuel, but they have rejected God. For this let them have a king . . .but God warned a king would have his way. He will stop all the extreme lawlessness . . .but in the long run he will get his way over the people. The complete solution was to hearken to God’s laws . . .but they would not. They preferred a king to enforce the appearance of righteousness. Man chose Saul . . .God would choose David.

   So you see why God limits a true prophet’s power. God is forever testing man. Will they listen or will they not? A prophet may call people “sons of snakes” for not listening, but he cannot force them to shed their skin.

   God knows people don’t know and cannot comprehend all things. Therefore he does not judge by your knowledge. But you know what is right. He will judge you as you have judged others. You have no excuse there. You can’t say to that: “I didn’t know how I treated others.”

Are you Ephraimites, Sacred Name, Two House people? Are you Kairites or messing with barley and the lunar calendar?

   Frankly, Nabion doesn’t even know what that is. We have enough problems with some Lubevitcher praying to a dead Brooklyn rabbi. If these are some Heilige rölleren cult, they can stay far from us.

What or Who is a Messianic Jew?

   I cannot answer for others, but I can answer for Nabion. A Messianic Jew is a Hebrew who believes and understands that Jesus is the one prophesied from Moses onward, who was to come to us to redeem us. The term Nazarene is preferred here, a sect of the Hebrew people that believe.

   There are those who would consider this exclusive, while there are others who would consider this far too inclusive. Thus we must delve into the controversies. Since you’ve found this page you are no doubt inquiring into “the movement.” And if into the movement, then you’ve heard about the controversies. The most fundamental one is: “Who?”

   The question is necessary, and not just for any shallow or snobby reason. Dozens of so-called “Messianic synagogues” or “congregations” exist where the majority are Gentiles practicing some form of modern day jive Christianity called Pentecostalism. They preach “Jewishness,” talk Yeshua, sell Yeshua, speak of “David’s greatest son” and preach and make as a condition for acceptance into their groups “the love of the Jewish people” and the “nation of Israel”– something that not only drives mainstream Jews crazy but it is clearly not the good news of redemption. They are, in essence, Baptist and Charismatic movements trying to attract Jews entering Messianism while at the same time supposedly “teaching Christians the roots of their faith.” However, the upshot is a massive Yiddish proverb: Az mir lotz a khazer aruf ahfen bank vil er ahfen tish.

   —Meaning they have proliferated until there could be hundreds of offshoots of these “Messianic Congregations.” To the unschooled these could appear to be the whole movement. Even more, thousands of Gentiles involved therewith think they are the true Israel and the true Jews. It is estimated by some that they may make up to 80% of overall “Messianism.” Jews are confused. . . .and Israel is scared.

     The facts are that these “Messianic Congregations” are almost entirely made up of non-Jews, run by non-Jews, and their theology is even more non-Jewish. It is impossible to consider these “Messianic Jews.” Some simply prefer to call them “Messianics.” It is fairly easy to understand that to be a Jew is more than a few outside rituals with which these Pentecostals and Baptists robe themselves to impress upon themselves that they are learning the “Jewish roots” of their faith.

     Quite frequently “Messianics” are reminded of this by members of real Messianic Synagogues, that is to say, synagogues run by Hebrews along lines very similar to Conservative Judaism. Many central figures and leaders are of the first aliyah (1967), those who were raised in synagogues, had bar mitzvas, and later believed in Jesus as the Messiah. Their childhood was unquestionably Jewish. Although these synagogues don’t number anywhere near the “Messianic Congregations,” they are central in Messianic Jewish leadership, thought and association councils.

     The designation of Messianic Jew, however, is far from settled. Many “Messianic Jews” subclass Hebrews worshiping in churches as less than Jewish. They are merely “Hebrew-Christians.” Many Hebrews who are worshiping in churches have no access to these Messianic Jews and their congregations. Therefore it is impossible to worship in those synagogues, and personally they may not want to worship there even if they could as they might not agree with all the doctrines either. Many, if not more, are completely unaffiliated, worshiping on their own and only on major occasions attending a traditional synagogue. But they believe Jesus is the Messiah.

   Needless to say a lot of Jews don’t like being classed at all, by anybody!

     On the surface, the problems seem to stem from every facet of “The Movement”— Messianic Jewish and just Messianics— and its overriding attempt to be Jewish and prove itself Jewish by the reigning Rabbinic standard of today. This standard declares Jewish to be a religion and not an ethnic people. Thus some elements of “The Movement” can drop Hebrews but some elements can tell observant Gentiles that they don’t have to convert all the way. That seems confusing. They end up relegated to the back pews. If Jew is a religion, then why don’t Gentiles have to convert all the way? If then Jew is a people, Hebrews can’t be dropped because they haven’t joined the same Club.

   In Rabbinic Judaism it’s not a big deal for proselytes to be told they don’t have to convert. In fact, it is standard procedure. But in Rabbinic Judaism Gentiles also don’t read Romans by Paul of Tarsus. Thus they don’t think themselves the “true Israel” merely by believing in Jesus. When Messianic Jewry refuses to accept their interpretation of the Missionary from Tarsus, Gentiles label them “separatists” and Judaisers. There is enough confusing in Rabbinic Judaism because of the mix and match mentality of Jew is a religion but it’s also someone born of Jewish parents or just a Jewish mother. (So even there a convert has to maintain himself uprightly to remain a Jew, but the slob Shabbes Goy is a Jew automatically . . . because, basically, he’s a Hebrew.) But add together the volatile combinations of both Jews and Gentiles believing in Jesus— two very separate cultures— and religion and culture alternately blur and combat.

   The first question this engenders is:  How congregational does a Jew have to be to qualify? The initial answer is easy. God’s relationship with an individual, whether Jew or non-Jew, is a personal one. It is not granted by an organization; nor does any congregation have a concession on it. God has placed a restriction on Hebrews leaving the covenant, but he does not require a certain amount of synagogue attendance, peer-pressure compliance, or a particular type of synagogue. This restriction is a spiritual one. We are not to go after other gods, nor forsake the covenant and our love for him.

   Biblically, Jew and Hebrew were the same thing, an ethnic people, an extended family descended from the same three patriarchs. Israel was the northern kingdom, Judah the southern kingdom. Both were Hebrews. The southern survived and Jew became synonymous with Hebrew. Thus it was always understood that Jew was an ethnicity. It was also easy to understand that one didn’t need to be a Hebrew (Jew) to “worship in the manner of the Jew’s religion.” Anybody could worship God.

   But it was not good practice to simply imitate a Jew. Too many Jews weren’t so clever about proper worship. Laws attempted to correct ignorance. Sacrifices could only be made at the Temple, otherwise all these ignuts would be sacrificing to devils out in their fields. We even raised altars to Baal, thinking he was the same thing as God. Prophets were raised up to chastise the people. If Jew was just a religion then, what’s the point? God destroyed the Kingdom of Israel because of their idolatry and wickedness. What was the point? If Jew was just a religion, these Jews chose another religion and bolted. But God didn’t let them go. He swore a covenant to the seed of Jacob. We were to remain faithful. God even swore he’d delight in destroying us if we forsook him. God’s point of view is that we are a people. We may screw a lot of minutiae up, but so long as we don’t forsake him for another god and deny the covenant, he is patient and tolerant of our shortcomings. No Jew is cut off.

   Therefore Nabion’s opinion is the same: Jew is a people, an extended family, no matter what.

   The major problem with the Messianic Movement is its political goal. This side of it is a movement to be Jewish while at the same time retaining Jesus as the Messiah. This is the corporate goal. Those involved should not be condemned. The political need to create a corporate shield is necessary. They have made some hard decisions and have taken ridicule from the churches. They have done nothing wrong in this. What they have done is not contradictory or at odds. After all, knowledge of the Messiah is contained in the scriptures given via our prophets, of which we are the custodians. Indeed, part of the reason Jews were set apart was to be custodians and conduits of such information. These Jews believe Jesus is the Messiah, and they will not relinquish being Jewish. There is no need for a Jew to divorce himself from his people.

     But there must be a spiritual goal to the movement as well. It cannot simply be a Judaism that adds Jesus and then apes Rabbinic Judaism, which is itself only the evolved sect of the one sect that survived the shoah of 70 AD. It must become Judaism perfected, and thus the apex of God’s intentions. Rabbinic Judaism became the biggest Club Jew in history. Messianic Judaism cannot become but a baby brother.

     None of the Hebrews worshiping in churches have forsaken their God or the covenant. Biblically, they are still Jewish, for Jew was a people, from Judah, synonymous with Israel, synonymous with Hebrews. . . .we already had the spiel. Maybe they’re not a member of someone’s particular “Club Jew,” but they are the Jewish people. Moreover, there are those silent thousands of Jews on the sideline who avoid the Messianic Movement intentionally, including this author. They worship on their own or in traditional synagogues. But they watch and they wait. They prefer to avoid so much of the controversy and sectarian Christian ideology that saturates even mainline Messianic Jewish outlook. But they are Jews and they are Messianic Jews.

     This is where much of the controversy really comes in. Is this ultimately a movement for Jews to believe in Jesus and remain Jewish or a movement of Jews who believe in Jesus to remain Jewish? There is a huge difference between the two not easy to dismiss. The latter one is purely cultural/political. Many of these political members who have subclassed Hebrews worshiping in churches as beneath “Jewish” are themselves spiritually more like Baptists and Assembly of God in their theological outlooks.

     Therein lies the notorious problems in mainline Messianic Judaism. Elements have funneled into it straight from Conservative and Reform Judaism, secularism, and Hebrews from within various Christian Church denominations— and Christian denominations cover a wide spectrum of views on eschatology, doctrines, legalism and liberalism. Now imagine a roomful of temper-ridden Hebrews with this kind of disparity in their backgrounds. Thus the famous contentions in the movement. Ideologies of many denominations and two religions butt heads.

   A political agenda will never heal this. Only a spiritual agenda will. We come down to the Biblical standards. The standard was not how to be Jewish— that was established and assumed by birth— the instructions were in how to walk righteously. Is that not more important? And does that not include all peoples? Jew and Gentile can worship the same way and still be Jew and Gentile.

   Thus the political guides of Messianic Jewry are perfectly correct. One does not have to leave Jewry to believe in Jesus. But one of the most illegitimate aspects of Rabbinic Jewry to absorb is its mindset that “Jew” as a religion. In subclassing Hebrews who go to church as “Hebrew Christians,” Messianic Judaism alienated many Hebrews who now view their synagogues as legalistic.

     Mainliners have also opened itself up to problems in classifying Gentiles who keep Torah. Some of these have taken on the complete habit and outlook of a Jew, in practice and ethnic association. There are factions (Messianic coalitions) that allow these to be considered Messianic Jews. But not all of them. Mainstream Judaism doesn’t accept it. Some Messianic Jewish synagogues discourage it. Many, many Messianic Jews who remain unaffiliated or attend traditional synagogues think it a joke. To add injury to insult we come back to the fact that some of these Messianic associations who do accept “converts” are saturated by sectarian Christian ideology (some doctrines of which  even other Christian denominations don’t accept). Thus they convert one to their brand of “Jew,” but what’s it worth? How can this kind of “Jew” be taken seriously?

     Many Gentiles of this sort are seeing problems in the overall “movement.” Biblically, Gentiles who have turned to God are also forbidden to forsake him, or judgment will come upon them. . . .But that has nothing to due with cutting and running from a movement if they see problems. Thus many have left. They remains genuine worshipers “after the manner of the Jews’ religion” but sometimes from afar.

     Who indeed is a Jew? In the end the only answer is the Biblical answer— it is a people; it is the extended family of Abraham, Isaac and Jacob. The restriction is that the Hebrew is not to forsake God and the covenant. Therefore in this instance the Jewish believer is not to leave his people and become absorbed spiritually or physically.

     With this criterion in place, it is inappropriate for some mainline Messianic Jews and Messianics to pass judgment on Hebrews for worshiping in churches when they themselves hold theologies that qualify as nothing more than sectarian Christian views. If to be a Messianic Jew requires one to make a physical aliyah from churches, Messianic Jewry best start making spiritual aliyahs from some of its questionable Christian doctrines. Until that time it is inappropriate to pass judgment on other Hebrews for not making physical aliyah from the churches to the movement.

     Bad points don’t need to be coddled any longer. Trinity is a case in point. The only way to reach our own brethren is in the truth of Scripture, where time and time again God’s prophets impress upon us that he will walk amongst us. “Father, Son & Holy Ghost” is a Greek concept. See Arguments against Trinity

     Christianity has its good points and its bad points, just as Maimonides pointed out (See Men & Brethren); but some elements of Messianic Jewry have dropped good points and instituted bad points. Examples include the humanizing of “Yeshua” to make him sound like a Jewish guru. Many mainstream Jews will accept this as fine “like he was a Baal Shem Tov.” But is that what scripture says? The good points don’t need to be sacrificed in an attempt to prove Jewishness according to the current status quo. Biblically, a divine messiah was proclaimed in blunt language. (Messianic Prophecies)

     Rabbinic Jewry is a Jewry of followers, a tailored sect that survived others after the destruction of the Second Temple period. What is the goal of Messianic Jewry? Is it to ape one sect that survived an ancient shoah? Is a successful movement one of followers or one of princes? Leaders must guide Jewry to perfection, for one day Messianic Jewry will be a Judaism of followers and the Judaism. This will not happen if leaders lead it into past nitpicking points of Judaism or bad points of Christianity.

   The “Club Jew” mentality has been the most destructive thing Jewry has ever faced because it leads to assimilation, an annihilation, bit-by-bit, of Jews. Instead of dropping Hebrews, Messianic Jewry has to pick them up. . . and it will take the young with the vision to do so. The spiritual aspect of Messianic Jewry isn’t organized. But it is on the sideline of the political movement. The younger watch, and they wait. The two will merge, of that I have no doubt, and the younger will lead the way spiritually.

     Sectarian Christian theology is the uppermost reason why “Messianics” and Messianic Jews or Nazarene Judaism are on the surface confused as the same thing. Therefore it is best that Messianic Jews — Hebrews (and genuine proselytes) — make distinct spiritual aliyahs. Rabbinic Jews must make them, too, and realize the Messiah has come. The two can meet where only truth comes from: the words of God.  The call of Elijah, as it is called, “to turn the hearts of the sons to the fathers” is being made on this site. Rabbinic Jews who become Nazarene might prefer Messianic synagogues that are more traditional. Beth HaDerech in Toronto appears to have a  strongly Jewish sectarian view of Nazarene Judaism and might be a preferable step for direction. It also might be best to remain in a regular synagogue unless thrown out.

   As the house of the prophets, Nabion is completely unaffiliated. The duty here is to declare the words of the LORD. To do so is to preach Jesus from the scriptures, not from Greek rationalizing. The “Mighty God” of Isaiah 9 shall be declared. Whether you are in a traditional synagogue, Messianic, Reform, or on your own trying to live peaceably and stay away from the sectarianism, you are a Jew. Nabion remains distinct and separate from all minim. It teaches of scripture, not sectarianism. If anything can bring unity, it is the teaching and proclaiming of the words of God. . . and that is what the prophets are for.

   Thus browse the site and study scripture. Start with the heart. Pray deeply unto God for knowledge. Read the Scriptures, dwell on them and learn them and see the example of God speaking to us clearly of his purpose. Believe, finally, that he has come. Go, finally, and teach the nations. Do judgment and administer with mercy. Remove the yoke and declare ye the word of the LORD by his doings. Then the hope of Maimonides is fulfilled. Jew and Gentile will adhere to true teaching and see God clearly.

Distances in the Book of Mormon. Is a Fully Limited Mesoamerican Model Really Reasonable?

Comparison of North America to Bible lands, including all the far off places mentioned in the Bible. The 2 Cumorah Theory is an unneeded distraction which minimizes Native American ancient culture, trade, technology & connectivity.

Introduction & Outline

Much like Israel in the Bible, it is certain from the number of days travel stated in the Book of Mormon text that the distances between primary lands in the text such as the Land of Zarahemla and the Land Northward are regionally limited. The 21 days journey between the two afore mentioned lands for instance, virtually assures an area of between 150 and 250 miles.

However, to suggest as many have that the text never once mentions a region, journey, travel or war exceeding 500 miles stretches the text, and logic, to its limits when compared with what is known of ancient pre-Columbian cultures, old world cultures & the bible, ancient Mesoamerican trade, warfare, exploration and human nature.

Indeed imagine an ignorant translator of the ancient bible text who suggested that the book never gave a single mention of Rome (1500 miles from Israel), or Ethiopia (=Cush, 1200 miles from Israel), or Babylon (700 miles from Israel), or Punt (=Somalia, ~2000 miles from Israel), or India (2000 miles from Israel) or ANY location outside of the immediate bounds of Canaan. Only because of our knowledge of ancient language do we know that ALL of these regions are mentioned in the bible–and many are intricately connected to the history of the tiny nation of Israel. Yet this scenario is what many proponents of the Limited Mesoamerican propose of the Book of Mormon text when they propose the Book of Mormon ‘Cumorah‘ or land Northward, or ‘land of many waters, rivers, and fountains‘, existed in Mesoamerica instead of matching these locations to their more intuitive North American counterparts.

In this article we will explore whether a limited Mesoamerican model for the Book of Mormon is really reasonable. Or whether a more expanded model is more reasonable. In order to analyze this we will use the following data points.

  1. War Campaigns and travel in the Bible and Old World.
  2. Known trade networks among Mesoamerican and North American peoples.
  3. Clues from early Spanish explorers & Mesoamerican histories (images of Ixtlilxochitl AND the early Spanish explorer images)
  4. Book of Mormon textual clues to the extent of the Land Northward.
  5. Archaeological evidence of Final Book of Mormon exodus.

Warfare and Travel in the Old World as a Book of Mormon Analog

One widely believed, but poorly thought out reason why two-Cumorah, limited Mesoamerican model proponents hold to their view is their false belief that that the logistics of the final exodus of Nephites & Lamanites to the final battle in the land of Cumorah is just too much for ancient New World people’s to accomplish. This view however is rooted in a poor understanding of history combined with a false colonialist mindset toward the sophistication of pre-Columbian peoples.

Indeed histories of Mesoamerican people’s give comparative numbers when talking about battle casualties. Ixtlilchochitle for instance tells of xxx battles with casualties of xxxxx. The possible truth of these numbers should not be surprising when comparing the size and complexity of ancient Mexican Highland ruins like Teotihuacan, Cholula & Tikal with Eurasian analogs or even the conquest era city of Tenochtitlan. The battle of Tenochtitlan between the Aztec and Cortez with his native allies numbered 200,000 against some 80,000 Aztec. In fact these numbers could be quite anagalous to those we might suspect in the final battle, where Mormon numbers his remaining spent force of men, women and children at 230,000 (Mormon 6:7,10–15) against what we’d suppose as a well trained Lamanite army of braves who “filled [the Nephites] with terror because of the greatness of their numbers” (Mormon 6:8). Given the previous numbers offered for the Lamanite forces of 30k and 40k (Mormon 2:9,25), 80k might not be far off. (although as we’ll see in a moment, it could be as little as 10-30k given the analogs we’ll discuss)

(add ixtlitchochitl quote of how they killed everyone to the death)

Illustration of some analogous battles in the Old Word wherein armies marched and sailed long distances to battles involving huge numbers.

Early Egyptian War Campaigns
As early as 1900 BC, Pharaohs’ like Senusret I & III were leading war campaigns THOUSANDS of miles into Nubia & Russia. Both Herodotus & Diodorus relate how Sesostris (Senusret III) “set out with ships of war from the Arabian gulf (Red Sea) and subdued those who dwelt by the shores of the Erythraian Sea (Gulf of Aden), until as he sailed he came to a sea which could no further be navigated by reason of shoals.” He then returned and “took a great army and marched over the continent, subduing every nation… traversing the continent, until at last he passed over to Europe from Asia and subdued the Scythians and also the Thracians” during which he colonizes the farthest reaches of the Black Sea to the River Phasis in Colchis or modern Russia/Georgia/Armenia (Histories, Book 2, 102-108).

Herodotus also relates how Senusret was one of the only pharaohs to subdue all the Ethiopians, and we can assume from the sea campaign mentioned above that he attacked not only from the Nile, but from the coasts of Somalia, some 2000 miles from Egypt. Likewise, we are told he was the first prior to Darius to subdue the Scythians (Steppe peoples of Georgia/Russia), again some 2000 nautical miles from Egypt! He says of those he conquered that he, “employed the multitude which he had brought in of those whose lands he had subdued, as follows—these were they who drew the stones which in the reign of this king were brought to the temple of Hephaistos, being of very great size; and also these were compelled to dig all the channels which now are in Egypt.” (Histories, Book 2, 102-108).

Alexander The Great
Perhaps the most famous long-distance overland conqueror was Alexander the Great. He marched an army of about 40,000 men (with as large as 120k with local conscripts) on campaigns totaling as much as 22,000 miles over a period of 12 years. Four ancient authors state that in the Battle of Gaugamela alone, Alexander defeated 1 MILLION Persians. (A single Roman author puts it at 245,000), with only 40,000 infantry & 7,000 cavalry of his own. Alexander is spoken of in many ancient texts, but many don’t realize that the core of his army was quite small and included mostly infantry. Many also don’t realize that Alexander simply mimicked the exploits of Darius the Great who lived two centuries earlier.

Darius The Great
Although less, famous, but perhaps a much better analog to Book of Mormon Darius conquered much of the known world between 522 & 513 BC. Darius the Great of the Persian (Achaemenid) Empire traversed and conquered almost the exact same route as Alexander the Great, including both Egypt and the Indus Valley of India. He led campaigns from Ecbatana Iran, 1200 miles to Egypt, 2600 miles back and over to the Indus Valley and then back and around the north side of the Black sea in a Scythian campaign of over 4000 miles. Herodotus puts his elite infantry of “immortals” foot solders at 10,000 men, with up to 80,000 conscripts in certain campaigns.

Darius’ successor Xerxes I assembled one of the largest ancient forces ever for his invasion of Greece. Herodotus placed the Persian combined forces at 5,283,220, Simonides said 4 million and Ctesias gives 800,000 troops –although modern estimates suggest between 300,000 & 500,000. The logistics of transporting such a huge force and their supplies from Iran & Turkey, across rivers and the Dardanelles or ‘Hellespont’ straights and into Greece was detailed by several ancient authors and may serve as the best source material for exploring the possible reality or hyperbole involved in the story of Nephite final destruction. In a single year, using 600-1200 ships for support & supplies, Xerxes army started in his capital of Persepolis Iran, likely starting with a small elite force of generals and gaining numbers as it went. To reach the Dardanelles (Constantinople) would have been 2000 miles! (With at least 2 stretches of over 150 miles not accessible by boat). Herodotus tells us that most his troops came from central Turkey, and begins the detailed portion of his account at the Dardanelles. He also gives us a time estimate for the section from Hellespont/Dardanelles to Therme of taking about 3 months to travel the 360 miles, so we can assume that the larger the army grew, the slower the progress. Read about the entire campaign on wikipedia here.

The Boudican Revolt
In the Boudican Revolt of 60 AD in Britain, a Roman army of only 10,000 well trained troops defeated a force of 230,000 Britains (killing over 80,000 of them before they surrendered). The legions came from as far away as Croatia, 3,400 nautical miles away. This is a great example of how a well trained army can dominate against a peasant army of men women and children. Much like the Book of Mormon final battle with suggests a number of 230,000 men, women and children against an unknown host of Lamanites.

Similarly, in the Jewish/Roman wars of 70 AD, 60,000 Roman troops led by Titus are claimed by Josephus to have annihilated as many as 1 MILLION Jews in Jerusalem. (Might have been more like 350,000 in entire Jewish War according to modern estimates–which have trouble believing the numbers of ancient historians).

The Mongol Siege of Bagdad & Western Xia Massacre
The Mongol general Subedei travelled over 8,000 miles into Russia in a single Campaign. In all Mongols campaigned as many as a 100,000+ total miles. (Conscripting hundreds of thousands of troops along the way.)
In one battle in China, Genghis killed 300,000 Western Xia Tungut infantry in addition to annihilating the entire Chinese state (and likely millions of inhabitants), and then continuing over the next 3 decades to conquer 2000 miles to Dali & Chongquing, as well as another 3000 miles to Thang Long, Vietnam.

The Mongol siege of Bagdad could be a somewhat analogous historical account of a massacre the size of that mentioned in the Book of Mormon. In that campaign, the Mongols led by Hulagu Khan expanded their territory first 3,000 miles from Mongolia into Azerbaijan where they set up new northern Persian capitals from which to attack Mesopotamia. This would be somewhat similar to what I’ve proposed with the Lamanites setting up a base in the Southwest or Midwest after conquering the Land of Jordan. The 13th century Ilkhanate then marched 500 miles onto Bagdad with a force of 40,000 Mongol Calvary, 40,000 Armenian infantry and 10,000-50,000 Persian & Georgian infantry conscripts. The siege lasted only 13 days with the Mongols largely depopulating the city massacring between 90,000 and 2 million men woman and children.

General Belisarius
Just a few hundred years after the date given in the Book of Momon for its final battle, Justinian’s general Belisarius led campaigns from Constantinople to 1400 nautical miles to Carthage, reconquering both North Africa, Italy and Southern Spain. In his north African campaign he took a force of 5,000 calvary, 10,000 infantry, 500 transport ships and 92 warships crewed by 30,000 sailors. With this elite force he defeated a similar sized army and took control of Carthage with a regional population of well over a million.

The ‘Long March’ by the Chinese Communists was a force of 100,000 who traveled by foot over 6,000 miles over 368 days is one of the logest of this century..

Evidence of Continental Trade in the New World

Increasing evidence is showing the interconnected nature of ancient Mesoamerican empires with North American trade hubs. Cacao/Chocolate, turquoise, ballcourts, and quinoa being some of the best evidence forcing modern archaeologists to radically reshape their long held views of limited North American interaction. Particularly, the areas in the SW are being seen for the large trading centers they were—connecting a big part of the continent in a pansouthwest trade network. It stretched to the Pacific in southern California, to the Gulf of California, north to the mobile Plains people and the sedentary plains people like the Mandan and Pawnee, east to the Gulf of Mexico, and far south to Aztec lands. Some of the items traded were: domestic turkeys, corn (maize), squash and beans, copper bells, pottery, shells of many sorts, obsidian, parrots and feathers, cotton textiles, tallow, buffalo meat, malchite, pedernal chert, lead, sillimanite, leather goods, and much more were traded.

Shells from the Pacific have been found in Mississippian mound building culture sites. Some olivella shells and abalone found at the Caddoan Mississippian site at Spiro in eastern Oklahoma originated on the Pacific coast. These would have had to have been brought by trails from the Pacific to Zuni, to Taos and then to people that brought them to Spiro. Spiro was a major western outpost of Mississippian culture, which dominated the Mississippi Valley and its tributaries for centuries. Because they were in contact with people who knew about the Aztecs it is likely they know about them too.

Here is a diagram/map of routes that pacific shells were carried by people form one culture area to the next in the SW and Southern California. All these areas were in turn connected to Aztec areas to the south and to peoples on the Plains and Mississippian peoples.

The evidence of chocolate in vessels as far north in Pueblo cultures as Utah and Colorado shows it was regularly consumed. But it was not just the cocoa beans that were traded. The way to make them into a drink was also learned and the shapes of special pottery vessels to prepare that drink was brought from the south to the American SW. Culture, technology, and information moved north. With that information would have come knowledge of large cities to the south.

Because the closest place Chocolate can be grow is south of the Aztec capital and all trade went through there, it is all but certain they knew about the Aztecs. It is possible that they traded with people on the Pacific coast but those people were in close contact with the Aztec. Turquoise that can be chemically traced from the SW is found in Maya areas.

Cacao evidence now may extend into Cahokia & the Eastern US

It’s important to remember what kind of scale the Aztec civilization was. It is also important to remember that today’s borders are random and meaningless in a historical sense. Because people were trading with the Aztecs, it is to me simply ludicrous to imagine they did not know about the Aztecs. It was definitely something people would talk about.

The main center of the Aztec empire, that controlled both the empire and managed tributary states, was a city on an island with causeways on a lake. The main market had about 20,000 people in it on regular days and 40,000 of festivals. Cortez estimated 60,000. There were 45 major public buildings. Some of the temples were 200 feet high and 262 by 328 feet at the base. The palace had 100 rooms. The most common estimate is that 212,500 people were living there on 5.2 sq mi. The Empire was multi-ethnic, multi-lingual realm stretched for more than 80,000 square miles through many parts of what is now central and southern Mexico. At least 15 million people lived in it. They lived in thirty-eight provinces. Below are a few more points of evidence.

  • The remains of women & children in an ancient collapsed azurite mine shaft in Utah may give support to the concept of the Southwest & Rockies as natural resource export hubs (Coulam 2023, Kuban, 2002, UT Archeology 1995)
  • Andean Quinoa, has been found as far north as Brantford Ontario dating to 1000 BC. (Daley 2019, Science 2019)
  • Pottery showing up in the Carolinas before Mesoamerica, may suggest transatlantic travel. (Hoopes)
  • The Solutrean hypothesis suggest very early transatlantic trade (Wikipedia)

Linguistic & Historical Evidence

In addition to the archaeological evidence mentioned above, we have historical evidence recorded by early Aztec/Spanish Codices and oral histories telling of the migration of peoples between the the US southeast, southwest and the Valley of Mexico. Although considerable debate exists on where exactly the fabled homeland of the Toltecs & Chichimecs of the annals came from there are numerous indicators (often dismissed by historians) suggesting a location in the Southwest or Midwest of present United States.

he first chapter of Duran’s ‘history of the Indies of New Spain’ matches what is said by Ixtlilxochitl’s summaries of the flood and tower of babel, and exodus with ‘things raining down’. he says

“I have obtained from my Indian informants tells of the seven caves where their ancestors dwelt for so long and which they abandoned in order to seek this land, some coming first and others later until these caves were totally deserted. The caves are in Teocolhuacan, which is also called Aztlan, “land of Herons”, which we are told is found toward the north and near the region of La Florida.”

Overview of the Toltec migration as related by Fernando Ixtlilxochitl.
I propose that many short empires ruled the trade corridors between Mesoamerica & Northern America, but only one culture persisted long enough to migrate and standardize a transcontinental language group; Uto-Azteca.
Note that even the Aztec empire expanded stretch 2500 miles without horses. It’s only reasonable to suspect the same from North American civilizations.

Textual Evidence from the Book of Mormon Itself

Limited Mesoamerican Models require a “two Cumorah theory” (Mormon 6:2: vs D&C 128:20), where Moroni sneaks about alone trying not to be discovered (Mormon 8:3–5Moroni 1:1–3) with the heavy plates over 1,900 miles after the final battle which they suggest happened somewhere in southern Veracruz Mexico to get to New York to bury the plates. While suggesting that Cumorah and the final battle are ONLY around 100 miles from the ‘Narrow Neck’, which requires the readers to believe that Mormon for some confusing reason, took all the records from the Hill Shim in desolation (when the Lamanites looked to ‘overthrow the land’- Mormon 4:23), only to transport them to a new random hill only 100 miles away. One which had very little strategic or geographic advantage, where they still exist to this day–completely separate from the region in upstate New York where the Book of Mormon would be buried for Joseph Smith.  Think about this–-when the early LDS saints fled from Ohio and Nauvoo; 30,000-70,000 people fled over 1,500 miles to find safety and a new home. In fact they traveled over 2100 miles over 17 years building several cities between New York & Utah. So why would 300,000 Nephites, flee only 100-250 miles building no traceable cities over a 50+ year period? Especially when a flight up the Caribbean coast toward Texas would have been so easy?!

The text gives no indication they were being hedged in from the north by some other group, and SURELY would say if a force larger than their 300,000 were hemming them in! Besides, with their massive army ready to make a stand or die, they surely would have attempted to cut their way through the Huestec lands in search for a northern land to settle. A last stand of such a huge group consisting of men, women and children really only makes sense if they were forced SO far north (ie. New York) that they reached the edge of the habitable continent and had nowhere left to flee because of Great Lakes (Ripliancum) and coming winter.  And since this is where the plates were found AND where prophetic visions put the last battle, WHY ON EARTH would anyone try and conceive a second Cumorah in Mexico only a few hundred miles from Zarahemla?!  This illogical proposal has effectively split the church and given birth to the even poorer heartland models. Those who believe and push this theory, do a great injustice to Book of Mormon geographic correlation.

The Lands of The Book of Mormon should be pretty obvious by their general description.

– LAND OF MANY WATERS OR LARGE BODIES OR ‘LARGE BODIES OF WATER AND MANY RIVERS IS OBVIOUSLY NORTHERN-MOST NORTH AMERICA (EASTERN US & CANADA).  It stretches one’s imagination to the limits to suggest that the following four verses in the Book of Mormon are referring somewhere like the Valley of Mexico or Vera Cruz.  The text says these locations are “an exceedingly great distance” from Zarahemla, and contained “many waters” and “many rivers” and “many large bodies of water”.  To cultures familiar with Lake Izabal and Lago de Ititlan in Guatemala or the Grijalva & Usumacinta river systems in Mexico to refer to the Lakes of the Mexican Highland such as Texcoco or Chapala in following manner is almost laughable when contrasted with the clearly obvious region around Joseph Smith’s ‘Cumorah’ of the Great Lakes or Rivers and springs of the Canadian shield or Upper Mississippi River systems.

3 And… there were an exceedingly great many who departed out of the land of Zarahemla, and went forth unto the land northward to inherit the land. 4 And they did travel to an exceedingly great distance, insomuch that they came to large bodies of water and many rivers. 5 Yea, and even they did spread forth into all parts of the land, (Hel 3:3–5)

29 Therefore, Morianton put it into their hearts that they should flee to the land which was northward, which was covered with large bodies of water, and take possession of the land which was northward. (Alma 50:29)

8 And they were lost in the wilderness for the space of many days, yet they were diligent, and found not the land of Zarahemla but returned to this land, having traveled in a land among many waters, having discovered a land which was… covered with ruins of buildings of every kind, having discovered a land which had been peopled with a people who were as numerous as the hosts of Israel. (Mosiah 8:8)

4 And it came to pass that we did march forth to the land of Cumorah, and we did pitch our tents around about the hill Cumorah; and it was in a land of many waters, rivers, and fountains (Mormon 6:4)

Below is a comparison of Guatamala’s Lago Izabel, in the Mayanland model’s Land of Nephi, compared to the Lakes of Coastal Veracruz and the Mexican Highland & Great Salt Lake and then the Great Lakes. As you can see, there’s not much

– TIMBER BEING SCARSE IN THE LAND DESOLATION IS PROBLEMATIC. The land of Desolation is said to be desolate because of the Jaredites who were destroyed AND desolate “save it was for timber” or in other words it was desolate or devoid of timber so that the people who live in it had to “live in tents” and become expert in making “houses of cement”. Mayanland models must make the same case as Heartlanders in suggesting that regions which abound in wood and timber must have been “deforested” by the Jaredites in a manner that still left them without timber HUNDREDS of years later. This seems unlikely both in Heartlands Canada and Michigan Peninsula, as well as in Mayanlands south-central Mexico. More importantly, the use of cement in Oaxaca or the Mexican Highland was no more prevalent than its use in mayanlands making the following statement a bit problematic.

6 And now no part of the land was desolate, save it were for timber; but because of the greatness of the destruction of the people who had before inhabited the land it was called desolate. 7 And there being but little timber upon the face of the land, nevertheless the people who went forth became exceedingly expert in the working of cement; therefore they did build houses of cement, in the which they did dwell. 8 And it came to pass that they did multiply and spread, and did go forth from the land southward to the land northward, and did spread insomuch that they began to cover the face of the whole earth, from the sea south to the sea north, from the sea west to the sea east. 9 And the people who were in the land northward did dwell in tents, and in houses of cement, and they did suffer whatsoever tree should spring up upon the face of the land that it should grow up, that in time they might have timber to build their houses, yea, their cities, and their temples, and their synagogues, and their sanctuaries, and all manner of their buildings. 10 And it came to pass as timber was exceedingly scarce in the land northward, they did send forth much by the way of shipping. (Hel 3:6–11)

Both the Mayan and Mexican Highland cultures really ONLY built their temples and city centers of stone. With few exceptions, their homes were primarily wood. Really only the Desert Southwest was desolate of timber to the point of mostly using teepees, wikiups or stone and cement (adobe) for ALL aspects of cultural building. And really only the US Plains Indians could be said to have culturally lived predominately in ‘tents’ or teepees.

No, Teotihuacan is NOT the Gadianton Robbers of the Book of Mormon

Primary complex of Teotihuacán, built from about 0 AD to 300 AD

Ask yourself… does this sound like Mormon is talking about the largest nation state on the continent at the time? Or is he talking about a guerilla group of robbers like the FARC?

“18 And these Gadianton robbers, who were among the Lamanites, did infest the land, insomuch that the inhabitants thereof began to hide up their treasures in the earth; and they became slippery, because the Lord had cursed the land, that they could not hold them, nor retain them again.” (Mormon 1:18)

Are the Teotihuacanos in the Book of Mormon?

Some Book of Mormon geography researchers have suggested that the great Teotihuacan Empire of Central Mexico and possibly even the Zapotec’s of central Oaxaca were the “Gadianton Robbers” of Mormon 1:18 & Mormon 2:27–29 in the Book of Mormon.

This position however, is absolutely incongruent with what the Book of Mormon text describes of the Gadianton Robbers, which it consistently details as a gorilla rebel group who live in the mountains, “among the people”, just outside of civilization who occasionally participate with various “secret combinations” to take control of various government structures like the Colombian drug cartels and FARC guerrilleros of the 1990 to early 2000’s. (something we’ll detail in a minute from Hel 3-5 & 3 Ne 2-4).

Mormon 1:18 specifically clarifies that the location of the Gadianton robbers the Nephites were dealing with in both Mormon 1 & 2 were “among the Lamanites.”  It does NOT say these Gadianton Robbers lived in the Land Northward, and it does NOT say or imply these Gadianton’s had rebuilt the destroyed city of Jacoboth (3 Ne 9:9). It says specifically that these Gadianton robbers were just those, “WHO WERE AMONG THE LAMANITES”.  This is reiterated in Mormon 2:27 when he says “we made a treaty with the Lamanites and the robbers of Gadianton” [including the Gadianton’s because they were among the Lamanites–and had perhaps had taken over parts of their government as stated in 4 Ne.1:24]

Suggesting that the Gadianton robbers of the pre-Christian era of the Book of Mormon, morphed into a highly skilled and sophisticated empire like Teotihuacan, or that they took control of the Teotihuacan or Zapotec empires simply is NOT supported by the text of Mormon 1:18

One could perhaps make a case for the idea that the people of these empires were part of those that began to “be called Lamanites” in about 300 AD because they rejected the Gospel (see 4 Ne. 1:38). But to suggest that they were largely composed of or ruled by the “robbers of Gadianton” from 4 Ne 1:42–46 and Mormon 1& 2 or part of the “treaty” mentioned in Mormon 2:29  is, simply not supported by the text. 

Once you remember Mormon’s clarifying clause in Mormon 1:18, the words of Mormon 2:27–29 are far less ambiguous concerning the wars and treaty.

Read the three post time of Christ references in succession and you’ll see the picture they paint.

38 And it came to pass that they who rejected the gospel were called Lamanites… 42 And… that the wicked part of the people began again to build up the secret oaths and combinations of Gadianton… 46 And… that the robbers of Gadianton did spread over all the face of the land… (4 Nephi 42,46)

18 And these Gadianton robbers, who were among the Lamanites[!!], did infest the land, insomuch that the inhabitants thereof began to hide up their treasures in the earth; and they became slippery, because the Lord had cursed the land, that they could not hold them, nor retain them again. (Mormon 1:18)

27 …But behold, we did go forth against the Lamanites and the robbers of Gadianton [who were among the Lamanites], until we had again taken possession of the lands of our inheritance.

28 And the three hundred and forty and ninth year had passed away. And in the three hundred and fiftieth year we made a treaty with the Lamanites and the robbers of Gadianton [who were among the Lamanites], in which we did get the lands of our inheritance divided.

29 And the Lamanites did give unto us the land northward, yea, even [from the North down] to the narrow passage which led into the land southward. And we did give unto the Lamanites [and the Gadiantons among them] all the land southward. (Mormon 2:27–29)

With the clarifying clause we no longer can make the mistake of assuming that the Nephites were battling two separate entities.  Something that we should have assumed anyway, as there isn’t a single battle mentioned by Mormon with the Gadiantons after the time of Christ!  Nor can we assume that the Lamanites & Gadiantons occupied the land North of the narrow passage!  

Making Teotihuacan & the Zapotecs into Lamanites or Gadiantons is contrary to what the text says of the treaty. “And the Lamanites did give unto us the land northward, yea, even [from the North down] to the narrow passage which led into the land southward. And we did give unto the Lamanites [and the Gadiantons among them] all the land southward” (Mormon 2:29)

The only way to stay loyal to the above text, and make Teotihuacan & the Zapotecs (who lived north of the narrow pass of Sorenson) into anything other than Nephites, would be to assume that they were a neutral group of neither Nephites or Lamanites that for some reason simply were not part of the conflict mentioned in Mormon 2:29.  (A proposition riddled with its own logical and archaeological issues, because of the amount of archaeological influence seen from Teotihuacan in southern cities like Tikal & Kaminaljuyu by 300-350 AD.)

This is why authors such as Sorenson, sloppily imagined that Teotihuacan must be part of Mormon 2:29’s  “Gadianton Robbers.”  Because the archaeology shows they were at best aligned with the Lamanite cities and lands of his models, and at worst (and more likely) the masters of those “Lamanite” regions.

However, this idea fits neither the text of Mormon 1-2, nor the general explanation of what Mormon was referring to with “Gadianton Robbers” throughout the Book of Mormon narrative.  Mormon explains clearly that the followers of Gadianton were ROBBERS or bandits who lived off of plunder in the wilderness and when possible took over the governments of civilized society. They were not builders nor tradesmen, nor craftsmen, nor religious priests.  Nor were they separatists like the Amalekites or Zoramites which the Book is careful to separate from them.  Note the wording in the following verses:

The Gadianton Robbers where a “Band” of Robbers & Murderers.

“4 For there was one Gadianton, who was exceedingly expert in many words, and also in his craft, to carry on the secret work of murder and of robbery; therefore he became the leader of the band of Kishkumen…  8 and also that it was the object of all those who belonged to his band to murder, and to rob, and to gain power, (and this was their secret plan, and their combination)
10 And it came to pass that Helaman did send forth to take this band of robbers and secret murderers, that they might be executed according to the law.
11 But behold, when Gadianton had found that Kishkumen did not return he feared lest that he should be destroyed; therefore he caused that his band should follow him. And they took their flight out of the land, by a secret way, into the wilderness; and thus when Helaman sent forth to take them they could nowhere be found.
12 And more of this Gadianton shall be spoken hereafter…
13 And behold, in the end of this book ye shall see that this Gadianton did prove the overthrow, yea, almost the entire destruction of the people of Nephi. (Hel 2:4–13)

The band or Gang of Gadianton are based hidden in the wilderness of the “more settled parts of the land”.

23 And it came to pass in the forty and ninth year of the reign of the judges, there was continual peace established in the land, all save it were the secret combinations which Gadianton the robber had established in the more settled parts of the land, which at that time were not known unto those who were at the head of government; therefore they were not destroyed out of the land.
(Hel 3:23)

They take over the Nephite government where possible. (About 30 BC in the Land of Zarahemla)

38 And it came to pass on the other hand, that the Nephites did build them up and support them, beginning at the more wicked part of them, until they had overspread all the land of the Nephites, and had seduced the more part of the righteous until they had come down to believe in their works and partake of their spoils, and to join with them in their secret murders and combinations.
39 And thus they did obtain the sole management of the government,

Hel 3:38–39

Even after a few short successful attempts of taking over the Government, the Gadianton Robbers still “retreat back into the wilderness”. Note this is nothing like the war with the Amalekites or other separatists groups based in cities. When this was the case, THE BOOK OF MORMON SAID SO!

24 And it came to pass that in the eightieth year of the reign of the judges over the people of Nephi, there were a certain number of the dissenters from the people of Nephi, who … commenced a war with their brethren.
25 And they did commit murder and plunder; and then they would retreat back into the mountains, and into the wilderness and secret places, hiding themselves that they could not be discovered, receiving daily an addition to their numbers…
26 And thus in time, yea, even in the space of not many years, they became an exceedingly great band of robbers; and they did search out all the secret plans of Gadianton; and thus they became robbers of Gadianton.
27 Now behold, these robbers did make great havoc, yea, even great destruction among the people of Nephi, and also among the people of the Lamanites.
32 … And the robbers did still increase and wax strong, insomuch that they did defy the whole armies of the Nephites, and also of the Lamanites; and they did cause great fear to come unto the people upon all the face of the land.
33 Yea, for they did visit many parts of the land, and did do great destruction unto them; yea, did kill many, and did carry away others captive into the wilderness, yea, and more especially their women and their children. (Hel 11:24–27)

Compare this to what is said of the FARC gorillas in Columbia,

“FARC received most of its funding—which was estimated to average some US$300 million per year—from taxation of the illegal drug trade and other activities, ransom kidnappings, bank robberies, and extortion of large landholders..  The National Centre for Historical Memory has also concluded that of the 27,023 kidnappings carried out between 1970 and 2010, the Guerillas were responsible for 90.6% of them.”

The strength of the FARC–EP forces was high; in 2007, the FARC said they were an armed force of 18,000 men and women; in 2010, the Colombian military calculated that FARC forces consisted of about 13,800 members, 50 percent of whom were armed guerrilla combatants (wikipedia)

Many similar guerilla forces and their successful and unsuccessful military coup attempts could be sited as contemporary examples of the Book of Mormon Gadianton Robbers.

(when I get some time, I’m going to add some more examples and a few more scriptures…)

The Geologic Underworld of Jerusalem: The Caves, Tunnels & Tombs of Mount Zion & Israel’s Heritage


Jerusalem’s history is richly intertwined with the unique geology up on which in sits. From it’s spectacular abundance of limestone’s from which it is built, to its karst systems housing the spring water

Hezekiah’s Tunnel

The ancient water systems of Jerusalem have a complex history. The main water source of the original City of David was the Gihon Springs located at the base of the eastern slope of the city in the Kidron Valley. The Gihon Springs provided water year round by gushing forth several times a day. This water then naturally flowed into the Kidron Valley. In the earliest days of Jerusalem’s occupation, reservoirs where built to collect the water from the Gihon Springs. Three systems were eventually designed to use this water: The Warren’s Shaft, Siloam Channel (Tunnel) and Hezekiah’s Tunnel.

These three water systems continued to bring water to the city of Jerusalem until the days of the Hasmoneans and Herod. During the last century BC and the first century AD, aqueducts were built to transfer water into Jerusalem from the southern hill country of Judea from around Hebron and Bethlehem.

David’s city of Jerusalem as it would have appeared around 1000 BC. Gihon spring emerged from a limesone cave system charged by groundwater in the vicinity of Mount Moriah.

Hezekiah’s Tunnel

Hezekiah’s Tunnel, part of Jerusalem’s water system, is located under the City of David. It connects the Gihon Spring—Jerusalem’s fresh water supply—with the Siloam Pool. According to 2 Chronicles 32:2–4 and 2 Kings 20:20, this tunnel was dug during the reign of King Hezekiah of Judah to prepare Jerusalem for the imminent attack of the Assyrian king, Sennacherib. In the Bible, Hezekiah redirected the water through old and newly dug Jerusalem tunnels.

How Zedekiah’s Cave was Discovered

Zedekiah’s cave was possibly the biggest quarry of Jerusalem in antiquity, yet it was abandoned in the Middle ages, and eventually even its location was forgotten. It was rediscovered in 1854 by American missionary James Turner Barclay who followed the rumors of a cavern near Damascus gate. About 100 m east of the gate his dog fell into a pit. Barclay noticed the pit was quite large, but he did not want to draw any attention. At night he returned with his sons and torches. Sneaking in and operating the lights, they were the first to document the caves in modern history. They also recorded a human skeleton and batches of bats hanging from the ceiling, which kept much of the public from visiting the cave.

History of Zedekiah’s cave

zedekiah cave main hall

The cave was surveyed by several scholars and expeditions and is still under development. In fact, about a third of the cave is still filled with debris. Early researches suggested the Quarry dates to the time of King Solomon, and so it was called “Solomon’s Quarries”. Furthermore, the Free Masons order adopted the site claiming the founders of their order formed this quarry. To this day they conduct annual gatherings at the site. Current research suggests the quarry was not in use before Roman times, revoking its attribution to King Solomon or King Zedekiah.

Touring Zedekiah’s Cave

The cave is maintained by the Municipality of Jerusalem and it charges a humble admission fee. A wide flight of stairs and lights are installed in the main halls of the cave. At one of its lowest point a small flow of water is identified in Jewish tradition as “Zedekiah’s Tears”. By local tradition these are the tears of the ongoing cry of Zedekiah for the Babylonian conquest and destruction of Jerusalem.

Cave of the Patriarchs

The Cave of the Patriarchs or Tomb of the Patriarchs or Mosque of Abraham’), is a series of caves situated 30 kilometres (19 mi) south of Jerusalem in the heart of the Old City of Hebron in the West Bank. According to the Abrahamic religions, the cave and adjoining field were purchased by Abraham as a burial plot, although most historians believe the Abraham-Isaac-Jacob narrative to be primarily mythological. The site is considered a holy place in Judaism and Islam. (add pics and find story of group that explored this…)

Col. Richard Meinertzhagen, an officer under the command of General Allenby visited the tombs when the British captured Hebron in November 1917. He entered the subterranean caverns through an opening on the southwestern side of the famous above-ground structure to make sure there were no enemy forces hiding out there. Read about other visits to the tombs here

An aerial view of the Cave of the Patriarchs in Hebron

Beit Guvrin-Maresha National Park

Beit Guvrin-Maresha National Park is a national park in central Israel, containing a large network of caves recognized by UNESCO as a World Heritage Site.

The Sidonian burial caves were the family tomb of Apollophanes, the leader of the Sidonian community in Beit Guvrin. The Sidonian caves are the only ones that are painted inside. The caves were burial caves for the Greek, Sidonian and Edumite inhabitants of Beit Guvrin. The first and largest cave has paintings of animals, real and mythic, above the niches where the corpses were laid. A cock crows to scare away demons; the three-headed dog Cerberus guards the entrance to the underworld; a bright red phoenix symbolizes the life after death. The Tomb of the Musicians is decorated with a painting showing a man playing the flute and a woman playing the harp.

Sidonian Burial Caves: A series of impressive burial caves from the Hellenistic period (third–second centuries BCE), located at the foot of Tel Maresha and featuring reconstructed wall paintings. The paintings, proof of the presence of other cultures at Maresha, depict hunting scenes with wild and mythological creatures and shed light on ancient artistic techniques and crafts.
columbarium caves

The largest bell caves are in the east part of the park. They have been dug since prehistoric times, the excavations reaching their zenith in the Hellenistic period and during the Byzantine and Early Arab Period, when blocks of chalkstone extracted from the caves were used for construction work (buildings, etc.). The bell caves consist of limestone in their upper-layer (to a depth of about one to two meters), beneath which is rock consisting solely of a beige-colored, soft chalkstone, utilized by its early inhabits for carving caverns and dwellings. There are numerous bell caves within the park grounds and events are held in one of them. They are large (over 60 feet (18 m) high), airy and easily accessible

Add a section on the main aquaduct.

Olmec Epigraphic Ties to the Far East

by Bibhu Dev Misra

Olmec Ganesha 
Let us turn our attention to a curious Olmec clay figurine, which Zecharia Sitchin described as a “toy elephant”. It was spotted by Sitchin, when he had visited the Anthropology Museum in Jalapa, Veracruz.[7] However, when he had returned to the museum in 1999, the toy elephants were nowhere to be seen. Apparently, they had been removed for an “overseas exhibit”, never to be seen again. An elephant figurine in Mesoamerica raises uncomfortable questions, since elephants had disappeared from the Americas at the end of the last Ice Age at around 10,000 BCE.[8] How would the Olmecs, who flourished between c.1500 – 400 BCE, model a figure in its likeness?

Although Sitchin describes the artifact as a “toy elephant”, it is unusual for an elephant to stand upright comfortably on its hind legs. The artifact looks surprisingly similar to the portly, elephant-headed Hindu deity Ganesha. Ganesha is a pan-Asian deity, and one of the most popular gods of Hinduism. As the remover of obstacles and the patron of arts and sciences, he is honored at the beginning of any religious ceremony. Ganesha is also the son of Shiva. If the Olmecs were aware of Shiva, they could have been acquainted with Ganesha as well.

Ganesha in Olmec iconography

The presence of Ganesha in Mesoamerica is borne out by yet another figurine which was found in Campeche, Mexico, dated to c.600 – 900 CE.[9] It is that of a portly, elephant-headed person, dressed in ornaments and a crown, with his left hand raised in blessing, and holding a mace in his right hand. The figurine is certainly that of Ganesha, which establishes beyond doubt that the Mesoamericans were familiar with the deity by 600 – 900 CE. This makes it more likely that the Olmec figurine of the elephant-headed person is that of Ganesha.

Ganesha figurine found in Campeche, Mexico, c.600-900 CE. Source:

The Ganas 
Another Olmec sculpture suggestive of Hindu influence in Olmec culture is on display at the Museum of Anthropology in Jalapa, Mexico. It is an Olmec altar supported by a pair of dwarves with upraised hands. Scholars speculate that the altar may have been used for religious ceremonies, or it could have been a throne on which the ruler sat.

Exactly the same type of dwarf figures called “ganas” are often depicted below the cornices in Hindu-Buddhist temples! They are a portly bunch of merrymaking dwarves, who hold up and protect the temple. They are depicted with upraised hands supporting the temple, as well as in a variety of poses – singing, dancing, playing musical instruments, clapping etc. The ganas are dressed in loincloths, ornaments, and sometimes a head-dress as well. It is astonishing to see how much they resemble the dwarves on the Olmec altar. There is no doubt that the same concept was being put into execution by both cultures.

 Ganas in Olmec and Hindu iconography.

Interestingly, the ganas are regarded as attendants of Shiva and the leader of the ganas is Ganesha (who is called ganapati i.e. “Lord of the Ganas”). Thus, a set of closely linked religious constructs of Hinduism – Shiva (the Lord of Yoga), Ganesha (the son of Shiva), and the ganas, who are the attendants of Shiva and the followers of Ganesha – appear to have been known to the Olmecs.

The ancient Egyptians also worshipped a dwarf deity called Bes, who was the protector of the household and of childbirth. He is depicted below a cornice at the Denderah Temple complex, which suggests that he played a similar function of supporting the temple in Egypt. However, stylistically the dwarf figures in the Olmec altar most closely resemble those seen in Hindu-Buddhist temples.

The dwarf deity Bes depicted below a cornice in the Denderah Temple complex. Source: Wikimedia Commons

Kalamukha: The Face of Time 
One of the most significant pieces of monumental Olmec sculpture is the Altar 4 at La Venta. The altar shows a figure seated at the entrance of a central niche which symbolizes a cave. The Olmecs and other Mesoamerica cultures regarded caves as sacred places. Human beings were fashioned inside a cave at the center of the world from where they emerged to serve their patron deities. Caves also provided a pathway to the underworld – the land of the ancestors. Given the sacred connotations associated with a cave, it appears that the figure seated at the entrance is that of a deity or a revered ancestor (although some scholars think of it as a ruler).

On the cornice above the deity is a depiction of a fearsome face with sharp fangs. The deity appears to be seated in the mouth of this monster. All around the cave entrance there is a serpentine foliage pattern terminating in what appear to be “flower buds”. The same design motif can be seen carved on the lintel stone above the entrance to many Hindu-Buddhist temples of India and South-east Asia, where it is called Kalamukha (Face of Time) or Kirtimukha (Face of Glory).

Kalamukha (the Face of Time) in Olmec and Hindu-Buddhist architecture

The Kalamukha is a fearsome monster face, with large bulging eyes, and a gaping mouth with huge fangs. From its mouth, it spews forth a serpent body, wreathed in foliage, which runs downward to frame the entrance on either side. Generally, the lower jaw of the monster is absent, which creates the impression of being devoured by the Kalamukha as one enters the temple. The Kalamukha is also used as a decorative motif above niches on the temple walls.[10]

In the Indian tradition, Time is synonymous with Death, so the Face of Time is also the Face of Death or the Face of Yama – the God of Death and the Lord of the Underworld. The jaws reject what is toxic and undesirable, and allows only the pure soul to come in the presence of the Great Spirit. It controls the passage from the multiform world of senses to the state of primordial unity, from the cycle of birth and death to the realm beyond time and death. In Buddhist art, the Kalamukha represents Shinje (the Tibetan equivalent of Yama), who holds the Wheel of Life in his mouth and devours all beings figured there, signaling his control over the cycles of birth and death.

It is likely that the symbol carried an analogous meaning amongst the Olmecs. The face above the La Venta altar resembles the Kalamukha, and even the “foliage pattern with flower buds” depicted on either side of the seated deity looks similar to that seen in Hindu-Buddhist temples. So, not only is there an overlap of a complex religious concept, but even the stylistic execution is similar. 
The subsequent cultures of Mesoamerica, including the Mayans, adopted the Kalamukha motif, which was depicted above the entrances to their temples and cave sanctuaries. Mayan deities were depicted seated below the Kalamukha with the serpentine foliage coming out of the mouth and framing the sculpture.

Kalamukha in Mayan and Hindu-Buddhist Temples and cave sanctuaries.
The Kalamukha in Mayan and Hindu-Buddhist art

The Lion Guardians 
While the Kalamukha protects the temple entrance, a pair of “lion guardian” statues flanks the temple gate of most Hindu-Buddhist temples. Sometimes multiple lion statues are positioned along the access road or stairway leading to the temple entrance, and all around the temple walls. The lions are typically in a seated position, having bulging eyes and a gaping mouth exposing sharp fangs. In Olmec art, and that of the subsequent cultures of Mesoamerica, it was the jaguar that was depicted in a very similar pose.

Olmec Jaguars and Lion Guardians of Hindu-Buddhist Temples

At San Lorenzo, a pair of jaguar statues was found at the entrance to the southern plateau, which suggests that they may have served a protective function. “The two felines (at San Lorenzo) are of different sizes but fairly similar in shape. They sit so that their front and rear legs are nearly on the same plane…The cats display their upper fangs and central front teeth but without any tension that would convincingly indicate a threatening movement.”[11]

Like the lion of Asia, the jaguar was revered by the Mesoamericans. Mayan deities such as God L who is “the primary lord of the underworld” is often shown with jaguar ear or jaguar attire, and atop a jaguar throne.[12] Maya kings also donned jaguar pelts, and adopted the jaguar as part of their ruling name. One such ruling family is known as Jaguar Paw, who ruled the Maya city of Tikal in the fourth century.[13]  

Similarly, all over the Hindu-Buddhist kingdoms of South Asia, we find deities such as Buddha, Ganesha and others depicted seated on lion thrones. “The lion as the king of the beasts has long been the symbol of royalty; the throne on which Indian kings sat was called simhasan, “the seat of a lion” (or “lion-throne”), and had representations of lions on the base of the throne.”[14]  The surname “Singh” (meaning “lion”) was used by a long line of Rajput kings such as Jai Singh, Uday Singh etc.

Mayan Jaguar throne and Hindu Lion throne

The concept of lion guardians was prevalent all over West Asia, Greece and Egypt. In Mesopotamia, lions were the symbol of kingship. The Processional Way from the Ishtar Gate (in Babylon) to the temple of Marduk, was adorned with lion reliefs. In Assyria, Persia, and Anatolia, winged lions with the head of a man called lamassu (meaning “protective spirit”) were placed at the entrances to palaces and cities. A set of twelve squatting, snarling “guardian lions” were placed along the Sacred Way in Delos, Greece, reminiscent of the Avenue of Sphinxes in Egypt. 

Interestingly, in Egypt, the pharaoh sometimes sat on a “lion throne”, having images of lions sculpted into the throne. The Egyptian god Aker, who guarded the gates to the netherworld through which the sun entered the underworld at sunset and again emerged at dawn, was depicted in the form of two lions sitting back to back, supporting the horizon containing the sun-disk. Twin lion statues representing Aker were placed at the doors of palaces and tombs to protect against evil spirits.

Therefore, the ideas associated with the jaguar in Mesoamerica were not unique or unusual, but were widely prevalent in many Old World cultures. Stylistically, however, the Mesoamerican jaguars are most similar to those found in the Hindu-Buddhist temples. 

Guardian Lions in West Asia and Greece
Egypt – Lion Throne and Aker

The Olmecs, therefore, were not only earnest practitioners of yoga, but they appear to have been acquainted with the Hindu deities Shiva and Ganesha, and had adopted many elements of Hindu temple architecture such as the ganas, Kalamukha and the lion guardians. Their sudden appearance in Mesoamerica sometime around 1500 BCE, with all the evolved elements of their culture, can be most easily explained by a migration from the other side of the Pacific.

When we look at the various Olmec figurines in yogic poses, it becomes obvious that the Olmecs had distinct mongoloid features. Interestingly, some of the ceramic figurines of the yoga-practicing Western Mexico shaft tomb culture were named “Chinesco” by art dealers due to their Chinese-like appearance. For quite some time there have been talks of a Chinese presence in the Americas. In 1882, thirty ancient Chinese coins were discovered by a miner in British Columbia, in the auriferous sand twenty five feet below the surface.[15] The coins depicted the Chinese chronological cycle of sixty years, invented by the Emperor Huungti in 2637 BCE. In 1975, large numbers of Chinese stone anchors were discovered in 12 to 25 feet of water off the Palos Verdes peninsula south of Los Angeles. In an article titled Stone Anchors: Asiatic Shipwrecks Off the California Coast published in the Anthropological Journal of Canada, Prof. Moriarity and Prof. Pearson said that geological studies showed the stone anchors were not of Californian origin and cited this as evidence that Asiatic vessels reached the New World in pre-Columbian times.[16] 

Further fuel was added to the trans-pacific diffusion theory in 1996, when Dr. Michael Xu of the Texas Christian University put forward the hypothesis that the Olmecs may have emigrated from the Shang dynasty of ancient China.[17]

Migrations from AsiaMichael Xu had spent many years analyzing the inscriptions on a large number of Olmec jade, stone, and pottery artifacts, in particular the inscriptions on the six jade celts in Offering No.4 at La Venta. He was struck by how closely the symbols on these artifacts resembled Chinese bone inscriptions from the Shang dynasty (c. 1600 – 1046 BCE) who ruled in the Yellow River valley. “When I first brought my artifacts from the Americas to China, scholars there thought that I just had more samples of Shang writing” Xu says, “…The similarities are that striking.”[18] 

An emerging view amongst researchers is that the migration from China may have taken place during the Xia dynasty (c.2070 – 1600 BCE), which preceded the Shang dynasty.[19] The Olmecs called themselves “Xi” which could be derived from “Xia”. In addition, since the Olmecs did not have knowledge of metallurgy, the emigration should have taken place prior to the emergence of bronze metallurgy in China at around 1800 BCE during the Xia dynasty.

In 1975, Betty Meggers, a research archaeologist at the Smithsonian Institution, proposed a Shang dynasty influence in the Olmec culture. She thinks that Asian contact goes back even further, to around 3000 BCE. In 1965, she had observed striking similarities in the techniques and decoration motifs of the Jomon pottery of Japan and those excavated in Valdivia, Equador, and proposed a migration from Japan’s Jomon culture to Equador – an idea which was roundly criticized by archaeologists at that time – but has now found genetic corroboration.[20] 

Both Betty Meggers and Mike Xu believe that natural Pacific water flows, such as the Kuroshio Current from Japan and the Black Current from China, transported boats to the New World.[21] From the 1600s to the mid 1800s, several dozen Japanese ships were carried from Asia to North America along the powerful Kuroshio Currents.[22] It is improbable that such contact would have started only after the Europeans landed in America.

Mike Xu has pointed out that the Olmecs, like the Chinese, viewed jade as a precious and pure stone, which they carved into a variety of artifacts, including jade masks. A particular design called “Taotie” appears on Chinese jade artifacts and bronze vessels from the Shang dynasty. It is a gluttonous ogre mask, with large eyes, sharp fangs, and sometimes with no lower jaw. Scholars of religious symbolism regard it as the Chinese version of the “Kalamukha” depicted above the entrances to Hindu-Buddhist temples. The same design is depicted on the Olmec altar 4 at La Venta.

Fig 21: Jade Masks –  Chinese and Olmec
Fig 22: Taotie and Spiral motifs in China and Mesoamerica

The presence of the Kalamukha motif in Shang dynasty China is not surprising since there had always been a great deal of overlap between Chinese and Hindu religion, culture, philosophy, astronomy, and architecture. The Taoist philosophy is barely different from that of the Upanishads; the concept of energy meridians and chakras was known to both cultures; the Chinese concept of 28 lunar asterisms is same as the Indian Nakshatra system; and the Chinese calendric system, with its 12 year and 60 year cycles, is also prevalent in India.
Mike Xu mentions that both the Chinese and the Olmecs used a red pigment called cinnabar to decorate ceremonial objects.[23] I want to add that the custom of anointing ceremonial objects with red vermillion powder (which is obtained from cinnabar) continues to this day in India. Mike Xu also writes that the Olmecs and the Chinese have the practice of placing a few jade beads inside the mouth of the deceased.[24] An analogous practice in India is to place a few gold pieces on or inside the mouth (for gold carries the same sense of preciousness and purity in Indian culture as jade does in China).  Throughout Mesoamerica, right since the time of the Olmecs, conch-shell trumpets were used in a ritual context to announce the presence of the gods [25] – a practice that is still followed in Hindu and Buddhist religious ceremonies. Aztec kings signaled their troops to attack with conch shell trumpets [26], reminiscent of the Hindu mythological heroes in the epics such as the Mahabharata, who blew their conch-shells at the beginning of the battle. 

Fig 23: Conch shell trumpets were used extensively on either side of the Pacific for ritualistic purposes and announcing the beginning of battles.

It occurred to me that, because of the immense cultural overlaps between India and China, the Hindu-Buddhist influence in Olmec culture can be effectively explained by a migration from the Xia or Shang dynasty of China. Even yogic asanas, which the Olmecs practiced ardently, were known to the Chinese in the pre-Buddhist period. A number of jade statues from the Shang dynasty show people seated in the “Vajrasana” posture.

Fig 24: Shang Dynasty jade statue seated in the “Vajrasana” posture. Source: Wikimedia Commons

A pair of protective guardian lions stood outside Chinese temples, imperial palaces, and tombs from the Han dynasty onwards (206 BCE – CE 220) predating the arrival of Buddhist influence in China. The pair would consist of a male, leaning his paw upon an embroidered ball, possibly representing supremacy over the world, and a female with a cub under its paw, representing the cycle of life.[27] The stylistic representation is similar to that seen in the Hindu-Buddhist temples of India and South-east Asia, and the jaguar status of the Olmecs and other Mesoamerican cultures.

Fig 25: Stone statue of a guardian lion at Mount Emei in China. Source: Wikipedia

I could not find any Chinese version of the ganas – the dwarf figures that support the Hindu-Buddhist temple. But, what I did find is that both Shiva and Ganesha were a part of the Chinese religious tradition as early as the 4th century CE. A painting of the elephant-headed Ganesha, seated next to a four-armed, trishula-wielding Shiva, is found in Cave 285 at Dunhuang’s Mogao caves. The chamber was excavated in the Northern Wei dynasty (c.386-534 CE).[28] Thus, the knowledge of Ganesha and Shiva could have also passed on to the Olmecs through a migration from ancient China.

Fig 26: Ganesha and Shiva in Cave 285 at Duanhuang’s Mogao caves. Source:

The remarkable similarity between stepped pyramids on either side of the Pacific – which has already been pointed out by many researchers – is also very important indication of ancient contact between Asia and the Americas. The Olmec pyramid at La Venta, made of earth-fill, presently has a conical shape due to 2500 years of erosion. Originally, however, it was a rectangular pyramid with stepped sides.[29] It resembles the stepped pyramids of China, which were built as tombs for the elite, and the temple pyramids dedicated to Hindu gods in South-east Asia.

Fig 27: Stepped Pyramids on either side of the Pacific.

Undeniably, there is significant evidence suggesting that the Olmec civilization, which appeared in a fully formed state in Mexico sometime around 1500 BCE, adopted many elements of Hindu temple architecture, yogic practices and deities, as well as Chinese artistic styles, traditions, and the Shang script. 

These striking correlations can be effectively explained by migrations from Asia, most likely from the Xia or Shang dynasty of China. This was by no means the first wave of migration from Asia, or the last. Research archaeologist Betty Meggers theorizes that Asians have traveled to and from the Americas for thousands of years.  According to her, “Ancient man saw the ocean as a superhighway and not as a barrier”.[30] I have discussed further evidences for these trans-pacific contacts in a subsequent article titled “The Turtle supporting Mount Meru in Asian and Mesoamerican Art”.

Although trans-pacific diffusion theories were widely discussed in academic circles in the first half of the 20th century, since the 1970s American archaeologists have treated the subject with disdain, which has brought about a virtual moratorium on contact studies. “While European and Pacific archaeologists were still willing to consider diffusion, American archaeologists tended to see necessity as the mother of all inventions…With a few key exceptions, there was no serious discussion of transoceanic influences on the Americas between 1980 and 2005 in mainstream American journals.”[31] 

The volume of evidence in support of transoceanic contact between Asia and the Americas has been steadily growing, however, and the nature of the connections is so complex and precise that it cannot be explained away as an in-situ development.  One can only hope that a new generation of historians and archaeologists will shake off the rigid dogmas that seem to guide the mainstream version of history,  and take due account of the plethora of archaeological and cultural evidence that indicates deep connections between the ancient civilizations of Asia and the Americas.  


End Notes

 [1] “India Documents 900 Yoga Poses to Block Patents”, Voice of America News 11 Jun 2010 <>

[2] Nigel Davies, The Ancient Civilizations of Mexico (Penguin Books, 1982) 55.

[3] Andrei A. Znamensk, The Beauty of the Primitive: Shamanism and Western Imagination (Oxford University Press, 2007)182.

[4] Refer Note 1

[5] Western Mexico shaft tomb tradition, Wikipedia.

[6] Michael D.Coe,”Image of an Olmec ruler at Juxtlahuaca, Mexico”, Antiquity Vol. 79 No. 305, September 2005.

[7] “THE CASE OF THE MISSING ELEPHANT”, The Official Website of Zecharia Sitchin 2000 <>

[8] <–overhunting–wiped-woolly-mammoth-struggled-cope-rapid-climate-change-followed.html>

[9] Strange Figurines <>

[10] Adrian Snodgrass, The Symbolism of the Stupa (Motilal Banarsidass, 1992) 306.

[11] Carolyn E. Tate, Reconsidering Olmec Visual Culture: The Unborn, Women, and Creation (University of Texas Press, 2012)126.

[12] Benson 1998: 64-65 taken from Wikipedia (Jaguars in Mesoamerican cultures)

[13] Coe 1999: 90 taken from Wikipedia (Jaguars in Mesoamerican cultures)

[14] Sehdev Kumar, A Thousand Petalled Lotus: Jain Temples of Rajasthan : Architecture & Iconography (Abhinav Publications, 2001)155.

[15] James Dean, “Anthropology”, The American Naturalist, University of Chicago Press for The American Society of Naturalists, January 1884, 18 (1): 98–99 taken from Wikipedia (Pre-Columbian trans-oceanic contact theories)

[16] Larry J.Pierson and James R. Moriarty, “Stone Anchors: Asiatic Shipwrecks off the California Coast,” Anthropological Journal of Canada, 18:17, 1980

[17] Jennifer Viegas, “Early Crossings: Scientists Debate Who Sailed to the New World First ” <>

[18] ibid.

[19] Christian Lemoy, Across the Pacific: From Ancient Asia to Precolombian America (2011) 45

[20] Brad Lepper, “JAPANESE FISHERMEN DISCOVER AMERICA 5,000 YEARS AGO?” Ohio History Connection 19 May. 2013 <>

[21] Jennifer Viegas, “Early Crossings: Scientists Debate Who Sailed to the New World First ” <>

[22] James  Wickersham, “Origin of the Indians–The Polynesian Route” American Antiquarian(1892)16:323-335 taken from Wikipedia (Pre-Columbian trans-oceanic contact theories)

[23] Jocelyn Selim, “Chinatown, 1000 B.C.” DISCOVER Vol. 21 No. 2 (February 2000) <>

[24] Ibid

[25] Bernardino de Sahagún, Florentine Codex: General History of the Things of New Spain, trans. Charles E. Dibble and Arthur J. O Anderson (University of Utah Press, 1950-1982)I:29

[26] Ross Hassig, Aztec Warfare: Imperial Expansion and Political Control (Norman: University of Oklahoma Press, 1988) 96

[27] Wikipedia (Chinese Guardian Lions)

[28] Ganesh: Studies of an Asian God, ed. Robert L. Brown, (SUNY Press, 1991)271.

[29] Walter Robert Thurmond Witschey, Clifford T. Brown, Historical Dictionary of Mesoamerica (Scarecrow Press, 2012)180.

[30] Jennifer Viegas, “Early Crossings: Scientists Debate Who Sailed to the New World First ” <>

[31] Terry L. Jones, Alice A. Storey, Elizabeth A. Matisoo-Smith, José Miguel Ramírez-Aliaga

Rowman Altamira, Polynesians in America: Pre-Columbian Contacts with the New World (2011) 63

The REAL Age of Göbekli Tepe (NOT 9500 BC!)

Göbekli Tepe (known as Girê Mirazan or Xirabreşkê in Kurdish) is an archaeological site in the Southeastern Anatolia Region of Turkey ‘supposedly‘ dating to the Neolithic. German & Turkish archaeologists led by Klaus Schmidt have dated the site to the Pre-Pottery Neolithic between c. 9500 and 8000 BCE largely based on radiocarbon samples and the absence of pottery (see dating details).

However, several clues of the Göbekli Tepe archaeological site in Turkey make it certain that the site is NOWHERE NEAR as old as generally believed. And undoubtedly dates to the Bronze age instead of the Paleolithic.

In fact, it is incredibly common for sites in the near-east with known historic dates laying within the Hallstatt Radiocarbon Plateau of 550-750 BC to give anomalous radiocarbon determinations. And just as common for organic material buried in certain types of lime and pulverized limestone to give contaminated dates which are known to be too old. (see ManningVakninBen-Yosef, etc. See also radiocarbon considerations, volcanics & the hard water effect)

Göbekli Tepe undoubtedly falls within one of these three groups, along with many of the Pre-Pottery Neolithic A (PPNA) sites in the region, mostly correlated to stylistic similarities to Jericho. The archaeological site of Jericho in Israel suffers from the same issue of likely volcanic or lime contamination (the site lays on a blocked drainage where ancient landslides blocking the drainage likely brought sub-surface waters saturated with lime into contact with dating material). Or possibly these sites were built during the same short period of spiked non-radiogenic bearing atmospheric carbon dioxide levels (possibly from a nearby volcanic field venting event from the massive Harrat Ash Shaam field in Syria or the nearby Karaca Dag volcanics.)

The first clue which makes the incorrect radiocarbon dates of Göbekli Tepe obvious is the column artwork. Particularly the bag motif in proximity to the avian vultures. This is a well known religious motif from both Neo-Assyrian (911-609 BC) artwork and the Urartu Kingdom (858-586 BC). The ‘bucket and cone‘ or bag and dobber used prolifically in Urartu art depicted the manual pollination of date palm trees with a synthetic stamen and was used to represent fertility and potency.

All three of the archaeological sites which house the religious artwork above are found within 250 miles of each other in the region of Assyria and ancient Urartu. Many similar motifs are found in numerous similar sites in the region. The more rudimentary style of the Göbekli Tepe artwork may suggest it was made earlier than the other examples, or it may just have just been carved by less talented artists and stone masons. But for these religious stylistic motifs to be 8000 years older is incredibly unlikely and borders on ridiculous. A better earliest range possibility would be 2670 BC, the last known major eruption of the Harrat Ash Shaam volcanic field (a likely source of non-radiogenic radiocarbon contamination).

Yet another evidence for the correct late bronze to early iron age date for the site lies in its similarity to other Urartu & Phoenician sites in the region. One of the most striking examples is comparing the architecture with the Phoenician Taulas of Menorca, Balearic Island. The layout of Göbekli Tepe and Menorca sites like Torralba d’en Salord and Torre d’en Galmés are almost identical. Undoubtedly influencing each other in their T-topped columns the site dates from as early as 1310 BC to as late as 300 BC Punic occupation.

Because of their striking similarity, many might confuse the images above of the Temple or Taula on Spain’s Balearic Islands of Menorca with Göbekli Tepe. Both are built in sprawling circular layouts, often on hills with T-shaped center roof columns and equispaced outer wall columns. (somewhat like Stonehenge.) Even the smaller side wall rock work is quite similar in many respects. Perhaps the most striking similarity is the celestial alignments and multi-room, rounded shared wall features.

The various animals found on the columns of Göbekli Tepe are not some early example of paleolithic animistic religion but instead representations of well known Bronze & Iron age constellation zodiac signs. Note for instance the crab/scorpion of Göbekli Tepe in comparison to the well known Babylonian astrology kudurru depicting a turtle, which was a symbol of Enki; 1125BC-1100 BCE. (from British Museum)

Another example of this ridiculous reliance on limestone contaminated radiocarbon dates of basketry is the Qumran area Muraba’at Cave, where a “Pre-Pottery Neolithic A” woven reed basket was found amidst numerous other artifacts, including a new dead-sea scroll fragment ALL clearly dating from 200 BC to 135 AD. The reed basket radiocarbon dating by Prof. Elisabetta Boaretto of the Weizmann Institute of Science in Rehovot, the IAA, dated to 9,500 BC. Yet, a nearby skeleton (also obviously contaminated) radiocarbon dated to 4000 BC. While the caves artifacts mostly dated by coins, writing and other non-radiocarbon means all dated to around the turn of the Christian era. This kind of lack of recognition of date corruption is horrible science, but sadly has become a regional staple in the Pre-Pottery Neolithic dating sequence.

Cache of Bar Kokhba coins. Dating from the time of the Bar Kokhba revolt (115 CE) Found in the same cave as the ‘6000 BP’ burial, and 10500 BP basket! Parchment and Seeds were also found (Crappy & intellectually dishost archaeologist did not publish the radiocarbon dates of the seeds)

Pre-Pottery Neolithic A (PPNA) sites: Jericho, Hallan Cemi. Jerf el-Ahmar (9500 – 8700 BC) in present day Syria

Native American Myths & LDS The Three Degrees of Glory

Adapted from an article by Jason Jarrell and Sarah Farmer. The authors of Ages of the Giants: A Cultural History of the Tall Ones in Prehistoric America

The Ho-Chunk & Mesoamerican/Egyptian Connections

Among the Siouan speaking Ho-Chunk people of the Eastern Woodlands, Great Lakes , and the Plains is a belief which consists of a tiered or layered cosmos comprised of three basic “worlds”. The Sky World is the region above, where birds and flying things live. It is also the habitation of the great Thunderbirds, the stars, the sun and moon, and the creator.

The Earth World is the domain of mankind, plants, animals, and natural features. It could be called “our world” or the world of the living. The Earth World is a flat island or disk situated upon—and surrounded by—a primordial sea.

The third world is the Underworld, a vast water filled region immediately beneath the Earth World. This Underworld is the home of fish, snakes, and aquatic animals. It is also the domain of the Great Serpent and his minions. These powerful beings often enter the Earth World through natural springs, rivers, and lakes, which are connected to the Underworld oceans by a system of caverns.

The Great Serpent manifests in a multiplicity of forms, which fall between two extremes: a gigantic horned snake and a hybrid of feline and serpent features usually known as the Underwater Panther. He is also known to be the ruler or Ogimaa (“boss”) of a race of beings of similar form (Ibid). The Great Serpent exerts a deadly influence upon the Earth World. Emerging through natural waterways, the Great Serpent destroys human beings with drowning, floods, and other calamities, including disease.

For LDS people, these descriptions immediately bring to mind the imagery of the LDS Three Degrees of the afterworld taught by Joseph Smith. In his model, the three levels of the afterworld were composed of the Celestial or Sky realm, the Terrestrial or Earth Realm, and the Telestial or Haden/Underworld realm. (see this article for details)

Additionally one cant help but see the similarities to Mesoamerican iconography and belief systems revolving around Quetzalcoatl, the bird serpent and Tezcatlipoca the Jaguar nagual.

Rewrite this. Note the Egyptian similarities with the air, earth and underworld symbolized by the falcon (horus), snake (apep) and meeting place of earth with Thoth and Sekhmet.


Additionally, these concepts are found in the ancient British record called the Kolbrin. The following section of the Kolbrin comes from an ancient record called ‘The Book of Scrolls’ which contains an ancient Egyptian/Druidic temple ritual which sounds surprisingly similar to Native American rituals. In these rituals, the initiate or ‘aspiring one’ would be walked through various stages and teachings on his/her path to become an adapt who was “not of Earth, neither… of Heaven, [but at] the place where the two meet and intermingle.”

SCL:7:1 This is the manner whereby the Aspiring Ones of Earth may cross the dread horizon through residence within the Cavern of Stone. It is thus that men come to know the Truth concerning the Realms of Glory beyond the Western Horizon, but it is a path beset by great dangers and manifold terrors, and many return witless. SCL:7:2 The Aspiring One is of Earth, he is earthbound. He sits within the cavern before the Cauldron of Rebirth and Regeneration, and inhales the smoke from the brew of release. He rises above himself, flying on wings of five feathers, the names of which are recorded in the Book of Secret Mysteries, wherein are the awful recipes. There it is written that he may ascend like a falcon [eagle] and cannot go otherwise than as a falcon. He may not go in the manner of any other bird.

SCL:7:3 He escapes the call of Earth, its fetters fall from him. The Aspiring One leaves his attendants behind; he is not with them; he is not of Earth, neither is he of Heaven. He is at the place where the two meet and intermingle. SCL:7:4 His body moves without the spirit and partakes of the sour yellow bread of wide vision. The Aspiring One drinks the brew of grey barley and sips long at the wine of harish, eating the cakes of green brown horris. He eats the fruit of the releasing tree and drinks the brew of black fungus, which is in the smoke goblet. Thus, he sleeps and the attendants lay him down in the receptacle called the Womb of Rebirth. He is in the Place of Visions but remains like the masthead bird. (Book of Scrolls 7)

Write some more commentary here. Note that the record suggest the ancient britains were in contact with the New World.

SOF:12:11 We sailed with a large company towards the West and had nothing to fear, except the whirlpool, for the Red Men with us knew the way of the waters. For long days, we saw only the sea, and the landsighting birds all came back. SOF:12:12 We went out through the mouth of the sea into the sea of the Great River. Past the lands of white copper to the Place of Painted Men, where we drew up the ships and staked them. SOF:12:15 The ships were divided and those who wished to set up the eagle and serpent went to the Harbour of Giants in Belharia, SOF:12:17 We came to a bay, on one side of which was a forest and on the other a plain where herds grazed. For the men of that place, it was the time of the feast of fires and they held games upon the shore and ran races in cleared land behind. At this time, they would not fight, so we met them in peace. They wore garments woven in two parts and belted with hide. They had caps of skin or leather, and the tunic, which hung about them was darkly coloured in blue, green and brown. They enclosed their legs and feet in dressed skins, bound in front with throngs. They had many ornaments of copper, but little gold or silver, though their armbands and brooches shone like silver. They had the art of making copper like silver or gold. (Sons of Fire 12)

To the Native American Ho-Chunk, the Underworld powers are also known to kidnap children and infants. The Great Serpent is also considered a source of powerful magic or medicine, which can give victory in the hunt, warfare, love, and curing or cursing individuals or entire populations. One of the most commonly cited benefits of allying with the Underworld ruler is long life. Among the Anishnaabeg peoples of the northeast, medicine men that deal with the Underworld serpents are often considered practitioners of “ bad medicine .”

Underwater Panther rock painting. The Great Serpent, depicted as a hybrid feline with serpent features, is known as the Underwater Panther and rules the Underworld at Devil’s Lake

Underwater Panther rock painting. The Great Serpent, depicted as a hybrid feline with serpent features, is known as the Underwater Panther and rules the Underworld at Devil’s Lake. (Madman2001 / CC BY-SA 2.0 )

The Thunderbirds of the Sky World wage an endless war upon the denizens of the Underworld. As the Great Serpents or Panthers emerge from beneath, the Thunderbirds bring down lightning and fire upon them. The Thunderers also seize their enemies and carry them into the air, tearing them to pieces. As such, the Thunderbirds are considered the allies and helpers of mankind and are treated with great respect by Native American peoples. Their war against the serpents is essential to human survival on the Earth Disk:

As the elder brothers of the Indians, the thunderers are always active in their behalf, slaying the evil snakes from the underworld whenever they dare to appear on the surface. If they did not do this these snakes would overrun the earth, devouring mankind.

According to a Ho-Chunk account recorded by Folklorist Dorothy Brown a major battle in this ongoing war was fought at Devil’s Lake:

A quarrel once arose between the water spirits, or underwater panthers, who had a den in the depths of Devil’s Lake, and the Thunderbirds…The great birds, flying high above the lake’s surface, hurled their eggs (arrows or thunderbolts) into the waters and on the bluffs. The water monsters threw up great rocks and water-spouts from the bottom of the lake.

The Effects From the Battles Between the Entities at Devil’s Lake

The Ho-Chunk tradition has it that the battle resulted in the cracked and jagged rocky surfaces of the bluffs surrounding the lake. Although the Thunderbirds were ultimately victorious, “The water spirits were not all killed, and some are in Devil’s Lake to this day.”

According to Native informants interviewed by Thomas George, long ago a Ho-Chunk man fasted and prayed on the shores of the lake until one of the water spirits, “resembling a cat…with long tail and horns” rose from beneath the water and granted him the promise of long life. Brown also notes that the historic Native Americans made “offerings to the spirits of this lake, by depositing tobacco on boulders on the shore or by strewing it on the water.”

Historic Indians of the Great Lakes region made tobacco offerings to the Underworld spirits before water voyages in the hope of appeasing them and guaranteeing a safe voyage. The Ottawa made similar offerings to “the evil spirit, whose habitation was under the water…this was sacrificed to the evil spirit, not because they loved him, but to appease his wrath.”

Saunders recorded a Ho-Chuck legend in which a water spirit melted the ice and formed the channels of the Wisconsin Dells. This water spirit also formed all of the wild game and trees of the region from its own body before diving into a bottomless pit beneath Devil’s Lake.

This particular water spirit was a seven headed, green serpent entity , which demanded that the Ho-Chunk sacrifice their most beautiful girls to him as offerings. One year the water spirit demanded that the daughter of the chief be sacrificed, prompting a hero named River Child to secretly conspire with an old woman to raise an army to fight the serpent. River Child had been told by Spirit Fish to strike at the left eye of the monster’s center head, apparently its one weakness. On the day of the sacrifice the secret army attacked, and River Child tricked the beast into his net. He then plunged his knife into the left eye of the center head, killing the water spirit. River Child then married the chief’s daughter and the two founded “Old River Bottom” village.

The Origin of the Legends of Devil’s Lake

The Ho-Chunk legends of the Thunderers and Underworld powers at Devil’s Lake are rooted in the prehistoric past. Around 1,000 years ago, the Effigy Mound Culture , which spanned roughly 700 to 1100 AD, constructed several mounds around Devil’s Lake. On the southeastern shore of the lake, the ancients constructed a 150 foot (46 meters) long bird effigy with a forked tail, described by Birmingham & Rosebrough as “combining characteristics of a bird and a human being.”

In the traditions of the Algonquian and Siouan tribes, the Thunderbirds often assume the forms of human beings. They are often said to become winged men wielding bows with fire lit arrows in their conflict with the Underworld serpents. Interestingly, Birmingham & Rosebrough point out that a group of effigy mounds along the northern area of Devil’s Lake represent spirit entities “from the opposing lower world and include a bear, an unidentified animal, and a once-huge water spirit or panther.”

The bear is another animal often connected to the Underworld in northeastern cosmology. For example, the Menomini Indians considered the actual ruler of the Underworld to be a Great White Bear.

Obviously, the ancient mounds of Devil’s Lake align with the same cosmological belief system expressed in the Ho-Chunk traditions regarding the area, which could very well represent a continuity extending back in time to the Effigy Mound Culture. While the theory is by no means universally accepted, there have been many professional researchers who consider the Ho-Chunk to be among the actual biological descendants of the Effigy Mound builders.

Dr. William Romain has suggested that mound builders of the Eastern Woodlands chose locations, which inspired emotion and awe in the context of the ancient cosmology to build their monuments. The dark depths and the rocky bluffs of Devil’s Lake, where even sunlight seems restricted, would certainly have created an atmosphere ripe with spirit. The mythic associations of Devil’s Lake would appear to have been widely known long before the raising of the Effigy Mounds.

Boszhardt has reported a large Hopewell monitor pipe found in southeastern Minnesota, which bears etchings of horned lizard-like creatures and long tailed Underwater Panthers. The smoking pipe is made of Baraboo pipestone from one of the outcrops near Devil’s Lake.

The Hopewell mound building culture usually dates to between 100 BC and around 500 AD. Thus, the Devil’s Lake locality may have been considered a dwelling of the Underworld spirits for well over a millennium before the first Westerners entered the region.

Egyptian Pharaoh Kinglist Parallel

As mentioned on the Manetho excerpts page there are no surviving copies of the original Manetho, we must rely upon excerpts and fragments copied by later authors. The four of any significance were Eusebius, Syncellus, Africanus and Josephus. Below are the excerpts of Manetho preserved in their respective larger works.

To read their full works (and not just the Manetho excerpts see the following links.
Eusebius Chronicle (Public Domain Armenian Version by Robert Bedrosian, King lists starts on page p.39) Or download it as a pdf file. 

The transcription of the word ka became kheres in Greek, and the -ra at the end of a name was dropped, so that Men-kau-ra → Men-kheres.

Dynasty 1

 8 kings, 253 years18 kings, 2522 years3
1 The correct sum is 263 years
2 The correct sum is 258 years
3 Armenian Eusebius: 270 years
4 Armenian Eusebius: 30 years.
5 Armenian Eusebius: Memphses.

Dynasty 2

 9 kings of Memphis, 302 years9 kings, 297 years
1 Armenian Eusebius: Kekhoos

Dynasty 3

 9 kings of Memphis, 214 years8 kings of Memphis, 198 years

Dynasty 4

 8 kings of Memphis, 277 years117 kings of Memphis, 448 years
1 The correct sum is 284 years

Dynasty 5

 8 kings of Elephantine, 248 years131 kings of Elephantine, 100 years2
Neferirkara I Kakai3Nepherkheres20
Shepseskara Netjeruser4Sisires74Phiops394
Neferefra Isi5Kheres20
Niuserra Ini6Rhathoures44
Menkauhor Kaiu7Menkheres9
Djedkara Isesi8Tankheres44
1 The sum of the items given is 218 years.
2 Eusebius simply added 100 years for this dynasty in the total with the previous dynasties
3 Eusebius’ fifth dynasty kings actually belong to the sixth

Dynasty 6

 6 kings of Memphis, 203 years1203 years2
Pepi I2Phios53   
Nemtiemsaf I3Methusouphis7   
Pepi II4Phiops944Phiops394
Nemtiemsaf II5Menthesouphis1   
Netjerikara6Nitokris ♀12?Nitokris ♀
1 The sum of the items given is 197 years, probably added 100 instead of 94 for Phiops
2 No mention of number of kings, nor the capital. Only names Nitocris as part of the Sixth dynasty
3 Eusebius’ lists these kings in his fifth dynasty

Dynasty 7

70 kings of Memphis ruled for 70 days5 kings of Memphis ruled for 75 days1
No names mentioned
1 Armenian Eusebius has 75 years instead of 75 days

Dynasty 8

27 kings of Memphis, 146 years5 kings of Memphis, 100 years
No names mentioned

Dynasty 9

 19 kings of Herakleopolis , 409 years4 kings of Herakleopolis , 100 years
Wahkara Khety II1Akhthoës1Akhthoës

Dynasty 10

19 kings of Herakleopolis , 185 years
No names mentioned

Dynasty 11

 16 kings of Thebes, 43 years1
1 Sixteen kings ruled for 43 years, then Ammenemes for 16 years.

Between dynasties

Amenemhat I16Ammenemes1616Ammenemes16
Ammenemes was placed outside the dynasties – and not part of the Twelfth Dynasty, due to errors by the redactor of the Epitome.

Dynasty 12

 7 kings of Diospolis, 160 years7 kings of Diospolis, 245 years1
Senusret I1Sesonkhosis461Sesonkhosis46
Amenemhat II2Ammanemes382Ammanemes38
Senusret II + Senusret III3Sesostris483Sesostris48
Amenemhat III4Lakhares84Lamaris8
Neferusobek7Skemiophris ♀47
1 The correct sum is 182 years.

Note: The redactor of the Epitome failed to understand that Manetho’s narrative contained not only four kings named Amenemmes, and three kings named Sestoris, but most of them also had coregencies with their sons. This confusion of the identity of the kings and their reigns resulted in disarray – from Ammenemes to Skemiophris.

Dynasty 13

60 kings of Diospolis, 453 years
No names mentioned

Dynasty 14

76 kings of Xois, 184 years76 kings of Xois, 184 years1
No names mentioned
1 Armenian Eusebius: 484 years. Syncellus noted that another copy of Eusebius had 284 years.

Dynasty 15

 6 shepherd kings from Phoenicia, 284 yearsKings of Diospolis, 250 years2
* Eusebius place these kings in his seventeenth dynasty. Placed here for the sake of comparision with Africanus.
1 Eusebius place these kings in his seventeenth dynasty. The the two dynasties were likely interchanged.
2 from Eusebius’ 17th dynasty: foreign kings from Phoenicia who seized Memphis, 103 years
3 Armenian Eusebius: Aphophis reigned before Arkhles.

Dynasty 16

32 shepherd kings, 518 years5 kings of Thebes, 190 years
No names mentioned

Dynasty 17

 43 shepherd kings and
43 kings of Diospolis (Thebes), 151 years2
4 shepherd kings of Memphis, 103 years
1 Eusebius’ Dynasty XV has: Kings of Diospolis, 250 years. The two dynasties were likely interchanged.
2 The redactor of the epitome clearly misunderstood a summation by compounding two separate dynasties into one.

Dynasty 18

The reigns and names of this dynasty is quite confusing. This was likely due to there being four Amenhoteps and four Thutmoses, which were misunderstood by the writer of the Epitome. Add to that the already obscure Amarna Period and then the coregencies between kings.
PharaohAfricanusEusebiusJeromeJosephus 1
 16 kings of Diospolis,
263 years
14 kings of Diospolis,2
348 years
Kings of Diospolis,
348 years
246 years3
Ahmose I1Amos1Amosis251Amosis25Tethmosis25/4
Thutmose II2Khebros132Khebron132Chebron13Khebron13
Amenhotep I3Amenophthis2443Ammenophis213Ammenophis21Amenophis20/7
Hatshepsut4Amensis22      Amesses ♀21/9
Thutmose I5Misaphris134Miphres5124Mephres12Mephres12/9
Thutmose III6Misphragmouthosis265Misphragmouthosis265Mispharmuthosis26Mephramuthosis25/10
Thutmose IV7Touthmosis96Touthmosis96Thmosis9Thmosis9/8
Amenhotep II8Amenophis317Amenophis317Ammenophis31Amenophis30/10
Amenhotep III9Oros378Oros3668Orus38Oros36/5
Neferneferuaten710Akherres329Akhenkherses1289Achencheres12Akenkheres ♀12/1
?   13Kherres1513Cherres15  
1 Josephus did not indicate any kind of dynastic numbering, and thus no dynastic breaks.
2 The list contain 16 kings, not 14.
3 Added together for comparision (240 years plus 72 months.)
4 Goar emended this to 21 to fit with the summation: ‘Total 69 years from Amos to the rule of Misphragmouthosis’.
5 Armenian Eusebius: Misphres
6 Armenian Eusebius: 38 years
7 Josephus write that this ruler was female, which then can only mean Neferneferuaten.
8 Armenian Eusebius: 16 years
9 Armenian Eusebius: Athoris and Khenkheres names of Eusebius absent, Akherres follow directly after Akhenkherses
10 Probably Ramesses I of the 19th dynasty, based on the length of his known reign.
11 Probably Ramesses II of the 19th dynasty, based on the length of his known reign.

Dynasty 19

 6 kings of Diospolis, 209 years15 kings of Diospolis, 194 years
Seti I1Sethos511Sethos55
Ramesses II2Rhapsakes612Rhampses66
1 The sum of the items given is 204 years
2 Armenian Eusebius has 8 years

Dynasty 20

12 kings of Thebes, 135 years12 kings of Thebes, 178 years
No names mentioned

Dynasty 21

 7 kings of Tanis, 130 years17 kings of Tanis, 130 years
Smendes I1Smendes261Smendis26
Psusennes I2Psousennes462Psousennes41
Psusennes II7Psousennes147Psousennes35
1 The sum of the items given is 114 years

Dynasty 22

 9 kings of Bubastis, 120 years13 kings of Bubastis, 49 years
Shoshenq I1Sesonkhosis211Sesonkhosis21
Osorkon I2Osorthon152Osorthon15
Takelot I6Takelothis133Takelothis13
1 The sum of the items given is 116 years

Dynasty 23

 4 kings of Tanis, 89 years3 kings of Tanis, 44 years
Pedubast I1Petubates401Petubastis25
Osorkon III2Osorkho82Osorthon9
1 The name Zet might be a contraction of Ζητειται (“there is a question”), with the implication that the name is uncertain/unknown.

Dynasty 24


Dynasty 25

 3 Ethiopian kings, 40 years3 Ethiopian kings, 44 years

Dynasty 26

 9 kings of Sais, 150 years, 6 months9 kings of Sais, 167 years
    1Ammeris the Ethiopian121
Psamtik I4Psammetikhos545Psammetikhos452
Necho II5Nekhao II66Nekhao II33
Psamtik II6Psammouthis67Psammouthis17
Psamtik III9Psammekherites6m   
1 Armenian Eusebius has 18 years.
2 Armenian Eusebius has 44 years.
3 Armenian Eusebius has 6 years.

Dynasty 27

 8 Persian kings, 124 years, 4 months8 Persian kings, 120 years, 4 months
Cambyses II1Kambyses61Kambyses3
Darius I2Dareios363Dareios36
Xerxes I3Xerxes the Great214Xerxes21
Artaxerxes I5Artaxerxes415Artaxerxes40
Xerxes II6Xerxes2m6Xerxes II2m
Darius II8Dareios198Dareios191
1 Armenian Eusebius has 19 months instead of years.

Dynasty 28


Dynasty 29

 4 kings of Mendes, 20 years, 4 months4 kings of Mendes, 21 years, 4 months1
Nepherites I1Nepherites61Nepherites6
Nepherites II4Nepherites4m4Nepherites4m
    5Mouthis 21
1 Reigns equal the sum of the five listed kings, despite summary mentioning only four, suggesting one was an usurper.
2 Armenian Eusebius place Mouthis directly after Psammouthis.

Dynasty 30

 3 kings of Sebennytos, 38 years3 kings of Sebennytos, 20 years
Nectanebo I1Nektanebes181Nektanebes10
Djedhor Teos I2Teos22Teos2
Nectanebo II3Nektanebus183Nektanebos8

Dynasty 31

 3 Persian kings, 9 years3 Persian kings, 16 years
Artaxerxes III1Okhos21Okhos6
Darius III3Dareios43Dareios6

The lists of Africanus and Eusebius both end with the conquest of Egypt by Alexander the Great.

Copied & adapted from Lundström, Peter. (2011). PHARAOH.SE Available at: [Accessed July. 2023]. The man, the lagend, may his name be immortalized and forever blessed.


  • Karst, J.Eusebius Werke 5: Die Chronik aus dem Armenischen übersetzt mit textkritischem Kommentar, GCS 20. (Leipzig: 1911)
  • Adler, W. and Tuffin, P.The Chronography of George Synkellos, (Oxford: 2002)
  • Waddell, W. G.Manetho, (Cambridge, Mass; London: 1940, Ed. 1964)
  • Mosshammer, Alden. A. (ed.)Georgii Syncelli Ecloga chronographica, (Berlin, Boston: 1984)

Excerpts from Manetho

As there are no surviving copies of the original Manetho, we must rely upon excerpts and fragments copied by later authors. The four of any significance were Eusebius, Syncellus, Africanus and Josephus. Below are the excerpts of Manetho preserved in their respective larger works.

To read their full works (and not just the Manetho excerpts see the following links.
Eusebius Chronicle (Public Domain Armenian Version by Robert Bedrosian, King lists starts on page p.39) Or download it as a pdf file. 
The History of Manetho as preserved by Josephus in ‘Against Apion
(Text below is mostly from Loeb Classical Library edition, 1940, public domain. footnotes and arrangement by Bill Thayer, the man, the legend. May his name be forever immortalized. Reproduced here because I’m going to do a ton of re-linking, and attaching to my revised chronology and interactive Map interface.)

Book I

Fr. 1 (from the Armenian Version of Eusebius, Chronica).
Dynasties of Gods, Demigods, and Spirits of the Dead.

From the Egyptian History of Manetho, who composed his account in three books. These deal with the Gods, the Demigods, the Spirits of the Dead, and the mortal kings who ruled Egypt down to Darius, king of the Persians.

1. The first man (or god) in Egypt is Hephaestus,​1 who is also renowned among the Egyptians as the discoverer of fire. His son, Helios (the Sun), was succeeded by Sôsis; then follow, in turn, Cronos, Osiris, Typhon, brother of Osiris, and lastly Orus, son of Osiris and Isis. These were the first to hold sway in Egypt. Thereafter, the kingship passed from one to another in unbroken succession down to Bydis (Bites)​2 through 13,900 years. The year I take, however, to be a lunar one, consisting, that is, of 30 days: what we now call a month the Egyptians used formerly to style a year.3

2. After the Gods, Demigods reigned for 1255 years,​4 and again another line of kings held sway for 1817 years: then came thirty more kings of Memphis,​5 reigning for 1790 years; and then again ten kings of This, reigning for 350 years.

3. There followed the rule of Spirits of the Dead and Demigods,​6 for 5813 years.

4. The total [of the last five groups] amounts to 11,000 years,​7 these however being lunar periods, or months. But, in truth, the whole rule of which the Egyptians tell — the rule of Gods, Demigods, and Spirits of the Dead — is reckoned to have comprised in all 24,900 lunar years, which make 2206​8 solar years.

5. Now, if you care to compare these figures with Hebrew chronology, you will find that they are in perfect harmony. Egypt is called Mestraïm​9 by the Hebrews; and Mestraïm lived <not> long after the Flood. For after the Flood, Cham (or Ham), son of Noah, begat Aegyptus or Mestraïm, who was the first to set out to establish himself in Egypt, at the time when the tribes began to disperse this way and that. Now the whole time from Adam to the Flood was, according to the Hebrews, 2242 years.

6. But, since the Egyptians claim by a sort of prerogative of antiquity that they have, before the Flood, a line of Gods, Demigods, and Spirits of the Dead, who reigned for more than 20,000 years, it clearly follows that these years should be reckoned  p9 as the same number of months as the years recorded by the Hebrews: that is, that all the months contained in the Hebrew record of years, should be reckoned as so many lunar years of the Egyptian calculation, in accordance with the total length of time reckoned from the creation of man in the beginning down to Mestraïm. Mestraïm was indeed the founder of the Egyptian race; and from him the first Egyptian dynasty must be held to spring.

7. But if the number of years is still in excess, it must be supposed that perhaps several Egyptian kings ruled at one and the same time; for they say that the rulers were kings of This, of Memphis, of Saïs, of Ethiopia, and of other places at the same time. It seems, moreover, that different kings held sway in different regions, and that each dynasty was confined to its own nome: thus it was not a succession of kings occupying the throne one after the other, but several kings reigning at the same time in different regions.​10 Hence arose the great total number of years. But let us leave this question and take up in detail the chronology of Egyptian history

(Continued in Fr. 7(b).)

Fr. 2 (from Syncellus)

Thereafter​11 Manetho tells also of five Egyptian tribes which formed thirty dynasties, comprising those whom they call Gods, Demigods, Spirits of the Dead, and mortal men. Of these Eusebius, “son” of Pamphilus, gives the following account in his Chronica: “Concerning Gods, Demigods, Spirits of the Dead, and mortal kings, the Egyptians have a long series of foolish myths. The most ancient Egyptian kings, indeed, alleged that their years were lunar years consisting of thirty days, whereas the Demigods who succeeded them gave the name hóroi to years which were three months long.” So Eusebius wrote with good reason, criticizing the Egyptians for their foolish talk; and in my opinion Panodôrus​12 is wrong in finding fault with Eusebius here, on the ground that Eusebius failed to explain the meaning of the historians, while Panodôrus thinks he himself succeeds by a somewhat novel method, as follows:

“From the creation of Adam, indeed, down to Enoch, i.e. to the general cosmic year 1282, the number of days was known in neither month nor year; but the Egregori (or ‘Watchers’),​13 who had  p13 descended to earth in the general cosmic year 1000, held converse with men, and taught them that the orbits of the two luminaries, being marked by the twelve signs of the Zodiac, are composed of 360 parts. Observing the moon’s orbit which is nearer the earth, smaller, and more conspicuous, as it has a period of thirty days, men decided that it should be reckoned as a year, since the orbit of the sun also was filled by the same twelve signs of the Zodiac with an equal number of parts, 360. So it came to pass that the reigns of the Gods who ruled among them for six generations in six dynasties were reckoned in years each consisting of a lunar cycle of thirty days. The total in lunar years is 11,985, or 969 solar years. By adding these to the 1058​14 solar years of the period before their reign, they reach the sum total of 2027 years.” Similarly, in the two dynasties of nine Demigods, — these being regarded as real, although they never existed, — Panodôrus strives to make up 214½ years out of 858 hóroi (periods of three months) or tropoi, so that with the 969 years they make, he says, 1183½, and these, when added to the 1058 years from the time of Adam to the reign of the Gods, complete a total of 2242 years down to the Flood.

Thus Panodôrus exerts himself to show that the Egyptian writings against God and against our divinely inspired Scriptures are really in agreement with them. In this he criticizes Eusebius, not understanding that these arguments of his, which are incapable of proof or of reasoning, have been proved  p15 against himself and against truth, since indeed . . . neither Babylon nor Chaldea was ruled by kings before the Flood, nor was Egypt before Mestrem, and in my opinion it was not even inhabited before that time. . . .

Fr. 3 (from Syncellus)

On the Antiquity of Egypt

Manetho of Sebennytus, chief priest of the accursed temples of Egypt, who lived later than Bêrôssos in the time of Ptolemy Philadelphus, writes to this Ptolemy, with the same utterance of lies as Bêrôssos, concerning six dynasties or six gods who never existed: these, he says, reigned for 11,985 years. The first of them, the god Hêphaestus, was king for 9000 years. Now some of our historians, reckoning these 9000 years as so many lunar months, and dividing the number of days in these 9000 lunar months by the 365 days in a year, find a total of 727¾ years. They imagine that they have attained a striking result, but one must rather say that it is a ludicrous falsehood which they have tried to pit against Truth.

The First Dynasty of Egypt

1. Hêphaestus reigned for 727¾ years.
2. Hêlios (the Sun), son of Hêphaestus, for 80⅙ years.
3. Agathodaemôn, for 56 7⁄12 years.
4. Cronos, for 40½ years.
5. Osiris and Isis, for 35 years.
6. Typhon, for 29 years.15


7. Ôrus, for 25 years.
8. Arês, for 23 years.
9. Anubis, for 17 years.
10. Hêraclês, for 15 years.
11. Apollô, for 25 years.
12. Ammôn, for 30 years.
13. Tithoês,​16 for 27 years.
14. Sôsus, for 32 years.
15 Zeus, for 20 years.17

Fr. 4​18 (from Excerpta Latina Barbari)

In the kingdom of Egypt we have the oldest of all kingdoms, and we are minded to record its beginning, as it is given by Manetho. First, I shall put down as follows the reigns of the Gods, as recorded by the Egyptians. Some say that the god Hêphaestus reigned in Egypt for 680 years; after him, Sol [Hêlios, the Sun], son of Hêphaestus, for 77 years: next, Sosinosiris [Sôsis and Osiris], for 320 years: then Orus the Ruler, for 28 years; and after him, Typhon, for 45 years. Total for the reigns of the Gods, 1550 years.19

Next come the reigns of the Demigods, as follows first, Anubes​20 for 83 years; then after him, Amusis, some say, was king. About him, Apiôn the grammarian,​21 who composed a history of Egypt, explained that he lived in the time of Inachus​22 who was king at the founding of Argos . . . for 67 years.23

  I. Thereafter he [Manetho] gave an account of the kings who were Spirits of the Dead, calling them also Demigods, . . . who reigned for 2100 years: he called them “very brave” (Heroes).
II. Mineus and seven of his descendants reigned for 253 years.​24
III. Bochus and eight other kings reigned for 302 years.
IV. Necherocheus and seven other kings for 214 years.
V. Similarly seventeen other kings for 277 years.
VI. Similarly twenty‑one other kings for 258 years.
VII. Othoi and seven other kings for 203 years.
VIII. Similarly fourteen other kings for 140 years.
IX. Similarly twenty other kings for 409 years.
X. Similarly seven other kings for 204 years.

Here ends the First Book of Manetho, which contains a period of 2100 years.25

XI.​26 A dynasty of kings of Diospolis, for 60 years.
XII. A dynasty of kings of Bubastus, for 153 years.
XIII. A dynasty of kings of Tanis, for 184 years.
XIV. A dynasty of kings of Sebennytus, for 224 years.
XV. A dynasty of kings of Memphis, for 318 years.
XVI. A dynasty of kings of Hêliopolis, for 221 years.
XVII. A dynasty of kings of Hermupolis, for 260 years.

The Second Book continues the record down to the Seventeenth Dynasty, and comprises 1520 years.​27 These are the Egyptian dynasties.

Fr. 5 (from the Chronicle of Malalas)

[After recording the reigns of Hêphaestus (1680 days),º Hêlios (4477​28 days),º Sôsis, Osiris, Hôrus, and Thulis, Malalas adds:]

These ancient reigns of early Egyptian kings are recorded by Manetho, and in his writings it is stated that the names of the five planets are given in other forms: Cronos [Saturn] they used to call the shining star; Zeus [Jupiter], the radiant star [Phaethôn]; Arês [Mars], the fiery star; Aphroditê [Venus], the fairest; Hermês [Mercury], the glittering star. These names were later explained by the wise Sôtatês [? Sôtadês or Palaephatus].29

The first king of Egypt belonged to the tribe of Cham [Ham], Noah’s son; he was Pharaôh, who was also called Narachô.

 Now, the ancient reigns in Egypt before King Narachô were set forth by the wise Manetho, as has already been mentioned.

Fr. 6 (from Syncellus)

Since a knowledge of the periods of the Egyptian dynasties from Mestraïm​30 down to Nectanabô​31 is on many occasions needful to those who occupy themselves with chronological investigations, and since the dynasties taken from Manetho’s History are set forth by ecclesiastical historians with discrepancies in respect both to the names of the kings and the length of their reigns, and also as to who was king when Joseph was governor of Egypt, and in whose reign thereafter Moses, — he who saw God, — led the Hebrews in their exodus from Egypt, I have judged it necessary to select two of the most famous recensions and to set them side by side — I mean the accounts of Africanus and of the later Eusebius, the so‑called “son” of Pamphilus, — so that with proper application one may apprehend the opinion which approaches nearest to Scriptural truth. It must, above all, be strictly understood that the Africanus increases by 20 years the period from Adam to the Flood, and instead of 2242 years he makes it out to be 2262 years, which appears to be incorrect. On the other hand, Eusebius keeps to the sound reckoning of 2242 years in agreement with Scripture. In regard to the period from the Flood down to Abraham and Moses, both have gone astray by 130  p27 years belonging to the second Caïnan, son of Arphaxad,​32 even one generation, the thirteenth, from Adam, as it is recorded by the divine evangelist Luke.​33 But Africanus, in the 20 years which he added between Adam and the Flood, anticipated this; and in the period of Caïnan and his successors, only 110 years remain. Hence, down to the first year of Abraham he reckoned 3202 years; but Eusebius, completely omitting those 130 years, gave 3184 years​34 as far as Abraham’s first year.

Dynasty I

According to Africanus

Here is the account which Africanus gives of the dynasties of Egypt pamphlet the Flood].

1. In succession to the spirits of the Dead, the Demigods, — the first royal house​35 numbers eight kings, the first of whom Mênês​36 of  p29 This​37 reigned for 62 years. He was carried off by a hippopotamus​38 and perished.
2. Athôthis, his son, for 57 years. He built the palace at Memphis;​39 and his anatomical works​40 are extant, for he was a physician.
3. Kenkenês, his son, for 31 years.
4. Uenephês, his son, for 23 years. In his reign a great famine seized Egypt. He erected the pyramids near Kôchômê.​41
5. Usaphaidos,​42a his son, for 20 years.
6. Miebidos,​42b his son, for 26 years.
7. Semempsês, his son, for 18 years. In his reign a very great calamity befell Egypt.
8. Biênechês, his son, for 26 years.

Total, 253 years.43

Eusebius also sets out the details of the First Dynasty in much the same way as Africanus.

Fr. 7 (a) (from Syncellus). According to Eusebius.​44

Here is the account which Eusebius gives of the Egyptian dynasties [after the Flood].

In succession to the Spirits of the Dead and the Demigods, the Egyptians reckon the First Dynasty to consist of eight kings. Among these was Mênês, whose rule in Egypt was illustrious. I shall record the rulers of each race from the time of Mênês; their succession is as follows:

1. Mênês of This, with his [17, or in another copy] 7 descendants, — the king called Mên by Herodotus, — reigned for 60 years. He made a foreign expedition and won renown, but was carried off by a hippopotamus.
2. Athôthis, his son, ruled for 27 years. He built the palace at Memphis; he practised medicine and wrote anatomical books.
3. Kenkenês, his son, for 39 years.
4. Uenephês, for 42 years. In his reign famine seized the land. He built the pyramids near Kôchôme.
5. Usaphaïs, for 20 years.
6. Niebaïs, for 26 years.
7. Semempsês, for 18 years. In his reign there were many portents and a very great calamity.
8. Ubienthês, for 26 years.

The total of all reigns, 252 years.45

(b) Armenian Version of Eusebius.

In succession to the Spirits of the Dead and the Demigods, the Egyptians reckon the First Dynasty to consist of eight kings. The first of these was Mênês, who won high renown in the government of his kingdom. Beginning with him, I shall carefully record the royal families one by one: their succession in detail is as follows:

-Mênês of This (whom Herodotus named Min) and his seven descendants. He reigned for 30 years, and advanced with his army beyond the frontiers of his realm, winning renown by his exploits. He was carried off by a hippopotamus god (?).​46
-Athothis, his son, held the throne for 27 years. He built for himself a royal palace at Memphis, and also practised the art of medicine, writing books on the method of anatomy.
-Cencenes, his son, for 39 years.
-Vavenephis, for 42 years. In his time famine seized the land. He reared pyramids near the town of Cho.
-Usaphaïs, for 20 years.
-Niebaïs, for 26 years.
-Mempses, for 18 years. In his reign many portents and a great pestilence occurred.
-Vibenthis, for 26 years.

Total for the dynasty, 252 years.47

2nd Dynasty II

Fr. 8 (from Syncellus). According to Africanus.

The Second Dynasty​48 consists of nine kings of This. The first was Boêthos, for 38 years. In his reign a chasm opened at Bubastus,​49 and many perished.
2. Kaiechôs, for 39 years. In his reign the bulls,​50 Apis at Memphis and Mnevis at Heliopolis, and the Mendesian goat were worshipped as gods.
3. Binôthris, for 47 years. In his reign it was decided that women​51 might hold the kingly office.
4. Tlas, for 17 years.
5. Sethenês, for 41 years.
6. Chairês, for 17 years.
7. Nephercherês, for 25 years. In his reign, the story goes, the Nile flowed blended with honey for 11 days.
8. Sesôchris, for 48 years: his stature was 5 cubits 3 palms.​52
9. Chenerês, for 30 years.

Total, 302 years.

Total for the First and Second Dynasties [after the Flood], 555 years, according to the second edition of Africanus.

Fr. 9 (from Syncellus). According to Eusebius.

The Second Dynasty consisted of nine kings.

-First came Bôchos, in whose reign a chasm opened at Bubastus, and many perished.
-He was succeeded by Kaichôos (or Chôos), in whose time Apis and Mnevis and also the Mendesian goat were worshipped as gods.
3. Biophis, in whose reign it was decided that women also might hold the kingly office. In the reigns of the three succeeding kings, no notable event occurred.
7. In the seventh reign, as the story goes, the Nile flowed blended with honey for 11 days.
8. Next. Sesôchris was king for 48 years: the greatness of his stature is said to have been 5 cubits 3 palms.
9. In the ninth reign there happened no event worthy of mention. These kings ruled for 297 years.

Total for the First and Second Dynasties, 549 years, according to the recension of Eusebius.

Fr. 10 Armenian Version of Eusebius.

The Second Dynasty consisted of nine kings.

-First came Bôchus, in whose reign a huge hole opened at Bubastus, and swallowed up many persons.
-He was succeeded by Cechous, in whose time Apis and Mnevis and the Mendesian goat were worshipped as gods.
-Next came Biophis, in whose reign it was decreed by law that women might hold the royal office.
-In the reigns of the three succeeding kings, no notable event occurred.
-Under the seventh king fabulists tell how the river Nile flowed with honey as well as water for 11 days.
-Next, Sesochris ruled for 48 years: he is said to have been 5 cubits high and 3 palms broad.53
-Finally, under the ninth king no memorable event occurred.

These kings reigns for 297 years.

3rd Dynasty III

Fr. 11 (from Syncellus). The Account of Africanus.

The Third Dynasty​54 comprised nine kings of Memphis.

1. Necherôphês, for 28 years. In his reign the Libyans revolted against Egypt, and when the moon waxed beyond reckoning, they surrendered in terror.
2. Tosorthros,​55 for 29 years. <In his reign lived Imuthês,>​56 who because of his medical skill has the reputation of Asclepios among the  p43 Egyptians, and who was the inventor of the art of building with hewn stone. He also devoted attention to writing.
3. Tyreis (or Tyris), for 7 years.
4. Mesôchris, for 17 years.
5. Sôÿphis, for 16 years.
6. Tosertasis, for 19 years.
7. Achês, for 42 years.
8. Sêphuris, for 30 years.
9. Kerpherês, for 26 years.

Total, 214 years.

Total for the first three dynasties, according to Africanus, 769 years.

Fr. 12 (a) (from Syncellus). According to Eusebius.

The Third Dynasty consisted of eight kings of Memphis:

1. Necherôchis, in whose reign the Libyans revolted against Egypt, and when the moon waxed beyond reckoning, they surrendered in terror.
2. He was succeeded by Sesorthos . . . : he was styled Asclepios in Egypt because of his medical skill. He was also the inventor of the art of building with hewn stone, and devoted attention to writing as well.

The remaining six kings achieved nothing worthy of mention. These eight kings reigned for 198 years.

Total for the first three dynasties, according to Eusebius, 747 years.

(b) Armenian Version of Eusebius.

The Third Dynasty consisted of eight kings of Memphis:

-Necherochis, in whose reign the Libyans revolted against Egypt: later when the moon waxed unseasonably, they were terrified and returned to their allegiance.
-Next came Sosorthus . . .: he was styled Aesculapius by the Egyptian because of his medical skill. He was also the inventor of building with hewn stone; and in addition he devoted care to the writing of books.

The six remaining kings did nothing worthy of mention. The reigns of the whole dynasty amount to 197 years.

4th Dynasty IV

Fr. 14 (from Syncellus). According to Africanus.

The Fourth Dynasty​57 comprised eight kings of Memphis, belonging to a different line:

1. Sôris, for 29 years.
2. Suphis [I], for 63 years. He reared the Great Pyramid,​58 which Herodotus says was built by Cheops. Suphis conceived a contempt for the gods: he also composed the Sacred Book, which I acquired in my visit to Egypt​59 because of its high renown.
3. Suphis [II], for 66 years.
4. Mencherês, for 63 years.
5. Ratoisês, for 25 years.
6. Bicheris, for 22 years.
7. Sebercherês, for 7 years.
8. Thamphthis, for 9 years.

Total, 277 years.60

Total for the first four dynasties [after the Flood], 1046 years according to Africanus.

Fr. 15 (from Syncellus). According to Eusebius.

The Fourth Dynasty comprised seventeen kings of Memphis belonging to a different royal line.

Of these the third was Suphis, the builder of the Great Pyramid, which Herodotus says was built by Cheops. Suphis conceived a contempt for the gods, but repenting of this, he composed the Sacred Book, which the Egyptians hold in high esteem.

Of the remaining kings no achievement worthy of mention has been recorded.

This dynasty reigned for 448 years.

Total for the first four dynasties [after the Flood], 1195 years according to Eusebius.

Fr. 16 Armenian Version of Eusebius.

The Fourth Dynasty consisted of seventeen kings of Memphis belonging to a different royal line. The third of these kings, Suphis, was the builder of the Great Pyramid, which Herodotus declares to have been built by Cheops. Suphis behaved arrogantly towards the gods themselves: then, in penitence, he composed the Sacred Book in which the Egyptians believe they possess a great treasure. Of the remaining kings nothing worthy of mention is recorded in history. The reigns of the whole dynasty amount to 448 years.

5th Dynasty V

Fr. 18 (from Syncellus). According to Africanus.

The Fifth Dynasty​61 was composed of eight kings of Elephantine:

1. Usercherês, for 28 years.
2. Sephrês, for 13 years.
3. Nephercherês, for 20 years.
4. Sisirês, for 7 years.
5. Cherês, for 20 years.
6. Rathurês, for 44 years.
7. Mencherês, for 9 years.
8. Tancherês (? Tatcherês), for 44 years.
9. Onnus, for 33 years.

Total, 248 years.62

Along with the aforementioned 1046 years of the first four dynasties, this amounts to 1294 years.

Fr. 19 (a) (from Syncellus). According to Eusebius.

The Fifth Dynasty consisted of thirty‑one kings of Elephantine. Of these the first was Othoês,​63 who was murdered by his bodyguard.

 p53 The fourth king, Phiôps, succeeding when six years old, reigned until his hundredth year. Thus, along with the aforementioned 1195 years of the first four dynasties, this amounts to 1295 years.

(b) Armenian Version of Eusebius.

The Fifth Dynasty consisted of thirty‑one kings of Elephantine. Of these the first was Othius, who was killed by his attendants. The fourth king was Phiôps, who held the royal office from his sixth​64 right down to his hundredth year.

6th Dynasty VI

Fr. 20 (from Syncellus). According to Africanus.

The Sixth Dynasty​65 consisted of six kings of Memphis:

1. Othoês, for 30 years: he was murdered by his bodyguard.
2. Phius, for 53 years.
3. Methusuphis, for 7 years.
4. Phiôps, who began to reign at the age of six, and continued until his hundredth year.​66
5. Menthesuphis, for 1 year.
6. Nitôcris,​67 the noblest and loveliest of the women of her time, of fair complexion, the builder of the third pyramid, reigned for 12 years.

Total, 203 years.​68 Along with the aforementioned 1294 years of the first five dynasties, this amounts to 1497 years.

Fr. 21 (a) (from Syncellus). According to Eusebius.

The Sixth Dynasty.

There was a queen Nitôcris, the noblest and loveliest of the women of her time; she had a fair complexion, and is said to have built the third pyramid.

 p57 These rulers (or this ruler) reigned for three years: in another copy, 203 years. Along with the aforementioned 1295 years of the first five dynasties, this amounts to 1498 years.

(Syncellus adds:) It must be noted how much less accurate Eusebius is than Africanus in the number of kings he gives, in the omission of names, and in dates, although he practically repeats the account of Africanus in the same words.

(b) Armenian Version of Eusebius.

The Sixth Dynasty. There was a queen Nitôcris, braver than all the men of her time, the most beautiful of all the women, fair-skinned with red cheeks. By her, it is said, the third pyramid was reared, with the aspect of a mountain.

The united reigns of all the kings amount to 203 years.

7th Dynasty VII

Fr. 23 (from Syncellus). According to Africanus.

The Seventh Dynasty​69 consisted of seventy kings of Memphis, who reigned for 70 days.

Fr. 24 (a) (from Syncellus). According to Eusebius.

The Seventh Dynasty consisted of five kings of Memphis, who reigned for 75 days.

(b) Armenian Version of Eusebius.

The Seventh Dynasty consisted of five kings of Memphis, who held sway for 75 days.

8th Dynasty VIII

Fr. 25 (from Syncellus). According to Africanus.

The Eighth Dynasty​70 consisted of twenty-seven kings of Memphis, who reigned for 146 years. Along with the aforementioned reigns, this amounts to 1639 years for the first eight dynasties.

Fr. 25 (a) (from Syncellus). According to Eusebius.

The Eighth Dynasty consisted of five kings of Memphis, who reigned for 100 years. Along with the aforementioned reigns, this amounts to 1598 years for the first eight dynasties.

(b) Armenian Version of Eusebius.

The Eighth Dynasty consisted of five​71 kings of Memphis, whose rule lasted for 100 years.

9th Dynasty IX

Fr. 27 (from Syncellus). According to Africanus.

The Ninth Dynasty​72 consisted of nineteen kings of Hêracleopolis, who reigned for 409 years. The first of these, King Achthoês,​73 behaving more cruelly than his predecessors, wrought woes for the people of all Egypt, but afterwards he was smitten with madness, and was killed by a crocodile.74

Fr. 28 (a) (from Syncellus). According to Eusebius.

The Ninth Dynasty consisted of four kings of Hêracleopolis, who reigned for 100 years. The first of these, King Achthô ês, behaving more cruelly than his predecessors, wrought woes for the people of all Egypt, but afterwards he was smitten with madness, and was killed by a crocodile.

(b) Armenian Version of Eusebius.

The Ninth Dynasty consisted of four kings of Heracleopolis, reigning for 100 years. The first of these, King Ochthôis,​75 was more cruel than all his  p63 predecessors, and visited the whole of Egypt with dire disasters. Finally, he was seized with madness and devoured by a crocodile.

10th Dynasty X

Fr. 29 (from Syncellus). According to Africanus.

The Tenth Dynasty consisted of nineteen kings of Hêracleopolis, who reigned for 185 years.

Fr. 30 (a) (from Syncellus). According to Eusebius.

The Tenth Dynasty consisted of nineteen kings of Hêracleopolis, who reigned for 185 years.

(b) Armenian Version of Eusebius.

The Tenth Dynasty consisted of nineteen kings of Hêracleopolis, who reigned for 185 years.

11th Dynasty XI

Fr. 31 (from Syncellus). According to Africanus.

The Eleventh Dynasty​76 consisted of sixteen kings of Diospolis [or Thebes], who reigned for 43 years. In succession to these, Ammenemês​77 ruled for 16 years.

Here ends the First Book of Manetho.

Total for the reigns of 192 kings, 2300 years 70 days.

Fr. 32 (a) (from Syncellus). According to Eusebius.

The Eleventh Dynasty consisted of sixteen kings of Diospolis [or Thebes], who reigned for 43 years. In succession to these, Ammenemês ruled for 16 years.

Here ends the First Book of Manetho.

Total for the reigns of 192 kings, 2300 years 79 days.

(b) Armenian Version of Eusebius.

The Eleventh Dynasty consisted of sixteen kings of Diospolis [or Thebes], who reigned for 43 years. In succession to these, Ammenemes ruled for 16 years.

Here ends the First Book of Manetho.

Total for the reigns of 192 kings, 2300 years.

The Editor’s Notes:

1 The Pre‑dynastic Period begins with a group of gods, “consisting of the Great Ennead of Heliopolis in the form in which it was worshipped at Memphis” (T. E. Peet, Cambridge Ancient History, I p250). After summarizing §§ 1‑3 Peet adds: “From the historical point of view there is little to be made of this”. See Meyer, Geschichte des Altertums5, I.ii p102 f. for the Egyptian traditions of the Pre‑dynastic Period. In the Turin Papyrus the Gods are given in the same order: (Ptah), Rê, (Shu), Geb, Osiris, Sêth (200 years), Horus (300 years), Thoth (3126 years), MaꜤat, Har, . . . Total . . . . See Meyer, Aeg. Chron. p116, and cf. Fr. 3.

2 The name Bydis (or Bites) seems to be the Egyptian bı͗ty 𓆤𓏏𓀭 “king” (from bı͗t 𓆤𓏏𓏤 “bee”), the title of the kings of Lower Egypt: see the Palermo Stone, and cf. Herodotus, IV.155, “the Libyans call their king ‘Battos’ ” (P. E. Newberry). Bitys appears in late times as a translator or interpreter of Hermetical writings: see Iamblich. De Mysteriis, VIII.5 (= Scott, Hermetica, IV p34) where the prophet Bitys is said to have translated [for King Ammôn] a book (The Way to Higher Thingsi.e. a treatise on the theurgic or supernatural means of attaining to union with the Demiurgus) which he found inscribed in hieroglyphs in a shrine at Saïs in Egypt. Cf. the pseudo-Manetho, App. I.

3 There is no evidence that the Egyptian year was ever equal to a month: there were short years (each of 360 days) and long years (see Fr. 49).

4 See Excerpta Latina Barbari (Fr. 4) for the beginning of this dynasty: “First, Anubis . . .”.

5 Corroborated by the Turin Papyrus, Col. II: “of Memphis”.

6 “Demigods” should be in apposition to “Spirits of the Dead” (νέκυες ἡμίθεοι), as in Excerpta Latina Barbari (Fr. 4) and Africanus (Fr. 6. 1). These are perhaps the Shemsu Hor 𓅃𓌞𓋴𓂻𓏥, the Followers or Worshippers of Horus, of the Turin Papyrus: see H. R. Hall, Cambridge Ancient History, I p265. Before King Mênês (Fr. 6), the king of Upper Egypt who imposed his sway upon the fertile Delta and founded the First Dynasty, — the Shemsu Hor, the men of the Falcon Clan whose original home was in the West Delta, had formed an earlier united kingdom by conquering Upper Egypt: see V. Gordon Childe, New Light on the Most Ancient East, 1934, p8,º based upon Breasted, Bull. Instit. Franç. Arch. Or. XXX (Cairo, 1930), pp710 ff., and Schäfer’s criticism, Orient. Literaturz. 1932, p704.

7 The exact total of the items given is 11,025 years. So also 24,900 infra is a round number for 24,925.

8 Boeckh, Manetho und die Hundssternperiode, , corrects this to 2046.

9 Mestraïm: the Mizraïm of O. T. Genesis x.6: Arabic Miṣrun, Cuneiform Muṣri, Miṣri (Egypt). Mizraïm is a dual name-form, perhaps to be explained in reference to the two great native divisions of Egypt, Upper and Lower.

10 For the contemporaneous existence of a number of petty kingdoms in Egypt, see the Piankhi stele, Breasted, Ancient Records, IV §§ 830, 878, and the passage from Artapanus, Concerning the Jews, quoted on n. 3. T. Nicklin (in his Studies in Egyptian Chronology, 1928‑29, p39) says: “The Manethonian Dynasties are not lists of rulers over all Egypt, but lists partly of more or less independent princes, partly of princely lines from which later sprang rulers over all Egypt. (Cf. the Scottish Stuarts, or the Electors of Hanover.) Some were mere Mayors of the Palace or princelets maintaining a precarious independence, or even more subordinate Governors of nomes, from whom, however, descended subsequent monarchs. (Cf. the Heptarchy in England.)”

11 This passage follows after Appendix I, p210.

12 Panodôrus (fl. 395‑408 A.D.) and his contemporary Annianus were Egyptian monks who wrote on Chronology with the purpose of harmonizing Chaldean and Egyptian systems with that of the Jews. Panodôrus used (and perhaps composed) the Book of Sôthis (App. IV).

13 Ἐγρήγοροι, “Watchers, Angels” — in Enoch, 179, of the angels who fell in love with the daughters of men. The Greek word Ἐγρήγοροι is a mispronunciation of the Aramaic word used in Enoch, 179.

14 See Intro. p. xxviii.º

15 Total, 969 years.

16 Total, 214 years. Total for Gods and Demigods, 1183 years. See Fr. 2.

17 This extract made by an anonymous and ignorant scribe depends chiefly upon Africanus. See Weill, La fin du moyen empire égyptien, pp640642 f.655 f. Gelzer and Bauer have inferred that the Greek account translated by Barbarus was either the work of the Egyptian monk Annianus (see Fr. 2, p11 n. 2) or at least a source derived from him (Laqueur, R.‑E. XIV.1, 1081).

18 For the divinity Tithoês in two inscriptions of Coptos, see O. Guéraud in Ann. Serv. Antiq., 35 (1935), pp5 f.

19 The actual total of the items given is 1150 years.

20 The translation follows the restored Greek original: see note 3 on the text.

21 Apiôn the grammarian, born in Upper Egypt, lived at Rome in the time of Tiberius, Gaius, and Claudius: Tiberius called him by the nickname of “cymbalum mundi”.​* As leader of the anti-Jewish movement, Apiôn was later attacked by Josephus in his Contra Apionem.

The quotation from Apiôn appears to derive in part from the History of Ptolemy of Mendês: see Tatian, Or. adversus Graecos, § 38, in Migne, Patrologia Graeca, VI.880‑882, and in Müller, F. H. G. IV p485 (quoted in F. H. G. II p533). (Ptolemy of Mendês dated the Exodus to the reign of Amôsis, who was contemporary with Inachus. Apiôn in the fourth volume of his Aegyptiaca (in five volumes) stated that Auaris was destroyed by Amôsis.) Much matter must have been common to the works of Ptolemy of Mendês and Apiôn: cf. Africanus in Eusebius, Praepar. Evang. X.10, “Apiôn says that in the time of Inachus Moses led out the Jews”. Cf. Fr. 52, 153, 9.

* Thayer’s Note: Pliny, Nat. Hist. praef. 25.

22 The founder of the First Dynasty of kings of Argos, Inachus is said to have died twenty generations before the Fall of Troy, i.e. circa 1850 B.C. Aegyptus and Danaus were fifth in descent from Inachus: cf. Fr. 50, § 102.

23 This appears to be the length of the reign of Amôsis, not of Inachus. Cf. Fr. 52, 1, where Africanus as recorded by Syncellus omits the number of years.

24 The totals given by Barbarus are generally those of Africanus. Barbarus omits Manetho’s Dynasty VII; and Potestas X is explained by Gelzer (Sextus Julius Africanus, p199) as being Manetho’s X + XI + Ammenemes (16 years) = 244 years. Total, 2300.

25 The actual total of the items given is 2260 years.

26 Potestas XI is Manetho’s Dynasty XII. Barbarus therefore gives Dynasties XII‑XVIII: the totals (corrected by Meyer, Aeg. Chron. 99, n. 2) are — XII. 160, XIII. 453, XIV. 184, XV. 284, XVI. 518, XVII. 151, XVIII. 262 (+ XIX. 209). Sum total for Book II, 2221 years; cf. Fr. 55 Africanus, 56 Eus. (Arm.), 2121 years.

The names of Potestates XII‑XVII, or Dynasties XIII‑XVIII, come from some other source than Manetho: the Tanites of Potestas XIII or Dynasty XIV appear to correspond with the Hyksôs, just as in the Book of Sôthis (App. IV); while others may be local dynasties of the Hyksôs age. The kings of Hermupolis (Potestas XVII) apparently denote the kings of the Eighteenth Dynasty, whose names indicate the cult of the Moon-deities ʾIoḥ and Thôth of Hermupolis (Meyer, Gesch.5 I.ii. p326).

27 The actual total of the items given is 1420 years.

28 4407 codd.

29 Palaephatus of Egypt, or Athens, wrote on Egyptian theology and mythology, c. 200 B.C., — more than seven centuries earlier than Malalas himself (c. A.D. 491‑578).

30 See p7 n. 2.

31 Nectanabô or Nectanebus, the last king of Dynasty XXX.

32 Arphaxad, son of Shem: O. T. Genesis x.22. “Arphaxad” is probably a Mesopotamian name (W. F. Albright, The Archaeology of Palestine and the Bible2, 1932‑3, p139).

33 N. T. Luke iii.36.

34 Eusebius reckoned 2242 years from Adam to the Flood, and 942 years from the Flood to Abraham.

35 Dynasties I and II, the Thinites: c. 3200-c. 2780 B.C.

Note. — The dates which have been adopted throughout this book are those of Eduard Meyer, except where another authority is specified. Meyer’s revised dates (as in Die Älter Chronologie . . ., 1931) may conveniently be found in G. Steindorff’s chapter on Ancient History in Baedeker8, pp. ci ff. In the Cambridge Ancient History, vol. I, H. R. Hall gives for the dynasties a series of dates which differ from those of Breasted and the German School: he assigns earlier dates to the first twelve dynasties, e.g. Dynasty I c. 3500 B.C. A. Scharff, on the other hand, dates the beginning of Dynasty I c. 3000 B.C. (Journ. of Eg. Arch. XIV, 1928, pp275 f.).

Dynasty I. For the identifications of Manetho’s kings with monumental and other evidence, see Meyer, Geschichte des Altertums5, I.ii p140: he identifies (1) Mênês, (2) Atoti I, II, III, (5) Usaphaïs, (6) Miebis.

(3) Kenkenês and (5) Usaphaïs are two names of the same king: see Newberry and Wainwright, “King Udymu (Den) and the Palermo Stone” in Ancient Egypt, 1914, p148 ff.

36 On Mênês (c. 3200 B.C.) see P. E. Newberry in Winifred Brunton’s Great Ones of Ancient Egypt, 1929: Min in Herodotus, II.4.

37 This (Anc. Egyptian Theny), near Girga, about 310 miles S. of Cairo (Baedeker8, p231), the capital of the nome of This, and the seat of the First and Second Dynasties. The cemetery of the First Dynasty kings was near Abydos: see Petrie, Royal Tombs, I and II, and Baedeker8, p260.

38 For a representation of a king fighting with a hippopotamus, see a seal-impression in Petrie, Royal Tombs, II.vii.6; and for a hippopotamus-hunt, see a year-name of Udymu, Schäfer, Palermo Stone, p20, No. 8.

With the whole story, cf. the miraculous deliverance of Mênas by a crocodile in Diodorus Siculus, I.89.

39 Building of palace at Memphis — by Min or Mênês, Herodotus, II.99Josephus, Ant. VIII.6.2 (155); by his son Athôthis, says Manetho; by Uchoreus, Diod. I.50.

40 For the later study of anatomy (including, perhaps, the practice of vivisection) by kings of Ptolemaic Egypt, see G. Lumbroso, Glossarios.v. Ἀνατομική.

41 Kôchômê has been identified with Sakkâra, and excavations carried out there in the Archaic Cemetery from 1935 by W. B. Emery (assisted by Zaki Saad) have gone far to confirm Manetho. Several tombs which date from the First Dynasty were discovered at Sakkâra in 1937 and 1938. One of these, the tomb of Nebetka under the 5th king of Dynasty I, was found to contain in its interior a stepped-pyramid construction of brickwork: during the building the form of the tomb was altered to a palace-façade mastaba.

42a 42b These forms are really the genitives of the names Usaphaïs and Miebis.

43 The actual total of the items given in 263 years.

44 The version (transmitted to us by Syncellus) which Eusebius gives of the Epitome of Manetho shows considerable differences from Africanus, both in the names of kings and in the length of their reigns. Peet (Egypt and the Old Testament, pp25 f.), says: “The astonishing variations between their figures are an eloquent testimony to what may happen to numbers in a few centuries through textual corruption.” Petrie (History of Egypt, I p. viii) compares the corruptions in such late Greek chronicles as those of the Ptolemies (c. 5c A.D.).

45 The actual total of the items given is 258 years.

46 See note 2 on the text.

47 Karst gives 270 years as the total transmitted in the Armenian version. The total of the items as given above is 228 years.

48 Dynasty II — to c. 2780 B.C. For identifications with the Monuments, etc., see Meyer, Geschichte5, I.ii p146; he identifies (1) Boêthos, (2) Kaiechôs or Kechôus, (3) Binôthris, (4) Tlas, (5) Sethenês, (7) Nephercherês, (8) Sesôchris. For (1) to (5), see G. A. Reisner, The Development of the Egyptian Tomb, 1936, p123.

49 Bubastus or Bubastis (Baedeker8, p181), near Zagazig in the Delta: Anc. Egyptian Per‑Baste 𓉐𓏤𓎰𓏏𓏏, the Pi‑beseth of Ezekiel xxx.17. See also Herodotus, II.60137 f. The kings of Dynasty XXII resided at Bubastis.

Earthquakes have always been rare in Egypt (Euseb., Chron. Graec. p42, l. 25; Pliny, H. N. II.82; but Bubastis is situated in an unstable region: see H. G. Lyons in Cairo Scientific Journal, I (1907), p182. It stands on an earthquake line, which runs to Crete. A deep boring made at Bubastis failed to reach rock.

50 The worship of Apis is earlier even than Dynasty II: see Palermo Stone, Schäfer, p21, No. 12 (in reign of Udymu). For Apis, see Herodotus, II.153, and Diod. Sic. I.84, 85 (where all three animals are mentioned). The goat was a cult animal in very early times: cf. Herodotus, II.46.

51 No queens’ names are recorded in the Royal Lists of Abydos and Karnak. Herodotus (II.100) records one queen: Diod. Sic. I.44 (from Hecataeus) reckons the number of Egyptian queens as five.

52 The stature of each king is said to be noted in the records mentioned by Diodorus Siculus, Diod. Sic. I.44.4Cf. infraFr. 35, No. 3App. II No. 6 (p216).

53 For this absurd perversion of the Greek words, see p36 n. 1: πλάτος was added, perhaps as a corruption of παλαιστῶν, and replaced μέγεθος in the Greek version of Eusebius.

54 The Old Kingdom, Dynasties III‑V: c. 2780-c. 2420 B.C.

Dynasty III, c. 2780-c. 2720 B.C. For identifications with monumental and other evidence, see Meyer, Geschichte5, I.ii p174: he identifies (2) Tosorthos (Zoser I — “the Holy”), and holds that (1) Necherôphês is one name of KhaꜤsekhemui, (6) Tosertasis may be Zoser II Atoti, and (9) Kerpherês may be NeferkerêꜤ II.

55 Zoser was not the first builder with hewn stone: his predecessor, KhaꜤsekhemui, used squared blocks of limestone for building purposes; see Petrie, Royal Tombs, II p13. Granite blocks had already formed the floor of the tomb of Udymu (Dynasty I).

Two tombs of Zoser are known: (1) a mastaba at Bêt Khallâf near This (Baedeker8, p231), see J. Garstang, Mahâsna and Bêt Khallâf; and (2) the famous Step Pyramid at Sakkâra, which was the work of the great architect Imhotep (Baedeker8, p156 f.).

56 If the emendation in the text be not accepted, the statement would surely be too inaccurate to be attributed to Manetho. The Egyptian Asclepios was Imouth or Imhotep of Memphis, physician and architect to King Zoser, afterwards deified: on Philae (now for the most part submerged) Ptolemy II Philadelphus built a little temple to Imhotep. See Sethe, Untersuchungen, II.4 (1902): J. B. Hurry, Imhotep (Oxford, 1926).

One of the Oxyrhynchus Papyri, edited by Grenfell and Hunt, P. Oxy. XI.1381, of the 2c A.D., has for its subject the eulogy of Imuthês-Asclepius: the fragment preserved is part of the prelude. See G. Manteuffel, De Opusculis Graecis Aegypti e papyris, ostracis, lapidibusque collectis, 1930, No. 3.

57 Dynasty IV, c. 2720-c. 2560 B.C. For identifications with monumental and other evidence, see Meyer, Geschichte5, I.ii p181: he identifies (1) Sôris (Snofru), (2) Suphis I (Cheops, Khufu), then after DedefreꜤ (not mentioned by Manetho), (3) Suphis II (Chephren), (4) Mencherês (Mycerinus), and finally (an uncertain identification), (7) Sebercherês (Shepseskaf). For (3) Chephren and (4) Mycerinus, Diodorus I.64 gives the good variants (3) Chabryês and (4) Mencherinus. On the Chronology of Dynasty IV, see Reisner, Mycerinus (cf. infra, note 2), pp243 ff. Reisner reads the name Dedefrê in the form Radedef, and identifies it with Ratoisês.

The Greek tales of the oppression of Egypt by Cheops and Chephren, etc., are believed to be the inventions of dragomans. Cf. Herodotus, II.124 (contempt for the gods), 129 (Mycerinus), with How and Wells’s notes.º Africanus has, moreover, acquired as a treasure the “sacred book” of Cheops.

58 On the Pyramids of Giza, see Baedeker8, pp133 ff.; Noel F. Wheeler, “Pyramids and their Purpose,” Antiquity, 1935, pp5‑21, 161‑189, 292‑304; and for the fourth king of Dynasty IV see G. A. Reisner, Mycerinus: The Temples of the Third Pyramid at Giza, 1931. Notwithstanding their colossal dimensions and marvellous construction, the Pyramids have not escaped detraction: Frontinus (De Aquis, I.16) contrasts “the idle pyramids” with “the indispensable structures” of the several aqueducts at Rome; and Pliny (H. N. 36, 8, § 75) finds in the pyramids “an idle and foolish ostentation of royal wealth”. But the pyramids have, at any rate, preserved the names of their builders, especially Cheops, to all future ages, although, as Sir Thomas Browne characteristically wrote (Urn‑Burial, Chap. 5): “To . . . be but pyramidally extant is a fallacy of duration” . . . “Who can but pity the founder of the Pyramids?” The modern Egyptologist says: “The Great Pyramid is the earliest and most impressive witness . . . to the final emergence of organized society from prehistoric chaos and local conflict” (J. H. Breasted, History of Egypt, p119).

59 Africanus went from Palestine to Alexandria, attracted by the renown of the philosopher Heraclas, Bishop of Alexandria: see Eusebius, Hist. Eccl. VI.31, 2.

Thayer’s Note: also, if much later and possibly derivative, Bede, Chronicle, A. M. 4197.

60 The MS. A gives as total 274: the items add to 284.

61 Dynasty V c. 2560-c. 2420 B.C. For identifications with monumental and other evidence, see Meyer, Geschichte5, I.ii p203: his list runs (1) Userkaf, (2) SahurêꜤ, (3) NefererkerêꜤ Kakai, (4) NefrefrêꜤ or ShepseskerêꜤ, (5) KhaꜤneferrêꜤ, (6) NeweserrêꜤ Ini, (7) Menkeuhor (Akeuhor), (8) DedkerêꜤ Asosi, (9) Unas.

62 The items total 218 years; but if the reign of Othoês, the first king of Dynasty VI is added, the total will then be 248 years.

63 In the chronology of Eusebius, Dynasty V is suppressed: the kings whom he mentions belong to Dynasty VI.

64 Karst translates the Armenian as referring to the sixtieth year — “began to rule at the age of 60”; but Aucher’s Armenian test has the equivalent of sexennis, “six years old” (Margoliouth).

65 Dynasties VI‑VIII, the last Memphites, c. 2420-c. 2240 B.C. Dynasty VI Meyer (Geschichte5, I.ii p236) identifies as follows: (1) Othoês (Teti or Atoti), then after UserkerêꜤ, (2) Phius (Pepi I), (3) Methusuphis (MerenrêꜤ I), (4) Phiôps (Pepi II), (5) Menthesuphis (MerenrêꜤ II), (6) Nitôcris. Sethe (Sesostris, p3) draws attention to the intentional differentiation of the same family-name — Phius for Pepi I, Phiôps for Pepi II; so also (3) Methusuphis and (5) Menthesuphis, and cf. infra on Psametik in Dynasty XXVI. Are these variations due to Manetho or to his source?

66 The remarkable descriptions of social disorganization and anarchy, addressed to an aged king in the Leiden Papyrus of Ipuwer and known as The Admonitions of an Egyptian Sage, are, according to Erman, to be associated with the end of this reign: see A. Erman, “Die Mahnworte eines ägyptischen Propheten” in Sitz. der preuss. Akad. der Wissenschaften, XLII, 1919, p813.

67 Nitôcris is doubtless the Neit‑oḳre(t)𓈖𓏏𓏯𓇋𓈎𓂋𓏏𓏭𓅆of the Turin Papyrus: the name means “Neith is Excellent” (cf. App. II Eratosthenes, No. 22, Ἀθηνᾶ νικηφόρος), and was a favourite name under the Saïte Dynasty (Dyn. XXVI), which was devoted to the worship of Neith. See Herodotus, II.100134Diod. Sic. I.64.14 (if Rhodôpis is to be identified with Nitôcris), Strabo 17.1.33 (a Cinderella-like story), Pliny, N. H. 36.12.78, and G. A. Wainwright, Sky‑Religion, pp41 ff.

A queen’s reign ending the Dynasty is followed by a period of confusion, just as after Dyn. XII, when Queen Scemiophris (SebeknofrurêꜤ) closes the line: cf. perhaps, in Dyn. IV, Thamphthis, of whom nothing is known.

In 1932 Professor Selim Hassan discovered at Giza the tomb of Queen Khentkawes, a tomb of monumental dimensions, the so‑called fourth or “false” pyramid. Khentkawes was the daughter of Mycerinus; and, disregarding the chronological difficulty, H. Junker, in Mitteilungen des Deutschen Instituts für Ägyptische Altertumskunde in Kairo, III.2 (1932), pp144‑149, put forward the theory that the name Nitôcris is derived from Khentkawes, and that Manetho refers here to the so‑called fourth pyramid, which merits the description (Fr. 21 (b)), — “with the aspect of a mountain”. See further B. van de Walle in L’Antiquité Classique, 3 (1934), pp303‑312.

68 The correct total is 197 years: the reign of Phiôps is reckoned at 100, instead of 94 years (the Turin Papyrus gives 90 + x years).

69 Dynasty VII — a mere interregnum, or period of confusion until one king gained supreme power.

70 Dynasty VIII, according to Barbarus (Fr. 4) fourteen kings for 140 years: according to Meyer, probably eighteen kings who reigned for 146 years.

“The Turin Papyrus closes the first great period of Egyptian history at the end of what appears to be Manetho’s VIIIth Dynasty (the last Memphites)”: it reckons 955 years from Dynasty I to Dynasties VII and VIII. (H. R. Hall in C. A. H. I pp298, 170). See A. Scharff in J. Eg. Arch. XIV, 1928, p275.

71 So Aucher, Petermann, and Karst.

72 Dynasties IX and X c. 2240-c. 2100 B.C. — two series of nineteen kings, both from Hêracleopolis (Baedeker8, p218), near the modern village of Ahnâsia (Ancient Egyptian Hat‑nen-nesut {  𓉗𓏏𓉐𓇓𓀔𓈖𓈖𓏏𓊖}), 77 miles S. of Cairo, c. 9 miles S. of the entrance to the Fayûm.

The Turin Papyrus gives eighteen kings for Dynasties IX and X as opposed to Manetho’s thirty-eight.

Manetho’s account of Dynasty IX is best preserved by Africanus. Barbarus has almost the same figures — twenty kings for 409 years.

73 Achthoês: in the Turin Papyrus Akhtôi (Meyer, Geschichte5, I.ii p247 — three kings of this name). Meyer conjectures that the “cruelty” of Achthoês may be violent or forcible oppression of the feudal nobility.

74 Cf. p28 n. 2.

75 Okhthovis (Petermann’s translation), -ov- representing the long o.

76 The Middle Kingdom, Dynasties XI‑XIII: c. 2100-c. 1700 B.C.

Dynasty XI (c. 2100-c. 2000 B.C.) with its seat at Thebes; sixteen kings of Thebes ruling for only 43 years (Manetho): Turin Papyrus gives six kings with more than 160 years.

77 Ammenemês is Amenemhêt I: see pp66 f., nn. 1, 2.

Book II

12th Dynasty XII

Fr. 34 (from Syncellus). According to Africanus.

From the Second Book of Manetho.

The Twelfth Dynasty​1 consisted of seven kings of Diospolis.

1. Sesonchosis, son of Ammanemês, for 46 years.
2. Ammanemês, for 38 years: he was murdered by his own eunuchs.​2
3. Sesôstris, for 48 years: in nine years he subdued the whole of Asia, and Europe as far as Thrace, everywhere erecting memorials of  p69 his conquest of the tribes.​3 Upon stelae [pillars] he engraved for a valiant race the secret parts of a man, for an ignoble race those of a woman.​4 Accordingly he was esteemed by the Egyptians as the next in rank to Osiris.
4. Lacharês (Lamarês),​5 for 8 years: he built the Labyrinth​6 in the Arsinoïte nome as his own tomb.
5. Amerês, for 8 years.
6. Ammenemês, for 8 years.
7. Scemiophris, his sister, for 4 years.

Total, 160 years.

Fr. 35 (from Syncellus). According to Eusebius.

From the Second Book of Manetho.

The twelfth Dynasty consisted of seven kings of Diospolis. The first of these, Sesonchosis, son of Ammenemês, reigned for 46 years.

1. Ammanemês, for 38 years: he was murdered by his own eunuchs.
2. Sesôstris, for 48 years: he is said to have been 4 cubits 3 palms 2 fingers’ breadths in stature. In nine years he subdued the whole of Asia, and Europe as far as Thrace, everywhere erecting memorials of his conquest of the tribes. Upon stelae [pillars] he engraved for a valiant race the secret parts of a man, for an ignoble race those of a woman. Accordingly he was esteemed by the Egyptians as the next in rank to Osiris.

Next to him Lamaris reigned for 8 years: he built the Labyrinth in the Arsinoïte nome as his own tomb.

His successors ruled for 42 years, and the reigns of the whole dynasty amounted to 245 years.7

Fr. 36. Armenian Version of Eusebius.

From the Second Book of Manetho.

The Twelfth Dynasty consisted of seven kings of Diospolis. The first of these, Sesonchosis, son of Ammenemês, reigned for 46 years.

2. Ammenemês, for 38 years; he was murdered by his own eunuchs.
3. Sesôstris, for 48 years: he is said to have been 4 cubits 3 palms 2 fingers’ breadths in  p73 stature. In nine years he subdued the whole of Asia, and Europe as far as Thrace. Everywhere he set up memorials of his subjugation of each tribe: among valiant races he engraved upon pillars a man’s secret parts, among unwarlike races a woman’s, as a sign of disgrace.​8 Wherefore he was honoured by the Egyptians next to Osiris.

His successor, Lampares, reigned for 8 years: in the Arsinoïte nome he built the many-chambered​9 Labyrinth as his own tomb.

The succeeding kings ruled for 42 years.

Total for the whole dynasty, 245 years.

13th Dynasty XIII

Fr. 38º (from Syncellus). According to Africanus.

The Thirteenth Dynasty​10 consisted of sixty kings of Diospolis, who reigned for 453 years.

Fr. 39 (a) (from Syncellus). According to Eusebius.

The Thirteenth Dynasty consisted of sixty kings of Diospolis, who reigned for 453 years.

(b) Armenian Version of Eusebius.

The Thirteenth Dynasty consisted of sixty kings of Diospolis, who reigned for 453 years.

14th Dynasty XIV

Fr. 41 (a)º (from Syncellus). According to Africanus.

The Fourteenth Dynasty​11 consisted of seventy‑six kings of Xoïs, who reigned for 184 years.

(b) According to Eusebius.

The Fourteenth Dynasty consisted of seventy‑six kings of Xoïs, who reigned for 184 years, — in another copy, 484 years.

(c) Armenian Version of Eusebius.

The Fourteenth Dynasty consisted of seventy‑six kings of Xoïs, who reigned for 484 years.

The Hyksôs Age, c. 1700-c. 1580 B.C.​12

Fr. 42 (from Josephus, Contra Apionem, I.14, §§ 73‑92).

[Josephus is citing the records of neighbouring nations in proof of the antiquity of the Jews.]

73 I will begin with Egyptian documents. These I cannot indeed set before you in their ancient form; but in Manetho we have a native Egyptian who which was manifestly imbued with Greek culture. He wrote in Greek the history of his nation, translated, as he himself tells us, from sacred tablets;​13 and on many  p79 points of Egyptian history he convicts Herodotus​14 of having erred through ignorance. 74 In the second book of his History of Egypt, this writer Manetho speaks of us as follows. I shall quote his own words, just as if I had brought forward the man himself as a witness:15

75 “Tutimaeus.​16 In his reign, for what cause I know not, a blast of God smote us; and unexpectedly, from the regions of the East, invaders of obscure race marched in confidence of victory against our land. By main force they easily seized it without striking a blow;​17 76 and having overpowered the rulers of the land, they then burned our cities ruthlessly, razed to the ground the temples of the gods, and treated all the natives with a cruel hostility, massacring some and leading into slavery the wives and children of others. 77 Finally, they appointed as king one of their number whose name was  p81 Salitis.​18 He had his seat at Memphis, levying tribute from Upper and Lower Egypt, and always leaving garrisons behind in the most advantageous positions. Above all, he fortified the district to the east, foreseeing that the Assyrians,​19 as they grew stronger, would one day covet and attack his kingdom.

78 “In the Saïte [Sethroïte] nome​20 he found a city very favourably situated on the east of the Bubastite branch​21 of the Nile, and called Auaris​22 after an  p83 ancient religious tradition.​23 This place he rebuilt and fortified with massive walls, planting there a garrison of as many as 240,000 heavy-armed men to guard his frontier. 79 Here he would come in summer-time, partly to serve out rations and pay his troops, partly to train them carefully in manoeuvres and so strike terror into foreign tribes. 80 After reigning for 19 years, Salitis died; and a second king, named Bnôn,​24 succeeded and reigned for 44 years. Next to him came Apachnan, who ruled for 36 years and 7 months;​25 then Apôphis for 61, and Iannas for 50 years and 1 month; 81 then finally Assis for 49 years and 2 months. These six kings, their first rulers, were ever more and more eager to extirpate the Egyptian stock. 82 Their race as a whole was called  p85 Hyksôs,​26 that is ‘king-shepherds’: for hyk in the sacred language means ‘king’, and sôs in common speech is ‘shepherd’ or ‘shepherds’;​27 hence the compound word ‘Hyksôs’. Some say that they were Arabs.”​28

83 In another copy​29 the expression hyk, it is said, does not mean “kings”: on the contrary, the compound refers to “captive-shepherds”.​30 In Egyptian hyk, in fact, and hak when aspirated expressly denote “captives”.​31 This explanation seems to me the more convincing and more in keeping with ancient history.

84 These kings whom I have enumerated above, and their descendants, ruling over the so‑called Shepherds, dominated Egypt, according to Manetho, for 511  p87 years.​32 85 Thereafter, he says, there came a revolt of the kings of the Thebaïd and the rest of Egypt against the Shepherds, and a fierce and prolonged war broke out between them. 86 By a king whose name was Misphragmuthôsis,​33 the Shepherds, he says, were defeated, driven out of all the rest of Egypt, and confined in a region measuring within its circumference 10,000 arûrae,​34 by name Auaris. 87 According to Manetho, the Shepherds enclosed this whole area with a high, strong wall, in order to safeguard all their possessions and spoils. 88 Thummôsis, the son of Misphragmuthôsis (he continues), attempted by siege to force them to surrender, blockading the fortress with an army of 480,000 men. Finally, giving up the siege in despair, he concluded  p89 a treaty by which they should all depart from Egypt and go unmolested where they pleased. 89 On these terms the Shepherds, with their possessions and households complete, no fewer than 240,000 persons,​35 left Egypt and journeyed over the desert into Syria. 90 There, dreading the power of the Assyrians who were at that time masters of Asia, they built in the land now called Judaea a city large enough to hold all those thousands of people, and gave it the name of Jerusalem.36

91 In another book​37 of his History of Egypt Manetho says that this race of so‑called Shepherds is, in the sacred books of Egypt, described as “captives”; and his statement is correct. With our remotest ancestors, indeed, it was a hereditary custom to feed sheep; and as they lived a nomadic life, they were called Shepherds.​38 92 On the other hand, in the Egyptian records they were not unreasonably styled Captives, since our ancestor Joseph told the king of Egypt​39 that he was a captive, and later, with the  p91 king’s consent, summoned his brethren to Egypt. But I shall investigate this subject more fully in another place.40

15th Dynasty XV

Fr. 43 (from Syncellus). According to Africanus.​41

The Fifteenth Dynasty consisted of Shepherd Kings. There were six foreign kings from Phoenicia,​42 who seized Memphis: in the Sethroïte nome they founded a town, from which base they subdued Egypt.

-The first of these kings, Saïtês, reigned for 19 years: the Saïte nome​43 is called after him.
2. Bnôn, for 44 years.
3. Pachnan [Apachnan], for 61 years.
4. Staan,​44 for 50 years.
5. Archlês,​45 for 49 years.
6. Aphôphis,​46 (Aphobis), for 61 years.

Total, 284 years.

Fr. 44 (a) (from Syncellus). According to Eusebius.

The Fifteenth Dynasty consisted of kings of Diospolis, who reigned for 250 years.

(b) Armenian Version of Eusebius.

The Fifteenth Dynasty consisted of kings of Diospolis, who reigned for 250 years.

16th Dynasty XVI

Fr. 45 (from Syncellus). According to Africanus.

The Sixteenth Dynasty were Shepherd Kings again, 32 in number: they reigned for 518 years.47

Fr. 46 (a) (from Syncellus). According to Eusebius.

The Sixteenth Dynasty were kings of Thebes, 5 in number: they reigned for 190 years.

(b) Armenian Version of Eusebius.

The Sixteenth Dynasty were kings of Thebes, 5 in number: they reigned for 190 years.

17th Dynasty XVII

Fr. 47 (from Syncellus). According to Africanus.

The Seventeenth Dynasty​48 were Shepherd Kings again, 43 in number, and kings of Thebes or Diospolis, 43 in number.

Total of the reigns of the Shepherd Kings and the Theban kings, 151 years.49

Fr. 48 (a) (from Syncellus). According to Eusebius.

The Seventeenth Dynasty were Shepherds and brothers:​50 they were foreign kings from Phoenicia, who seized Memphis.

The first of these kings, Saïtês, reigned for 19 years: the Saïte nome​51 is called after him. These kings founded in the Sethroïte nome a town, from which as a base they subdued Egypt.

2. Bnôn, for 40 years.
3. Aphôphis, for 14 years.
-After him Archlês reigned for 30 years.

Total, 103 years.

It was in their time that Joseph was appointed king of Egypt.

(b) Armenian Version of Eusebius.

The Seventeenth Dynasty consisted of Shepherds, who were brothers​52 from Phoenicia and foreign kings: they seized Memphis. The first of these kings, Saïtês, reigned for 19 years: from him, too, the Saïte nome​53 derived its name. These kings founded in the Sethroïte nome a town from which they made a raid and subdued Egypt.

The second king was Bnon, for 40 years.

Next, Archlês, for 30 years.

Aphophis, for 14 years.

Total, 103 years.

It was in their time that Joseph appears to have ruled in Egypt.54

Fr. 49 (from the Scholia to Plato).

Saïtic, of Saïs. From the Aegyptiaca of Manetho. The Seventeenth Dynasty consisted of Shepherds: they were brothers​55 from Phoenicia, foreign kings, who seized Memphis. The first of these kings, Saïtês, reigned for 19 years: the Saïte nome​56 is called after him. These kings founded in the Sethroïte nome a town, from which as a base they subdued Egypt.

The second of these kings, Bnôn, reigned for 40 years; the third, Archaês, for 30 years; and the fourth, Aphôphis, for 14 years. Total, 103 years.

Saïtês added 12 hours to the month, to make its length 30 days; and he added 6 days to the year, which thus comprised 365 days.57

18-19th Dynasties, XVIII,​58 XIX

Fr. 50 (from Josephus, Contra Apionem, I.15, 16, §§ 93‑105) — (continued from Fr. 42).

93 For the present I am citing the Egyptians as witnesses to this antiquity of ours. I shall therefore resume my quotations from Manetho’s works in their reference to chronology. His account is as follows: 94 “After the departure of the tribe of the Shepherds from Egypt to Jerusalem, Tethmôsis,​59 the king who drove them out of Egypt, reigned for 25 years 4 months until his death, when he was succeeded by his son Chebrôn, who ruled for 13 years. 95 After him Amenôphis reigned for 20 years 7 months; then his sister Amessis for 21 years 9 months; then her son Mêphrês for 12 years 9 months; then his son Mêphramuthôsis for 25 years 10 months; 96 then his son Thmôsis for 9 years 8 months; then his son Amenôphis  p103 for 30 years 10 months;​60 then his son Ôrus for 36 years 5 months; then his daughter Acenchêrês for 12 years 1 month; then her brother Rathôtis for 9 years; 97 then his son Acenchêrês for 12 years 5 months, his son Acenchêrês II for 12 years 3 months, his son Harmaïs for 4 years 1 month, his son Ramessês for 1 year 4 months, his son Harmessês Miamûn​61 for 66 years 2 months, his son Amenôphis for 19 years 6 months, 98 and his son Sethôs, also called Ramessês,​62 whose power lay in his cavalry and his fleet. This king appointed his brother Harmaïs viceroy of Egypt, and invested him with all the royal prerogatives, except that he charged him not to wear a diadem, nor to wrong the queen, the mother of his children, and to refrain likewise from the royal concubines. 99 He then set out on an expedition against Cyprus and Phoenicia and later against the Assyrians and the  p105 Medes; and he subjugated them all, some by the sword, others without a blow and merely by the menace of his mighty host. In the pride of his conquests, he continued his advance with still greater boldness, and subdued the cities and lands of the East. 100 When a considerable time had elapsed, Harmaïs who had been left behind in Egypt, recklessly contravened all his brother’s injunctions. He outraged the queen and proceeded to make free with the concubines; then, following the advice of his friends, he began to wear a diadem and rose in revolt against his brother. 101 The warden of the priests of Egypt​63 then wrote a letter which he sent to Sethôsis, revealing all the details, including the revolt of his brother Harmaïs. Sethôsis forthwith returned to Pêlusium​64 and took possession of his kingdom;​65 102 and the land was named Aegyptus after him. It is said that Sethôs was called Aegyptus, and his brother Harmaïs, Danaus.”66

 p107 103 Such is Manetho’s account; and, if the time is reckoned according to the years mentioned, it is clear that the so‑called Shepherds, our ancestors, quitted Egypt and settled in our land 393 years​67 before the coming of Danaus to Argos. Yet the Argives regard Danaus as belonging to a remote antiquity.​68 104 Thus Manetho has given us evidence from Egyptian records upon two very important points: first, upon our coming to Egypt from elsewhere; and secondly, upon our departure from Egypt at a date so remote that it preceded the Trojan war​69 by wellnigh a thousand years.​70 105 As for the additions which Manetho has made, not from the Egyptian records, but, as he has himself admitted, from anonymous legendary tales,​71 I shall later refute them in detail, and show the improbability of his lying stories.

Fr. 51​72 (from Theophilus, Ad Autolyc. III.19).

Moses was the leader of the Jews, as I have already said, when they had been expelled from Egypt by  p109 King Pharaôh whose name was Tethmôsis. After the expulsion of the people, this king, it is said, reigned for 25 years 4 months, according to Manetho’s reckoning.

After him, Chebrôn ruled for 13 years.
After him, Amenôphis, for 20 years 7 months.
After him, his sister Amessê, for 21 years 1 month [9 months in Josephus]After her, Mêphrês, for 12 years 9 months.
After him, Mêphrammuthôsis, for 20 years [25 years in Josephus] 10 months.
After him, Tuthmôsês, for 9 years 8 months.
After him, Amenôphis, for 30 years 10 months.
After him, Ôrus, for 36 years 5 months.
Next, his daughter [Acenchêrês] reigned for 12 years 1 month.
After her, [Rathôtis, for 9 years.
After him, Acenchêrês, for 12 years 5 months.
After him, Ac]enchêrês [II], for 12 years 3 months.
His son Harmaïs, for 4 years 1 month.
After him, Ramessês for 1 year and 4 months.
After him, Ramessês Miammû(n), for 66 years 2 months.
After him, Amenôphis, for 19 years 6 months.
Then, his son Sethôs, also called Ramessês, for 10 years. He is said to have possessed a large force of cavalry and an organized fleet.

18th Dynasty XVIII

Fr. 52 (from Syncellus). According to Africanus.

The Eighteenth Dynasty​73 consisted of 16 kings of Diospolis.

-The first of these was Amôs, in whose reign Moses went forth from Egypt,​74 as I​75 here declare; but, according to the convincing evidence of the present calculation​76 it follows that in this reign Moses was still young.
-The second king of the Eighteenth Dynasty, according to Africanus, was Chebrôs, who reigned for 13 years.
-The third king, Amenôphthis,​77 reigned for 24 (21) years.
-The fourth king (queen), Amensis (Amersis), reigned for 22 years.
-The fifth, Misaphris, for 13 years.
-The sixth, Misphragmuthôsis, for 26 years: in his reign the flood of Deucalion’s time occurred.

Total, according to Africanus, down to the reign of Amôsis, also called Misphragmuthôsis, 69 years. Of the length of the reign of Amôs he said nothing at all.

7. Tuthmôsis, for 9 years.
8. Amenôphis, for 31 years. This is the king who was reputed to be Memnôn and a speaking statue.​78
9. Ôrus, for 37 years.
10. Acherrês,​79 for 32 years.
11. Rathôs, for 6 years.
12. Chebrês, for 12 years.
13. Acherrês, for 12 years.
14. Armesis, for 5 years.
15. Ramessês, for 1 year.
16. Amenôphath (Amenôph), for 19 years.

Total, 263 years.

Fr. 53 (a) (from Syncellus). According to Eusebius.

The Eighteenth Dynasty consisted of fourteen kings of Diospolis.

The first of these, Amôsis, reigned for 25 years.
2. The second, Chebrôn, for 13 years.
3. Ammenôphis, for 21 years.
4. Miphrês, for 12 years.
5. Misphragmuthôsis, for 26 years.

Total from Amôsis, the first king of this Eighteenth Dynasty, down to the reign of Misphragmuthôsis amounts, according to Eusebius, to 71 years; and there are five kings, not six. For he omitted the fourth king, Amensês, mentioned by Africanus and the others, and thus cut off the 22 years of his reign.

6. Tuthmôsis, for 9 years.
7. Amenôphis, for 31 years. This is the king who was reputed to be Memnôn and a speaking statue.​80
8. Ôrus, for 36 years (in another copy, 38 years).
9. Achenchersês [for 12 years].
[Athôris, for 39 years (? 9).][Cencherês] for 16 years.

About this time Moses led the Jews in their march out of Egypt. (Syncellus adds: Eusebius alone places in this reign the exodus of Israel under Moses, although no argument supports him, but all his predecessors hold a contrary view, as he testifies.)

10. Acherrês, for 8 years.
11. Cherrês, for 15 years.
12. Armaïs, also called Danaus, for 5 years: thereafter, he was banished from Egypt and, fleeing from his brother Aegyptus, he arrived in Greece, and, seizing Argos, he ruled over the Argives.
13. Ramessês, also called Aegyptus, for 68 years.
14. Ammenôphis, for 40 years.

Total, 348 years.

Eusebius assigns 85 years more than Africanus to the Eighteenth Dynasty. (Syncellus elsewhere says: Eusebius leaves out two kings, but adds 85 years, setting down 348 years instead of the 263 years of the reckoning of Africanus.)

(b) Armenian Version of Eusebius.

The Eighteenth Dynasty consisted of fourteen kings of Diospolis. The first of these, Amoses, reigned for 25 years.

2. Chebron, for 13 years.
3. Amophis, for 21 years.
4. Memphres, for 12 years.
5. Mispharmuthosis, for 26 years.
6. Tuthmosis, for 9 years.
7. Amenophis, for 31 years. This is the king who was reputed to be Memnon, a speaking stone.
8. Orus, for 28 years.
9. Achencheres . . ., for 16 years. In his time Moses became leader of the Hebrews in their exodus from Egypt.
10. Acherres, for 8 years.
11. Cherres, for 15 years.
12. Armaïs, also called Danaus, for 5 years: at the end of this time he was banished from the land of Egypt. Fleeing from his brother Aegyptus, he escaped to Greece, and after capturing Argos, he held sway over the Argives.
13. Ramesses, also called Aegyptus, for 68 years.
14. Amenophis, for 40 years.

Total for the dynasty, 348 years.

Fr. 54 (from Josephus, Contra Apionem, I.26‑31, §§ 227‑287).

(Josephus discusses the calumnies of the Egyptians against the Jews, whom they hate.)

227 The first writer upon whom I shall dwell is one whom I used a little earlier as a witness to our antiquity. 228 I refer to Manetho. This writer, who had undertaken to translate the history of Egypt from the sacred books, began by stating that our ancestors came against Egypt with many tens of thousands and gained the mastery over the inhabitants; and then he himself admitted that at a later date again they were driven out of the country, occupied what is now Judaea, founded Jerusalem, and built the temple.​81 Up to this point he followed the chronicles: 229 thereafter,  p121 by offering to record the legends and current talk about the Jews, he took the liberty of interpolating improbable tales in his desire to confuse with us a crowd of Egyptians, who for leprosy and other maladies​82 had been condemned, he says, to banishment from Egypt. 230 After citing a king Amenôphis, a fictitious person, — for which reason he did not venture to define the length of his reign, although in the case of the other kings he adds their years precisely, — Manetho attaches to him certain legends, having doubtless forgotten that according to his own chronicle the exodus of the Shepherds to Jerusalem took place 518 years​83 earlier. 231 For Tethmôsis was king when they set out; and, according to Manetho, the intervening reigns thereafter occupied 393 years down to the two brothers Sethôs and Hermaeus, the former of whom, he says, took the new name of Aegyptus, the latter that of Danaus. Sethôs drove out Hermaeus and reigned for 59 years; then Rampsês, the elder of his sons, for 66 years. 232 Thus, after admitting that so many years had elapsed since our forefathers left Egypt, Manetho now interpolates this intruding Amenôphis. This king, he states, conceived a desire to behold the gods, as Ôr,​84 one of his predecessors on  p123 the throne, had done; and he communicated his desire to his namesake Amenôphis,​85 Paapis’ son, who, in virtue of his wisdom and knowledge of the future, was reputed to be a partaker in the divine nature. 233 This namesake, then, replied that he would be able to see the gods if he cleansed the whole land of lepers and other polluted persons. 234 The king was delighted, and assembled​86 all those in Egypt whose bodies were wasted by disease: they numbered 80,000 persons.  p125 235 These he cast into the stone-quarries​87 to the east of the Nile, there to work segregated from the rest of the Egyptians. Among them, Manetho adds, there were some of the learned priests, who had been attacked by leprosy. 236 Then this wise seer Amenôphis was filled with dread of divine wrath against himself and the king if the outrage done to these persons should be discovered; and he added a prediction that certain allies would join the polluted people and would take possession of Egypt for 13 years. Not venturing to make this prophecy himself to the king, he left a full account of it in writing, and then took his own life. The king was filled with despondency. 237 Then Manetho continues as follows (I quote his account verbatim): “When the men in the stone-quarries had suffered hardships for a considerable time, they begged the king to assign to them as a dwelling-place and a refuge the deserted city of the Shepherds, Auaris, and he consented. According to religious tradition​88 this city was from earliest times dedicated to Typhôn. 238 Occupying this city and using the region as a base for revolt, they appointed as their leader one of the priests of Hêliopolis called Osarsêph,89  p127 and took an oath of obedience to him in everything. 239 First of all, he made it a law​90 that they should neither worship the gods nor refrain from any of the animals​91 prescribed as especially sacred in Egypt, but should sacrifice and consume all alike, and that they should have intercourse with none save those of their own confederacy. 240 After framing a great number of laws like these, completely opposed to Egyptian custom, he ordered them with their multitude of hands, to repair the walls of the city and make ready for war against King Amenôphis. 241 Then, acting in concert with certain other priests and polluted persons like himself, he sent an embassy to the Shepherds who had been expelled by Tethmôsis,​92 in the city called Jerusalem; and, setting forth the circumstances of himself and his companions in distress, he begged them to unite wholeheartedly in an attack upon Egypt. 242 He offered to conduct them first to their ancestral home at Auaris, to provide their hosts with lavish supplies, to fight on their behalf whenever need arose, and to bring Egypt without difficulty under their sway. 243 Overjoyed at the proposal, all the Shepherds, to the number of 200,000, eagerly set out,  p129 and before long arrived at Auaris. When Amenôphis, king of Egypt, learned of their invasion, he was sorely troubled, for he recalled the prediction of Amenôphis, son of Paapis. 244 First, he gathered a multitude of Egyptians; and having taken counsel with the leading men among them, he summoned to his presence the sacred animals which were held in greatest reverence in the temples, and gave instructions to each group of priests to conceal the images of the gods as securely as possible. 245 As for his five-year‑old son Rapsês,​93 he sent him safely away to his friend.​94 He then crossed the Nile with as many as 300,000 of the bravest warriors of Egypt, and met the enemy. But, instead of joining battle, 246 he decided that he must not fight against the gods, and made a hasty retreat to Memphis. There he took into his charge Apis and the other sacred animals which he had summoned to that place; and forthwith he set off for Ethiopia​95 with his whole army and the host of Egyptians. The Ethiopian king, who, in gratitude for a service, had become his subject, 247 welcomed him, maintained the whole multitude with such products of the country as were fit for human consumption,  p131 assigned to them cities and villages sufficient for the destined period of 13 years’ banishment from his realm, and especially stationed an Ethiopian army on the frontiers of Egypt to guard King Amenôphis and his followers. 248 Meanwhile, the Solymites [or dwellers in Jerusalem] made a descent along with the polluted Egyptians, and treated the people so impiously and savagely that the domination of the Shepherds seemed like a golden age to those who witnessed the present enormities. 249 For not only did they set towns and villages on fire, pillaging the temples and mutilating images of the gods without restraint, but they also made a practice of using the sanctuaries as kitchens to roast the sacred animals which the people worshipped: and they would compel the priests and prophets to sacrifice and butcher the beasts, afterwards casting the men forth naked. 250 It is said that the priest who framed their constitution and their laws was a native of Hêliopolis, named Osarsêph after the god Osiris, worshipped at Hêliopolis; but when he joined this people, he changed his name and was called Moses.”96

251 Such, then, are the Egyptian stories about the Jews,​97 together with many other tales which I pass  p133 by for brevity’s sake. Manetho adds, however, that, at a later date, Amenôphis advanced from Ethiopia with a large army, his son Rampsês also leading a force, and that the two together joined battle with the Shepherds and their polluted allies, and defeated them, killing many and pursuing the others to the frontiers of Syria. 252 This then, with other tales of a like nature, is Manetho’s account. Before I give proof that his words are manifest lies and nonsense, I shall mention one particular point, which bears upon my later refutation of other writers. Manetho has made one concession to us. He has admitted that our race was not Egyptian in origin, but came into Egypt from elsewhere, took possession of the land, and afterwards left it. 253 But that we were not, at a later time, mixed up with disease-ravaged Egyptians, and that, so far from being one of these, Moses, the leader of our people, lived many generations earlier, I shall endeavour to prove from Manetho’s own statements.

254 To begin with, the reason which he suggests for his fiction is ridiculous. “King Amenôphis,” he says, “conceived a desire to see the gods.” Gods indeed! If he means the gods established by their ordinances, — bull, goat, crocodiles, and dog‑faced baboons, — he had them before his eyes; 255 and as for the gods of heaven, how could he see them? And why did he conceive this eager desire? Because, by Zeus,​98 before his time another king  p135 had seen them! From this predecessor, then, he had learned their nature and the manner in which he had seen them, and in consequence he had no need of a new system. 256 Moreover, the prophet by whose aid the king expected to succeed in his endeavour, was a sage. How, then, did he fail to foresee the impossibility of realizing this desire? It did, in fact, come to naught. And what reason had he for ascribing the invisibility of the gods to the presence of cripples or lepers? Divine wrath is due to impious deeds, not to physical deformities. 257 Next, how could 80,000 lepers and invalids be gathered together in practically a single day? The prophet had bidden him expel the cripples from Egypt, but the king cast them into stone-quarries, as if he needed labourers, not as if his purpose was to purge the land. 258 Manetho says, moreover, that the prophet took his own life, because he foresaw the anger of the gods and the fate in store for Egypt, but left in writing his prediction to the king. 259 Then how was it that the prophet had not from the first foreknowledge of his own death? Why did he not forthwith oppose the king’s desire to see the gods? Was it reasonable to be afraid of misfortunes which were not to happen in his time? Or what worse fate could have been his than that which he hastened to inflict upon himself?

260 But let us now examine​99 the most ridiculous part  p137 of the whole story. Although he had learned these facts, and conceived a dread of the future, the king did not, even then, expel from his land those cripples of whose taint he had previously been bidden to purge Egypt, but instead, at their request, he gave them as their city (Manetho says) the former habitation of the Shepherds, Auaris, as it was called. 261 Here, he adds, they assembled, and selected as their leader a man who had formerly been a priest in Heliopolis. This man (according to Manetho) instructed them not to worship the gods nor to refrain from the animals revered in Egypt, but to sacrifice and devour them all, and to have intercourse with none save those of their own confederacy. Then having bound his followers by oath to abide strictly by these laws, he fortified Auaris and waged war against the king. 262 This leader, Manetho adds, sent to Jerusalem, inviting the people to join in alliance with him, and promising to give them Auaris, which, he reminded them, was the ancestral home of those who would come from Jerusalem, and would serve as a base for their conquest of the whole of Egypt. 263 Then, continues Manetho, they advanced with an army of 200,000 men; and Amenôphis, king of Egypt, thinking he ought not to fight against the gods, fled straightway into Ethiopia after enjoining that Apis and some of the other sacred animals should be entrusted to the custody of the priests. 264 Thereafter, the men from Jerusalem came on, made desolate the cities, burned down the temples, massacred  p139 the priests, and, in short, committed every possible kind of lawlessness and savagery. 265 The priest who framed their constitution and their laws was, according to Manetho, a native of Hêliopolis, Osarsêph by name, after Osiris the god worshipped in Hêliopolis: but he changed his name and called himself Moses. 266 Thirteen years later — this being the destined period of his exile — Amenôphis, according to Manetho, advanced from Ethiopia with a large army, and joining battle with the Shepherds and the polluted people, he defeated them, killing many, after pursuing them to the frontiers of Syria.

267 Here again Manetho fails to realize the improbability of his lying tale. Even if the lepers and their accompanying horde were previously angry with the king and the others who had treated them thus in obedience to the seer’s prediction, certainly when they had left the stone-quarries and received from him a city and land, they would have grown more kindly disposed to him. 268 If indeed they still hated him, they would have plotted against him personally, instead of declaring war against the whole people; for obviously so large a company must have had numerous relatives in Egypt. 269 Notwithstanding, once they had resolved to make war on the Egyptians, they would never have ventured to direct their warfare against their gods, nor would they have framed laws completely opposed to the ancestral code under which they had been brought up. 270 We must, however, be grateful to Manetho for stating that the  p141 authors of this lawlessness were not the newcomers from Jerusalem, but that company of people who were themselves Egyptians, and that it was, above all, their priests who devised the scheme and bound the multitude by oath.

271 Moreover, how absurd it is to imagine that, while none of their relatives and friends joined in the revolt and shared in the perils of war, these polluted persons sent to Jerusalem and gained allies there! 272 What alliance, what connexion had previously existed between them? Why, on the contrary, they were enemies, and differed widely in customs. Yet Manetho says that they lent a ready ear to the promise that they would occupy Egypt, just as if they were not thoroughly acquainted with the country from which they had been forcibly expelled! 273 Now, if they had been in straitened or unusual circumstances, they would perhaps have taken the risk; but dwelling, as they did, in a prosperous city and enjoying the fruits of an ample country, superior to Egypt, why ever should they be likely to hazard their lives by succouring their former foes, those maimed cripples, whom none even of their own kinsfolk could endure? For of course they did not foresee that the king would take flight. 274 On the contrary, Manetho has himself stated that the son​100 of  p143 Amenôphis marched with 300,000 men to confront them at Pêlusium. This was certainly known to those already present; but how could they possibly guess that he would charting his mind and flee? 275 Manetho next says that, after conquering Egypt, the invaders from Jerusalem committed many heinous crimes; and for these he reproaches them, just as if he had not brought them in as enemies, or as if he was bound to accuse allies from abroad of actions which before their arrival native Egyptians were performing and had sworn to perform. 276 But, years later, Amenôphis returned to the attack, conquered the enemy in battle, and drove them, with slaughter, right to Syria. So perfectly easy a prey is Egypt to invaders, no matter whence they come! 277 And yet those who at that time conquered the land, on learning that Amenôphis was alive, neither fortified the passes between it and Ethiopia, although their resources were amply sufficient, nor did they keep the rest of their forces in readiness! Amenôphis, according to Manetho, pursued them with carnage over the sandy desert right to Syria. But obviously it is no easy matter for an army to cross the desert even without fighting.

278 Thus, according to Manetho, our race is not of Egyptian origin, nor did it receive any admixture of Egyptians. For, naturally, many of the lepers and invalids died in the stone-quarries during their long term of hardship, many others in the subsequent battles, and most of all in the final engagement and the rout.

 p145 279 It remains for me to reply to Manetho’s statements about Moses. The Egyptians regard him as a wonderful, even a divine being, but wish to claim him as their own by an incredible calumny, alleging that he belonged to Hêliopolis and was dismissed from his priesthood there owing to leprosy. 280 The records, however, show that he lived 518 years​101 earlier, and led our forefathers up out of Egypt to the land which we inhabit at the present time. 281 And that he suffered from no such physical affliction is clear from his own words. He has, in fact, forbidden lepers​102 either to stay in a town or to make their abode in a village; they must go about in solitude, with their garments rent. Anyone who touches them or lives under the same roof with them he considers unclean. 282 Moreover, even if the malady is cured and the leper resumes normal health, Moses has prescribed certain rites of purification — to cleanse himself in a bath of spring-water and to shave off all his hair, — and enjoins the performance of a number of different sacrifices before entrance into the holy city. 283 Yet it would have been natural, on the contrary, for a victim of this scourge to show some consideration and kindly feeling for those who shared the same misfortune. 284 It was not only about lepers that he framed such laws: those who had even the slightest mutilation of the body were disqualified for the priesthood;​103 and if a priest in the course of his ministry met with an  p147 accident of this nature, he was deprived of his office. 285 How improbable, then, that Moses should be so foolish as to frame these laws, or that men brought together by such misfortunes should approve of legislation against themselves, to their own shame and injury! 286 But, further, the name, too, has been transformed in an extremely improbable way. According to Manetho, Moses was called Osarsêph. These names, however, are not interchangeable: the true name means “one saved out of the water,” for water is called “mō‑y” by the Egyptians.104

287 It is now, therefore, sufficiently obvious, I think, that, so long as Manetho followed the ancient records, he did not stray far from the truth; but when he turned to unauthorized legends, he either combined them in an improbable form or else gave credence to certain prejudiced informants.

19th Dynasty XIX

Fr. 55 (from Syncellus). According to Africanus.

The Nineteenth Dynasty​105 consisted of seven (six) kings of Diospolis.

1. Sethôs, for 51 years.
2. Rapsacês, for 61 (66) years.
3. Ammenephthês, for 20 years.
4. Ramessês, for 60 years.
5. Ammenemnês, for 5 years.
6. Thuôris, who in Homer is called Polybus, husband of Alcandra, and in whose time Troy was taken,​106 reigned for 7 years.

Total, 209 years.

Sum total in the Second Book of Manetho, ninety‑six kings, for 2121 years.107

Fr. 56 (a) (from Syncellus). According to Eusebius.

The Nineteenth Dynasty consisted of five kings of Diospolis.

1. Sethôs, for 55 years.
2. Rampsês, for 66 years.
3. Ammenephthis, for 40 years.
4. Ammenemês, for 26 years.
5. Thuôris, who in Homer is called Polybus, husband of Alcandra, and in whose reign Troy was taken, reigned for 7 years.

Total, 194 years.

Sum total in the Second Book of Manetho, for ninety‑two kings, 1121 (2121) years.

(b) Armenian Version of Eusebius.

The Nineteenth Dynasty consisted of five kings of Diospolis.

1. Sethos, for 55 years.
2. Rampses, for 66 years.
3. Amenephthis, for 8 years.
4. Ammenemes, for 26 years.
5. Thuoris, by Homer called the active and gallant Polybus, in whose time Troy was taken, reigned for 7 years.

Total, 194 years.

In the Second Book of Manetho there is a total of ninety‑two kings, reigning for 2121 years.

The Editor’s Notes:

1 Dynasty XII, c. 2000‑1790 B.C. (Meyer, Geschichte5, I.ii p270). Including Ammenemês whom Manetho places between Dynasty XI and Dynasty XII, there are eight rulers in Dynasty XII. — (1) Ammenemês (Amenemhêt I), (2) Sesonchôsis (Senwosret or Sesôstris I), (3) Ammanemêsº (Amenemhêt II), (4) Sesôstris II (omitted by Manetho), (5) Sesôstris (Senwosret III), (6) Manetho’s Lamarês and Amerês (Amenemhêt III, NemaꜤtrêꜤ), (7) Ammenemês (Amenemhêt IV), (8) Scemiophris (Queen SebeknofrurêꜤ). For (5), the great Sesôstris (1887‑1850 B.C.) of Herodotus, II.102Diod. Sic. I.53 ff., see Sethe, Unters. zur Gesch. . . . Aeg. II.1, and Meyer, Geschichte5, I.ii p268. The name of Amenemhêt bespeaks his Theban origin; he removed the capital further north to Dahshûr, a more central position — “Controller of the Two Lands,” as its Egyptian name means. Thus the kings of Dynasty XII are kings who came from Thebes, but ruled at Dahshûr.

In Dynasty XII the conquests of Dynasty VI in the south were extended; and Sesôstris III was the first Egyptian king to conquer Syria. Among works of peace the great irrigation schemes in the Fayûm perpetuated the name of Amenemhêt III in “Lake Moeris”. (See G. Caton-Thompson and E. W. Gardner, The Desert Fayûm, 1934.) Manetho mentions his building of the Labyrinth; it is significant that after the reign of Sesôstris III and his wide foreign conquests, his son should have built the Labyrinth. Vases of the Kamares type from Crete have been found at Kahûn, not far from the Labyrinth.

2 See A. de Buck (Mélanges Maspero, vol. I, 1935, 847‑52) for a new interpretation of the purpose of The Instruction of Amenemmes: in this political pamphlet the dead king speaks from the tomb in support of his son Sesostris, now holding the throne in spite of strong opposition, and violently denounces the ungrateful ruffians who murdered him. It seems probable that Manetho’s note here refers to the death of Ammenemês I (Battiscombe Gunn).

3 See Ägyptische Inschriften aus den Museen zu Berlin, I p257, for a stele at Semneh with an inscription in which the great Sesôstris pours contempt upon his enemies, the Nubians.

4 For the sexual symbols represented upon pillars, see Hdt. II.102106Diod. Sic. I.55.8cf. the representation of mutilated captives on one of the walls of the Ramesseum, Diod. Sic. I.48.2. It has been suggested that Herodotus, who saw the pillars of Sesostris in Palestine, may possibly have mistaken an Assyrian for an Egyptian relief.

5 For other names of Amenemhêt III, see note on Marês, App. II, No. 35, p224.

6 The Labyrinth is correctly attributed by Manetho to Amenemhêt III, who built it as his mortuary temple (contrast Herodotus, II.148, who assigns this monument to the Dodecarchy). The Fayûm was a place of great importance during this dynasty, from Amenemhêt I onwards.

The description of the nome as “Arsinoïte” has often been suspected as a later interpolation; but if “Arsinoïte” was used by Manetho himself, it gives as a date in his life the year 256 B.C. when Ptolemy Philadelphus commemorated Queen Arsinoe (d. 270 B.C.) in the new name of the nome. (Cf. Intro. p. xivº for a possible reference to Manetho, the historian of Egypt, in 241 B.C.)

7 The items given add to 182 years.

8 The Armenian has a word here for “sufferings” or “torments” (Margoliouth): Karst expresses the general meaning as — “he engraved their oppression through (or, by means of) . . .”

9 Karst translates this word by “das höhlenwendelgangförmige”.

10 Dynasty XIII, 1790-c. 1700 B.C. In the Turin Papyrus there is a corresponding group of sixty kings: see the list in Meyer, Geschichte5, I.ii pp308 f., one of them being a name ending in -mes, perhaps Dedumes, the king Τουτίμαιος of Fr. 42. The twenty-fifth king in the Turin Papyrus, Col. VII, KhaꜤneferrêꜤ Sebekhotp IV, is probably the King Chenephrês of whom Artapanus (1c B.C.) says that he was “king of the regions above Memphis (for there were at that time many kings in Egypt)” in the lifetime of Moses (Artapanus, Concerning the Jews, quoted by Euseb., Praepar. Evang. IX.27: see also Clement of Alexandria, Strom. I.23, 154).

11 Dynasties XIV‑XVII, the Hyksôs Age: c. 1700‑1580 B.C.

Dynasty XIV. Nothing is known of the kings of Dynasty XIV, whose seat was at Xoïs (Sakha) in the West Delta — an island and town in the Sebennytic nome (Strabo, 17.1.19). They were not rulers of Upper Egypt, but probably of the West Delta only. At this period there was, it is probable, another contemporary dynasty in Upper Egypt (Dynasty XVII of Manetho).

In the Turin Papyrus there is a long series of rulers’ names corresponding to this dynasty; but the number given by Manetho (76) was not approximated in the Papyrus which shows between twenty and thirty names of kings. Not one of these names is preserved on the Monuments, nor on the Karnak Tablet. The kings of Dynasty XIV, and even the last kings of Dynasty XIII, reigned simultaneously with the Hyksôs kings: cf. the double series of kings in Dynasty XVII. In the Royal Lists of Abydos and Sakkâra the rulers of Dynasties XIII‑XVII are altogether omitted. The Royal List of Karnak gives a selection of about thirty-five names of Dynasties XIII‑XVII, omitting Dynasty XIV and the Hyksôs.

12 The invasion of the Hyksôs took place at some time in Dynasty XIII: hence the succeeding anarchy in a period of foreign domination. The later Egyptians looked back upon it as the Jews did upon the Babylonian captivity, or the English upon the Danish terror. The keen desire of the Egyptians to forget about the Hyksôs usurpation accounts in part for our ignorance of what actually happened: “it is with apparent unwillingness that they chronicle any events connected with it” (Peet, Egypt and the Old Testament, p69). In Egyptian texts the “infamous” (Hyksôs) were denoted as ꜤAmu, a title also given to the Hittites and their allies by Ramessês II in the poem of the Battle of Kadesh (ed. Kuentz, § 97). Perhaps they were combined with Hittites who in 1925 B.C. brought the kingdom of Babel to an end. It is certain that with the Hyksôs numerous Semites came into Egypt: some of the Hyksôs kings have Semitic names. For the presence of an important Hurrian element among the Hyksôs, see E. A. Speiser, “Ethnic Movements,” in Ann. of Amer. Sch. of Or. Res. XIII (1932), p51. The Hyksôs brought with them from Asia their tribal god, which was assimilated by the Egyptian to Sêth, the god of foreign parts, of the desert, and of the enemy.

In the first half of the second millennium B.C. the Hyksôs ruled a great kingdom in Palestine and Syria (Meyer, Geschichte5, I § 304); and when their power was broken down by the arrival of hostile tribes, King Amôsis took advantage of their plight to drive the Hyksôs out of Egypt (A. Jirku, “Aufstieg und Untergang der Hyksôs,” in Journ. of the Palestine Orient. Soc. XII, 1932, p60).

A dim tradition of Hyksôs-rule is possibly preserved in Herodotus, II.128. Perhaps “the shepherd Philitis” in that passage is connected with “Philistines,” a tribe which may have formed part of these invaders. There is confusion between two periodsof oppression of the common people, — under the pyramid-builders and under the Hyksôs. For a translation of the Egyptian records which illustrate the Hyksôs period, see Battiscombe Gunn and Alan H. Gardiner, J. Eg. Arch. V, 1918, pp36‑56, “The Expulsion of the Hyksôs”.

13 The word “tablets” is a probable emendation, since Manetho would naturally base his History upon temple-archives on stone as well as on papyrus: cf. the Palermo Stone, the Turin Papyrus, etc. (Intro. pp. xxi ff.).º

14 Cf. Manetho, Fr. 88.

15 This account of the Hyksôs invasion is obviously derived from popular Egyptian tales, the characteristics of which are deeply imprinted upon it. Meyer (Geschichte5, I.ii p313) quotes from papyri and inscriptions passages of similar style and content, e.g. Pap. Sallier I describing the war with the Hyksôs, and mentioning “Lord Apôpi in Auaris,” and an inscription of Queen Hatshepsut from the Speos Artemidos, referring to the occupation of Auaris. See Breasted, Ancient Records, I § 24, II §§ 296 ff. Meyer adds that he would not be surprised if Manetho’s description reappeared word for word one day in a hieratic papyrus. Cf. § 75 ὁ θεός: § 76 the crimes of the Hyksôs (Fr. 54, § 249, those of the Solymites and their polluted allies): § 77 the upper and lower lands: §§ 78, 237 religious tradition to explain the name of Auaris and its dedication to Typhôn: § 99 hollow phrases about military expeditions of Sethôs: § 237 the form of the phrase ὡς χρόνος ἱκανὸς διῆλθεν, and many other passages. See also Weill, La fin du moyen empire égyptien, pp76 ff.

16 See Fr. 38, n. 3.

17 The success of the Hyksôs may have been due to superior archery and to the use of horse-drawn chariots, previously unknown in Egypt (Maspero, Hist. Anc. II p51; Petrie, Hyksos and Israelite Cities, p70; H. R. Hall, Anc. Hist. of Near East8, p213), as well as to superior weapons of bronze (H. R. Hall, C. A. H. I p291 n., 312 f.).

18 The name may be Semitic (cf. Hebr. shallit), but it has not been found on the monuments. Possibly it is not strictly a proper name, but rather a title like “prince,” “general”: “sultan” comes from the same root.

19 Cf. § 90. Manetho regards as historically true the Greek tales of the great Assyrian Empire of Ninus and Semiramis. The period referred to here is much earlier than the time when Assyria began to harass the Mediterranean regions.

20 If “Saïte” is correct here, it has nothing to do with the famous Saïs, but is probably used for “Tanite”: cf.  Herodotus, II.17Strabo 17.1.20 (P. Montet in Revue Biblique, XXXIX 1930). The Sethroïte nome (Fr. 4348,º 49) is in the extreme E. of the Delta, adjoining the Tanite nome. For Sethroê see H. Junker, Zeit. f. äg. Sprache 75, 1939, p78.

21 For Bubastis see Fr. 8 n. 2. The Bubastite branch is the farthest E., the next being the Tanitic.

22 Auaris, in Ancient Egyptian HetwaꜤret, “town of the desert strip,” but this meaning does not explain the “religious tradition”. (The older interpretations, “house of the flight,” “house of the leg,” were attached to the Seth-Typhôn legend: cf. n. 3 infra.) Tanis was a stronghold of the Hyksôs: in O. T. Numbers xiii.22, “Now Hebron (in S. Palestine) was built seven years before Zoan in Egypt,” Zoan is Tanis (DjaꜤnet), and the statement probably refers to the Hyksôs age. Sethe cautiously said, “Seth is the god of the Hyksôs cities, Tanis and Auaris.” But in Revue Biblique, XXXIX, 1930, pp5‑28, Pierre Montet, the excavator of Tanis, brought forward reasons to identify Auaris and Pi‑RaꜤmesses with Tanis; and Alan H. Gardiner (J. Eg. Arch. XIX, 1933, pp122‑128) gave further evidence this view (p126): “San el‑Hagar marks the site of the city successively called Auaris, Pi‑RaꜤmesse, and Tanis”. In spite of the criticism of Raymond Weill (J. Eg. Arch. XXI, 1935, pp10‑25), who cited a hieroglyphic document (found in the temple of Ptah in Memphis) in which Auaris and “the field (or land) of Tanis” are separate, Pierre Montet (Syria, XVII, 1936, pp200‑202) maintains the identity of Auaris, Pi‑RaꜤmesses, and Tanis. [So does H. Junker, Zeit. f. äg. Sprache 75, 1939, pp63‑84.]

Meanwhile, a new identification of Pi‑RaꜤmessês had been suggested: by excavation M. Hamza (Annales du Service des Antiquités de l’Égypte, XXX 1930, p65) found evidence tending to identify Pi‑RaꜤmessês with the palace of Ramessês II at Tell el‑Yahudîya, near Kantîr, c. 25 kilometres south of Tanis; and William C. Hayes (Glazed Tiles from a Palace of Ramessês II at Kantîr: The Metropolitan Museum of Art Papers, No. 3, 1937) supports this theory that Kantîr was the Delta residence of the Ramesside kings of Egypt, pointing out that there is a practically unbroken series of royal Ramesside monuments which cover a period of almost 200 years.

In 1906 Petrie discovered at Kantîr a vast fortified encampment of Hyksôs date and a Hyksôs cemetery: see Petrie, Hyksôs and Israelite Cities, pp3‑16 (the earthwork ramparts of the camp were intended to protect an army of chariots).

23 See Fr. 54, § 237, for its connexion with Seth-Typhon, to whom the tribal god of the Hyksôs was assimilated.

24 Of these Hyksôs names Bnôn and Apachnan are unexplained. Apôpi (the name of several kings — at least three), and perhaps Asêth (Assis), seem to be pure Egyptian: Iannas is presumed to be Khian, whose cartouche turned up surprisingly and significantly on the lid of an alabastron in the Palace of Minos at Knossos in Crete, as well as on a basalt lion from Baghdad. On Khian, see Griffith in Proc. of Soc. of Bibl. Arch. XIX (1897), pp294 f., 297.

25 In his History (and for short reigns in the Epitome, see e.g. Dynasty XXVII) Manetho reckoned by months as well as by years, like the Turin Papyrus and the Palermo Stone: see Intro. pp. xxii f.º

26 Hyksôs, “rulers of foreign lands” (Erman-Grapow, Wörterbuch, III p171, 29). Another form of the name, Hykussôs, is preserved by Eusebius, but it is uncertain whether the medial -u- is really authentic — the Egyptian plural (Meyer). Hyk = ruler of a pastoral people, a sheikh.

“The Hyksôs, like the foreign Kassite Dynasty in Babylonia, adopted the higher culture of the conquered country” (J. Garstang, The Heritage of Solomon, 1934, p62).

27 This is correct: for the Egyptian word śʾsw, “Bedouins,” which in Coptic became shós, “a herdsman,” see Erman-Grapow, Wörterbuch, IV p412, 10 (B. G.).

28 In a papyrus (2/3c A.D.) quoted by Wilcken in Archiv für Pap. III (1906), pp188 ff. (Chrestomathie, I.ii p322) ἄμμος ὑκσιωτική is mentioned — aloe [or cement (Preisigke)] from the land of the Hyksiôtae, apparently in Arabia. This gives some support to the statement in the text.

29 Josephus, in revising this treatise just as he revised his Antiquities, appears to have used a second version of Manetho’s Aegyptiaca. Did Josephus ever have before him Manetho’s original work? Laqueur thinks it more probable that Josephus consulted revisions of Manetho made from the Philo- or the anti-Semitic point of view: see Intro. p. xviii.º Since the third century B.C. an extensive literature on the origin of the Jews had arisen.

30 This appears to be a Jewish explanation (§ 91), to harmonize with the story of Joseph.

31 The reference here is to the Egyptian word ḥʾḳ, “booty,” “prisoners of war” (Erman-Grapow, Wörterbuch, III p33) (B. G.).

32 This number of years, much too high for the length of the Hyksôs sway in Egypt, may perhaps refer to the whole period of their rule in Palestine and Syria: see A. Jirku, in Journ. of the Palestine Orient. Soc. XII, 1932, p51 n. 4.

33 Misphragmuthôsis, i.e. MenkheperrêꜤ (Tuthmôsis III) and his son Thummôsis, i.e. Tuthmôsis IV, are here said to have driven out the Hyksôs. In Fr. 50, § 94, Tethmôsis is named as the conqueror. In point of historical fact the victorious king was Amôsis, and he took Auaris by main force: the genuine Manetho must surely have given this name which is preserved by Africanus and Eusebius, as also by Apiôn in Tatian, adv. Graecos, § 38. See p101 n. 2, and cf.  Meyer, Aeg. Chron., pp73 f.

Weill, La fin du moyen empire égyptien, p95, explains the error by assuming that the exploit of the capture of Auaris was usurped by Tuthmôsis IV, as it was usurped earlier by Hatshepsut and later by Ramessês III.

Breasted (C. A. H. II p83) holds that, since with the catastrophic fall of Kadesh on the Orontes before the arms of Tuthmôsis III the last vestige of the Hyksôs power disappeared, the tradition of late Greek days made Tuthmôsis III the conqueror of the Hyksôs. He points out that the name Misphragmuthôsis is to be identified with the two cartouche-names of Tuthmôsis III: it is a corruption of “MenkheperrêꜤ Tuthmôsis”.

34 Lit. “with a circumference of 10,000 arûrae”. The text (which cannot be attributed as it stands to Manetho — τὴν περίμετρον must be a later addition) implies a wrong use of arûra as a measure of length; it is, in reality, a measure of area, about half an acre.

Thayer’s Note: See the article Arura in Smith’s Dictionary of Greek and Roman Antiquities.

35 240,000 — the number of the garrison mentioned in § 78, where they are described as “hoplites”.

36 On the origin of “Jeru-šalem,” see A. Jirku in Zeitschr. d. Deutsch. Morgenl. Gesellschaft, 90 (1936), pp * 10 * f.: the first part, Jeru-, is non‑Semitic (cf. O. T. Ezek. xvi.2452 Sam. xxiv.16, and the names Jeru‑baꜤal, Jeru-‘el; also, Jaru-wataš in an inscr. of Boghazköi); the second part, Šalem, is a Canaanitish divine name, found in the texts of Ras esh‑Shamra. The name of the city occurs in the El‑Amarna Letters in the form “Urusalimmu,” the oldest literary mention of Jerusalem.

37 Cf. § 83 for the same information, there attributed to “another copy”.

38 Cf. O. T. Genesis xlvi.32‑34xlvii.3.

39 In the Biblical narrative Joseph told the chief butler or cup‑bearer (Genesis xl.15). The margin of the Florentine MS. has a note on this passage: “In another copy (i.e. of the treatise Against Apion) the following reading was found — ‘he was sold by his brethren and brought down into Egypt to the king of Egypt; and later, again, with the king’s consent, summoned his brethren to Egypt’.”

40 The reference seems to be to Fr. 54, § 227 ff., but ἐν ἄλλοις usually refers to a separate work.

41 Africanus gives a less correct list than Josephus (cf. the transposition of Apôphis to the end): there is further corruption in Eusebius (Fr. 48) and the Book of Sôthis (App. IV).

42 This statement of the Phoenician origin of the Hyksôs kings has generally been discredited until recently: now the Ras esh‑Shamra tablets, which imply a pantheon strikingly similar to that of the Hyksôs, have shown that the Hyksôs were closely related to the Phoenicians.

43 See p80 n. 3. The Saïte nome proper, as opposed to this “Tanite” nome, is mentioned in Egyptian texts of the Old Kingdom. For the famous Saïs, the seat of Dynasty XXVI (now Sa El‑Hagar, see Baedeker8, p36 — N. W. of Tanta on the right bank of the Rosetta branch), the centre of the cult of Neith, “the metropolis of the lower country” (Strabo, 17.1.18)cf. Herodotus, II.62Diod. I.28.4 (for its relation to Athens).

44 For Iannas (in Josephus), the Khian of the Monuments, see p83 n. 2.

45 Archlês here, and in Eusebius (Fr. 48), corresponds with Assis (or Aseth) in Josephus (Fr. 42, § 80); but the change in the form of the name is extraordinary.

46 The length of reign (61 years, as in Josephus) leads one to believe that Africanus has transposed Apôphis from the 4th place to the 6th; but in point of fact the last Hyksôs king whom we know by name was called Apepi.

47 Barbarus gives 318 years (p23, XV); Meyer conjectures that the true number is 418 (Aeg. Chron. p99). Contrast Fr. 42, § 84 (511 years).

48 See H. E. Winlock, “Tombs of the Seventeenth Dynasty at Thebes,” in J. Eg. Arch. X pp217 ff.

49 Barbarus gives 221 years (p23, XVI). According to Manetho the total length of the foreign usurpation probably was 929 years (260 in Josephus + 518 + 151). Josephus (Fr. 42, § 84) gives 511 years. These statements, even if based on actual traditions, have no weight as compared with the certain data of the Monuments. The almost complete lack of buildings of the Hyksôs time and the close connexion of the Thebans of Dynasty XVII with those of Dynasty XIII tend to show that the Hyksôs rule in the Nile Valley lasted for about a hundred and twenty years, c. 1700‑1580 B.C. Under one of the Theban kings, TaꜤo, who bore the epithet “The Brave,” war with the Hyksôs broke out c. 1590 B.C.; Kamose, the last king of the Dynasty XVII, continued the war of independence, and Amôsis (of Dynasty XVIII) finally expelled the usurpers.

50 This must be a mistake of transcription: see note 2 on the text.

51 See Fr. 42, § 78, n. 3Fr. 43, n. 4.

52 See p95 n. 3.

53 See p80 n. 3.

54 The Armenian text of this sentence is rather difficult, but Professor Margoliouth, pointing out that the Armenian present infinitive is used here for the perfect, approves of this rendering. Karst translates the Armenian in the following sense: “It is under these kings that Joseph arises, to rule over Egypt”.

55 See p95 n. 3.

56 See p80 n. 3.

57 The addition of 5 days (not 6, as above) to the short year of 360 days was made long before the Hyksôs age: it goes back to at least the Pyramid Age, and probably earlier. The introduction of the calendar, making an artificial reconciliation of the lunar and solar years, perhaps as early as 4236 B.C., is believed to give the earliest fixed date in human history: see V. Gordon Childe, New Light on the Most Ancient East, 1934, pp 4 f.º

58 The New Kingdom: Dynasties XVIII‑XX: c. 1580-c. 1100 B.C.

Dynasty XVIII c. 1580‑1310 B.C.

For identification with the monumental evidence which is firmly established, see Meyer, Geschichte2, II.1, p78: the names and order of the first nine kings are: (1) Amôsis  p101 (Chebrôn is unexplained), (2) Amenôphis I, (3) Tuthmôsis I, (4) Tuthmôsis II, (5) Hatshepsut (apparently Manetho’s Amessis or Amensis: the same length of reign, 21 years), (6) Tuthmosis III (corresponding to Mêphrês, i.e. MenkheperrêꜤ or MeshperêꜤ, and Misphragmuthôsis, i.e. MenkheperrêꜤ Thutmose), (7) Amenôphis II, (8) Tuthmôsis IV (the order of these two being reversed by Manetho), (9) Amenôphis III (Hôrus, the same length of reign, 36 years).

The remaining kings of the dynasty are: Amenôphis IV (Akhnaten, see p123 n. 1), SemenkhkarêꜤ (? Acenchêrês), TûtꜤankhamon (? Chebrês), Ay (? Acherrês): see C. A. H. II p702. On rulers Nos. 3, 4, 5 and 6, see Wm. F. Edgerton, The Thutmosid Succession, 1933.

For Dynasty XIX, see p148 n. 1.

59 Tethmôsis = Amôsis: see note on Misphragmuthôsis, Fr. 42, § 86. For the scarab of Amôsis see Plate 1, 3.

60 Howard Carter (Tutankhamen, III p3) points out that monuments of Amenôphis III are dated to his 37th year, perhaps even to his 40th year; and he explains that Manetho has given the length of his reign as sole ruler. More commonly, the high figures assigned to the reigns of kings may be explained by the assumption that overlapping co‑regencies have been included.

61 Miamûn = Mey‑amûn, “beloved of Amûn”.

62 The margin of the Florentine MS. has a note here: “The following reading was found in another copy: ‘After him Sethôsis and Ramessês, two brothers. The former, with a strong fleet, blockaded his murderous (?) adversaries by sea. Not long after, he slew Ramessês and appointed another of his brothers, Harmaïs, as viceroy of Egypt.’ ” This is intended as a correction of the text of Josephus, but it contains the error of the Florentine MS. in the reading Σέθωσις καὶ Ῥαμέσσης. Sethôsis is the Sesostris of Herodotus, II.102, where his naval expedition in the “Red Sea” is described.

Meyer, Aeg. Chron. p91, considers the words “also called Ramessês” an addition to Manetho. See § 245.

W. Struve (see p148 n. 1) would here emend Sethôs into Sesôs, which was a name of Ramesês II: according to the monuments he reigned for 67 years (cf. Fr. 55, 2), and his triumphant Asiatic campaigns were told by Hecataeus of Abdera (Osymandyas in Diodorus Siculus, I.47 ff.).

63 A frequent title from the Old Kingdom onwards is “overseer of the priests of Upper and Lower Egypt,” later applied to the high priest of Amûn. The emendation ἱερῶν (for ἱερέων) is supported by a reference in a papyrus of about the time of Manetho.

64 See Fr. 54, § 274, n. 1 (pp140‑141).

65 With the return of Sethôsis to a country in revolt, cf. Herodotus, II.107 (return of Sesostris and the perilous banquet), Diod. Sic. I.57.6‑8. The tale appears to be a piece of folklore (Maspero, Journ. des Savants, 1901, pp599, 665 ff.). See Wainwright, Sky‑Religion, p48.

66 Danaus: cf.  § 231. See Meyer, Aeg. Chron. p75, for the theory that the identification of Sethôs and Harmaïs with Aegyptus and Danaus is due, not to Manetho, but to a Jewish commentator or interpolator.

The tradition is that Danaus, a king of Egypt, was expelled by his brother and fled to Argos with his fifty daughters, and there “the sons of Aegyptus” were slain by “the daughters of Danaus.” The legend appears to have existed in Egypt as well as in Greece: see Diod. Sic. I.28.297.2. For attempts to explain the story in terms of Aegean pre‑history, see J. L. Myres, Who Were the Greeks? (1930), pp323 ff.: M. P. Nilsson, The Mycenaean Origin of Greek Mythology (1932), p64.

67 This total is reckoned from Tethmôsis (Amôsis) to the end of the reign of Sethôsis, the latter being taken as 60 years (cf.  § 231, where Sethôs is said to have reigned for 59 years after driving out Hermaeus).

68 The mythical King Inachus was held to be still more ancient: cf. Fr. 4, 1 (p19 n. 4).

69 The traditional date of the Trojan war is 1192‑1183 B.C.

70 This appears to be about four times too high a figure: 250 years would be a nearer estimate.

71 Cf. Fr. 54, §§ 229287, for Manetho’s use of popular traditions.

72 This list of Dynasties XVIII, XIX is obviously derived wholly from Josephus, any variations from the text of Josephus being merely corruptions. Theophilus, Bishop of Antioch, wrote his apologia for the Christian faith (three books addressed to a friend Autolycus) in the second half of the 2c A.D.

73 See p100 n. 1.

74 See p101 n. 2. On the basis of new evidence scholars now tend to conclude that the Exodus took place c. 1445 B.C. (see e.g. J. W. Jack, The Date of the Exodus, 1925): Jericho fell c. 1400 B.C. (J. Garstang, The Heritage of Solomon, 1934, p281).

75 I.e. Africanus.

76 I.e. by Syncellus.

77 This Greek transcription of “Amenḥotpe,” retaining both the labial and the dental, is the fullest form of the name, “Amenôthês” showing assimilation: “Amenôphis,” which is regularly used to represent “Amenḥotpe,” actually comes from another name, “Amen(em)ôpe” (B. G.). The month Phamenôth (February-March) is named from the “feast of Amenôthês”.

78 This note about Memnôn in both Africanus and Eusebius should be transferred to the ninth king of the dynasty, Ôrus or Amenôphis III.

The reference is to the two monolithic colossi of Amenôphis III (Baedeker8, pp345 f.): see Pausanias, I.42 (the Thebans say it was a statue not of Memnôn, but of Phamenôph, who dwelt in those parts) with J. G. Frazer’s note (vol. II pp530 f.), and Tacitus, Ann. II.61. Amenôphis III (Memnôn) is correctly named in Greek Amenôth and Phamenôth by the poetess Balbilla (time of Hadrian): see Werner Peek in Mitt. des Deutsch. Inst. für äg. Alt. in Kairo, V.1 (1934), pp96, 99; Sammelbuch, 8211, 8213.

79 For possible identifications of Nos. 10, 12, and 13 see p101 n. 1. Nos. 14, 15, and 16 should be transferred to Dynasty XIX: see p148 n. 1. Armesis (Armaïs) is probably Haremhab; Ramessês, vizier of Haremhab and afterwards Ramessês I, was probably of Heliopolitan origin (P. E. Newberry).

80 See p113 n. 1.

81 According to O. T. 1 Kings vi.1, the building of Solomon’s Temple was begun 480 years after the Exodus: if the Exodus is dated c. 1445 B.C. (see p110 n. 2), the Temple was founded c. 965 B.C.

82 Cf. “the botch (or boil) of Egypt” (perhaps elephantiasis), Deuteronomy xxviii.27.

Thayer’s Note: An echo of this Graeco-Roman association of leprosy with the Jews may possibly be found several centuries later in Ammian: XXII.5.5, and my note there.

83 This number seems to be obtained by adding 393 + 59 + 66: in that case the reign of Sethôsis is counted twice, (1) as 60, (2) as 59 years (cf. Fr. 50, § 103).

84 Ôr, or Hôrus, is the ninth king in Manetho’s list of Dynasty XVIII (Frs. 5152), in reality Amenôphis III. Reinach points out that Herodotus (II.42) tells the same story of the Egyptian Heracles, and conjectures that there is perhaps confusion with the god Hôrus.

85 For this Amenôphis, a historical personage, later deified (cf. the deification of Imhotep, Fr. 11), Amenḥotpe, son of Hapu, and minister of Amenôphis III, see G. Maspero, New Light on Ancient Egypt (1909), pp189‑195: Sethe, in Aegyptiaca (Ebers, Festschrift), 1897, pp107‑116: Breasted, Anc. Rec. II §§ 911 ff.; Warren R. Dawson, The Bridle of Pegasus, 1930, pp49‑79. In 1934‑35 excavations by the French Institute, Cairo, revealed all that remains of the splendour of the funerary temple of Amenḥotpe, son of Hapu, among a series of such temples to the N. of Medinet Habu: see Robichon and Varille, Le Temple du Scribe Royal Amenhotep, Fils de Hapou, I, Cairo, 1936. An inscription of the 3c B.C. (and therefore contemporary with Manetho), headed Ἀμενώτου ὑποθῆκαι, “Precepts of Amenôtes or Amenôphis,” was published by Wilcken in Aegyptiaca, 1897, pp142 ff. It is inscribed upon a limestone ostracon of Deir-el‑Bahri; and the first three injunctions run: “Practise wisdom along with justice,” “Revere both the gods and your parents,” “Take counsel at leisure, but accomplish speedily whatever you do”.

An ostracon, found at Deir-el‑Bahri, and giving the draft of an inscription concerning the deified Amenôphis, was published by A. Bataille, Études de Papyrologie, IV (1938), pp125‑131: it celebrates the cure of a certain Polyaratos. See O. Guéraud in Bull. Inst. Fr. d’Arch. Or., XXVII (1927), pp121 ff., P. Jouguet, “Les Grands Dieux de la Pierre Sainte à Thèbes,” Mélanges Glotz, II pp493‑500.

For the historical interpretation of this whole passage, §§ 232‑251, see Meyer, Geschichte2, II.1, pp421 ff. King Amenôphis is at one time Merneptah, son of Rameses II; at another time, Amenôphis IV (Akhnaten), some 200 years earlier. The doings of the polluted, the persecution of the gods, and the slander of the holy animals, clearly portray the fury of Akhnaten and his followers against Egyptian religion. For a popular Egyptian parallel to §§ 232 ff., see the Potter’s Oracle, one of the Rainer Papyri (3c A.D.) edited by Wilcken in Hermes, XL 1905, pp544 ff. and by G. Manteuffel, De Opusculis Graecis Aegypti e papyris, ostracis, lapidibusque collectis, 1930, No. 7; and cf. the prophecy of the lamb, Manetho, Fr. 64.

For a theory about the identity of the polluted (they are the troops of Sethôs I, sent to Tanis by his father Ramessês I during the ascendancy of Haremhab), see P. Montet, “La Stèle de l’An 400 Retrouvée,” in Kémi, III 1935, pp191‑215.

86 In an incredibly short time (§ 257).

87 The quarries of Tura were known to Herodotus (II.124) as the source of building-stone for the Pyramids.

On forced labour in quarries in Ptolemaic times, Reinach refers to Bouché-Leclercq, Histoire des Lagides, III.241; IV.193, 337 f.

88 Cf. Fr. 42, § 78.

89 Osarsêph, the leader of the movement, is later (§ 250) identified with Moses. The name Osarsêph is a possible Egyptian name: cf. Ranke, Personennamen I p85, No. 3 wsı͗r‑spʾ. Wilcken (Chrestomathie, I.1, p106) derives the name from a holy animal Sêph; but the Jews would naturally see in it a form of the name Joseph.

90 “Does the author know that the Decalogue begins with an admonition to have no other god but Jehovah? Or does he recall Greek lists of duties (Xen., Mem. IV.4, 19; Carmen Aureum, V.1; cf. Dieterich, Nekyia, pp146 f.) which inculcate reverence for the gods as the first precept?” (Reinach). Add Isocrates, Ad Demonicum, §§ 13, 16, and the Precepts of Sansnôs (2c‑3c A.D.), as inscribed in Nubia, CIG III.5041 (Wilcken, Chrestomathie, I.ii p147, No. 116) — the first precept is “Revere the divinity”.

91 Cf. Tac., Hist. V.4: the Jews under Moses sacrificed the ram as if to insult Ammôn, and the bull, because the Egyptians worship Apis. Cf. O. T. Leviticus xvi.3.

92 Tethmôsis for Amôsis, as in Fr. 50 (§ 94).

93 Rapsês: doubtless an error for Rampsês. There is confusion here: the grandfather is Ramessês II. See Meyer (Aeg. Chron. p91), who considers the words “Sethôs also called” an interpolation (cf. § 98), intended to identify a Sethôs son of Amenôphis and a Ramessês son of Amenôphis.

94 A curious indefiniteness: the reference may be to the king of Ethiopia, mentioned in the next section.

95 The truth is that Ethiopia (Nubia, Cush) was at that time a province of the kingdom of the Pharaohs.

96 According to Meyer (Aeg. Chron. p77), this section with its identification of Osarsêph and Moses is due to an anti-Semitic commentator on Manetho. It is interesting that Osiris should be thus identified with the mysterious god of the Jews, whose name must not be uttered.

97 Cf. Hecataeus of Abdera (in Diodorus Siculus, XL.3): the Jews are foreigners expelled from Egypt because of a plague. See Meyer, Geschichte2, II.1, p424. Hecataeus lived for some time at the court of Ptolemy I (323‑285 B.C.), and used Egyptian sources for his AegyptiacaCf. Intro. pp. xxiv f.º

98 A strange expression which seems to belong to an anti-Semitic polemic. In Josephus, C. Apion II.263 (a passage about Socrates), νὴ Δία has been restored to the text by Niese’s conjecture.

99 The passage §§ 260‑266 repeats unnecessarily the substance of §§ 237‑250: possibly these are extracts from two treatises utilizing the same material.

100 In § 245 we are told that Amenôphis himself led his host in this useless march, and that his son was only 5 years old. Only here is Pêlusium mentioned as the destination of the march.

Pêlusium, “the celebrated eastern seaport and key to Egypt” (Baedeker8, pp197 f.), the famous frontier fortress, in ancient Egyptian Śnw. A scarab of the late Twelfth Dynasty or early Thirteenth, published by Newberry in J. Eg. Arch. XVIII (1932), p141, shows the place-name within the fortress-sign. The name Pêlusium is from πηλός “mud”; cf. Strabo, 17.1.21, for the muddy pools or marshes round Pêlusium.

101 518 years. See n. on § 230.

102 For the laws of leprosy, here summarized, see O. T. Leviticus xiii (especially 45 f.) and xiv.

103 Cf.  O. T. Leviticus xxi.17‑23 (exclusion from the priesthood of anyone “that hath a blemish”).

104 The same etymology (with the necessary addition that ὐσῆς means “saved”) recurs in Josephus, Antiq. II.228; cf. Philo, De Vita Moysis, I.4, § 17. There is a word in Ancient Egyptian, mw {𓈗}, meaning “water,” but the connexion with the name Moses is hypothetical. Similar forms appear as personal names in Pharaonic times, e.g. Ms.ı͗ from the Old Kingdom, Ms (very common) from the New Kingdom. In Exodus ii.10 “Moses” is “drawn out” (Hebr. mashah of the water — a derivation “hardly meant to be taken seriously” (T. H. Robinson, in Oesterley and Robinson, History of Israel, I p81).

See further Alan H. Gardiner, “The Egyptian Origin of some English Personal Names,” in Journ. of Amer. Orient. Soc. 56 (1936), pp192‑4. Gardiner points out (p195, n. 28) that ὐσῆς (mentioned above) is clearly a perversion of ασιης [or ἑσιῆς = Egyptian ḥsy {𓎛𓎿𓋴𓏭𓀁}, “praised,” LS9], the Greek equivalent of the Coptic hasie, “favoured”; but an Egyptian became “favoured” by the fact of being drowned, not by being saved from drowning.

105 Dynasty XIX: c. 1310‑1200 B.C. The lists given by Africanus and Eusebius for Dynasty XIX are in very bad confusion. Armaïs (Haremhab) should begin the line, which Meyer gives as follows:—

Haremhab: Ramessês I: Sethôs I: Ramessês II (the Louis Quatorze of Egyptian history: 67 years, see Breasted, Anc. Rec. IV § 471; C. A. H. II pp139 ff.): Merneptah: Amenmesês: Merneptah II. Siptah: Sethôs II: Ramessês Siptah: Sethôs II: Ramessês Siptah: <Arus the Syrian>.

W. Struve (De Ara ἀπὸ Μενόφρεως und die XIX. Dynastie Manethos, in Zeitschr. für äg. Sprache, Bd. 63 (1928), pp45‑50) gives a revised sequence with additional identifications: (1) Harmaïs (Haremhab), (2) Ramessês I, (3) Amenôphath (Seti I Merneptah), (4) Sesôs (Struve’s emendation for Sethôs), also called Ramessês Miamoun [Ramessês II Seso], (5) Amenephthês (Merneptah), (6) [Amenophthês or Menophthês, emended from the form Menophrês in Theon of Alexandria], (Seti II Merneptah), (7) Ramessês III Siptah, (8) Ammenemes (Amenmeses), (9) Thuôris or Thuôsris, also called Siphthas. Cf. Petrie, History of Egypt, III pp120 ff. Struve points also to a new Sôthis date, 1318 B.C., in the reign of Seti I (according to Petrie’s chronology, 1326‑1300 B.C.).

106 The Fall of Troy was traditionally dated 1183 B.C.; cf. p107 n. 3.

In Homer, Odyssey, IV.126, a golden distaff and a silver work-basket with wheels beneath and golden rims, — treasures in the palace of Menelaus at Sparta, — are described as gifts to Helen from “Alcandrê, the wife of Polybus who dwelt in Egyptian Thebes where the amplest store of wealth is laid up in men’s houses”; while to Menelaus himself Polybus had given two silver baths, two tripods, and ten talents of gold. See W. H. D. Rouse, The Story of Odysseus, 1937, p56: “Polybos was a great nobleman in the Egyptian Thebes, with a palace full of treasures.”

107 For the corrected total of Book II, see Fr. 4, n. 4 (246 or 289 kings for 2221 years). The wide difference between the number of kings (96 or 92 as compared with 246 or 289) is puzzling: Meyer conjectures that about 150 or 193 of the larger numbers were ephemeral or co‑regents.

Book III

20th Dynasty XX

Fr. 57 (from Syncellus). According to Africanus.

From the Third Book of Manetho.

The Twentieth Dynasty​1 consisted of twelve kings of Diospolis, who reigned for 135 years.

(b) According to Eusebius.

From the Third Book of Manetho.

The Twentieth Dynasty consisted of twelve kings of Diospolis, who reigned for 178 years.

(c) Armenian Version of Eusebius.

From the Third Book of Manetho.

The Twentieth Dynasty consisted of twelve kings of Diospolis, who reigned for 172 years.

Dynasty XXI

Fr. 58 (from Syncellus). According to Africanus.

The Twenty-first Dynasty​2 consisted of seven kings of Tanis.

1. Smendês,​3 for 26 years.
2. Psusen(n)ês I,​4 for 46 years.
3. Nephercherês (Nephelcherês), for 4 years.
4. Amenôphthis, for 9 years.
5. Osochôr, for 6 years.
6. Psinachês, for 9 years.
7. Psusennes [II] (Susennês), for 14 years.

Total, 130 years.5

Fr. 59 (a) (from Syncellus). According to Eusebius.

The Twenty-first Dynasty consisted of seven kings of Tanis.

1. Smendis, for 26 years.
2. Psusennês, for 41 years.
3. Nephercherês, for 4 years.
4. Amenôphthis, for 9 years.
5. Osochôr, for 6 years.
6. Psinachês, for 9 years.
7. Psusennês, for 35 years.

Total, 130 years.

(b) Armenian Version of Eusebius.

The Twenty-first Dynasty consisted of seven kings of Tanis.

1. Smendis, for 26 years.
2. Psusennes, for 41 years.
3. Nephercheres, for 4 years.
4. Amenophthis, for 9 years.
5. Osochor, for 6 years.
6. Psinnaches, for 9 years.
7. Psusennes, for 35 years.

Total, 130 years.

22nd Dynasty XXII

Fr. 60 (from Syncellus). According to Africanus.

The Twenty-second Dynasty​6 consisted of nine kings of Bubastus.

1. Sesônchis, for 21 years.
2. Osorthôn,​7 for 15 years.
3, 4, 5. Three other kings, for 25 [29] years.
6. Takelôthis, for 13 years.
7, 8, 9. Three other kings, for 42 years.

Total, 120 years.8

Fr. 61 (a) (from Syncellus). According to Eusebius.

The Twenty-second Dynasty consisted of three kings of Bubastus.

1. Sesônchôsis, for 21 years.
2. Osorthôn, for 15 years.
3. Takelôthis, for 13 years.

Total, 49 years.

(b) Armenian Version of Eusebius.

The Twenty-second Dynasty consisted of three kings of Bubastus.

1. Sesonchosis, for 21 years.
2. Osorthon,​9 for 15 years.
3. Tacelothis, for 13 years.

Total, 49 years.

23rd Dynasty XXIII

Fr. 62 (from Syncellus). According to Africanus.

The Twenty-third Dynasty​10 consisted of four kings of Tanis.

1. Petubatês, for 40 years: in his reign the Olympic festival​11 was first celebrated.
2. Osorchô, for 8 years: the Egyptians call him Hêraclês.​12
3. Psammûs, for 10 years.
4. Zêt,​13 for 31 years (34).

Total, 89 years.

Fr. 63 (a) (from Syncellus). According to Eusebius.

The Twenty-third Dynasty consisted of three kings of Tanis.

1. Petubastis,​14 for 25 years.
2. Osorthôn, for 9 years: the Egyptians called him Hêraclês.
3. Psammûs, for 10 years.

Total, 44 years.

(b) Armenian Version of Eusebius.

The Twenty-third Dynasty consisted of three kings of Tanis.

1. Petubastis, for 25 years.

2. Osorthon, whom the Egyptians named Hercules: for 9 years.

3. Psammus, for 10 years.

Total, 44 years.

24th Dynasty XXIV

Fr. 64 (from Syncellus). According to Africanus.

The Twenty-fourth Dynasty.​15

Bochchôris of Saïs, for 6 years: in his reign a lamb​16 spoke​17 . . . 990 years.

Fr. 65 (a) (from Syncellus). According to Eusebius.

The Twenty-fourth Dynasty.

Bochchôris of Saïs, for 44 years: in his reign a lamb spoke. Total, 44 years.18

(b) Armenian Version of Eusebius.

The Twenty-fourth Dynasty.

Bocchoris of Saïs, for 44 years: in his reign a lamb spoke.

25th Dynasty XXV

Fr. 66 (from Syncellus). According to Africanus.

The Twenty-fifth Dynasty​19 consisted of three Ethiopian kings.

1. Sabacôn,​20 who, taking Bochchôris captive, burned him alive, and reigned for 8 years.
2. Sebichôs, his son, for 14 years.
3. Tarcus,​21º for 18 years.

Total, 40 years.

Fr. 67 (a) (from Syncellus). According to Eusebius.

The Twenty-fifth Dynasty consisted of three Ethiopian kings.

1. Sabacôn, who, taking Bochchôris captive, burned him alive, and reigned for 12 years.
2. Sebichôs, his son, for 12 years.
3. Taracus, for 20 years.

Total, 44 years.

(b) Armenian Version of Eusebius.

The Twenty-fifth Dynasty consisted of three Ethiopian kings.

1. Sabacon, who, taking Bocchoris captive, burned him alive, and reigned for 12 years.
2. Sebichos, his son, for 12 years.
3. Saracus (Taracus), for 20 years.

Total, 44 years.

26th Dynasty XXVI

Fr. 68 (from Syncellus). According to Africanus.

The Twenty-sixth Dynasty​22 consisted of nine kings of Saïs.

1. Stephinatês, for 7 years.
2. Nechepsôs, for 6 years.
3. Nechaô, for 8 years.
4. Psammêtichus,​23 for 54 years.
5. Nechaô​24 the Second, for 6 years: he took Jerusalem, and led King Iôachaz captive into Egypt.
6. Psammuthis the Second, for 6 years.
7. Uaphris,​25 for 19 years: the remnant of the Jews fled to him, when Jerusalem was captured by the Assyrians.
8. Amôsis,​26 for 44 years.

Psammecheritês,​27 for 6 months.

Total, 150 years 6 months.

Fr. 69 (a) (from Syncellus). According to Eusebius.

The Twenty-sixth Dynasty consisted of nine kings of Saïs.

1. Ammeris the Ethiopian, for 12 years.
2. Stephinathis, for 7 years.
3. Nechepsôs, for 6 years.
4. Nechaô, for 8 years.
5. Psammêtichus, for 45 [44] years.
6. Nechaô the Second, for 6 years: he took Jerusalem, and led King Iôachaz captive into Egypt.
7. Psammuthis the Second, also called Psammêtichus, for 17 years.
8. Uaphris, for 25 years: the remnant of the Jews fled to him, when Jerusalem was captured by the Assyrians.
9. Amôsis, for 42 years.

Total, 163 years.28

(b) Armenian Version of Eusebius.

The Twenty-sixth Dynasty consisted of nine kings of Saïs.

1. Ameres the Ethiopian, for 18 years.
2. Stephinathes, for 7 years.
3. Nechepsos, for 6 years.
4. Nechao, for 8 years.
5. Psametichus,º for 44 years.
6. Nechao the Second, for 6 years: he took Jerusalem, and led King Ioachaz captive into Egypt.
7. Psammuthes the Second, also called Psammetichus, for 17 years.
8. Uaphres, for 25 years: the remnant of the Jews took refuge with him, when Jerusalem was subjugated by the Assyrians.
9. Amosis, for 42 years.

Total, 167 years.

Dynasty XXVII

Fr. 70 (from Syncellus). According to Africanus.

The Twenty-seventh Dynasty​29 consisted of eight Persian kings.

1. Cambysês in the fifth year of his kingship over the Persians became king of Egypt and ruled for 6 years.
2. Darius, son of Hystaspês, for 36 years.
3. Xerxês the Great, for 21 years.
4. Artabanus,​30 for 7 months.
5. Artaxerxês,​31 for 41 years.
6. Xerxês,​32 for 2 months.
7. Sogdianus, for 7 months.
8. Darius, son of Xerxês, for 19 years.

Total, 124 years 4 months.

Fr. 71 (a) (from Syncellus). According to Eusebius.

The Twenty-seventh Dynasty consisted of eight Persian kings.

1. Cambysês in the fifth year of his kingship became king of Egypt, and ruled for 3 years.
2. Magi, for 7 months.
3. Darius, for 36 years.
4. Xerxês, son of Darius, for 21 years.
5. Artaxerxês of the long hand, for 40 years.
6. Xerxês the Second, for 2 months.
7. Sogdianus, for 7 months.
8. Darius, son of Xerxês, for 19 years.

Total, 120 years 4 months.

(b) Armenian Version of Eusebius.

The Twenty-seventh Dynasty consisted of eight Persian kings.

1. Cambysês in the fifth​33 year of his kingship became king of Egypt, and ruled for 3 years.
2. Magi, for 7 months.
3. Darius, for 36 years.
4. Xerxes, son of Darius, for 21 years.
5. Artaxerxes, for 40 years.
6. Xerxes the Second, for 2 months.
7. Sogdianus, for 7 months.
8. Darius, son of Xerxes, for 19 years.

Total, 120 years 4 months.

28th Dynasty XXVIII

Fr. 72 (a) (from Syncellus). According to Africanus.

The Twenty-eighth Dynasty.​34 Amyrteos of Saïs, for 6 years.

(b) According to Eusebius.

The Twenty-eighth Dynasty. Amyrtaeus of Saïs, for 6 years.

(c) Armenian Version of Eusebius.

The Twenty-eighth Dynasty. Amyrtes of Saïs, for 6 years.35

29th Dynasty XXIX

Fr. 73 (a) (from Syncellus). According to Africanus.

The Twenty-ninth Dynasty:​36 four kings of Mendês.

1. Nepheritês, for 6 years.
2. Achôris, for 13 years.
3. Psammuthis, for 1 year.
4. Nepheritês [II], for 4 months.

Total, 20 years 4 months.

(b) According to Eusebius.

The Twenty-ninth Dynasty: four kings​37 of Mendês.

1. Nepheritês, for 6 years.
2. Achôris, for 13 years.
3. Psammuthis, for 1 year.
4. Nepheritês [II], for 4 months.
5. Muthis, for 1 year.

Total, 21 years 4 months.

(c) Armenian Version of Eusebius.

The Twenty-ninth Dynasty consisted of four kings of Mendês.

1. Nepherites, for 6 years.
2. Achoris, for 13 years.
3. Psamuthes, for 1 year.
4. Muthes, for 1 year.
5. Nepheritês [II], for 4 months.

Total, 21 years and 4 months.

30th Dynasty XXX

Fr. 74 (a) (from Syncellus). According to Africanus.

The Thirtieth Dynasty​38 consisted of three kings of Sebennytus.

1. Nectanebês, for 18 years.

2. Teôs, for 2 years.

3. Nectanebus,​39 for 18 years.

Total, 38 years.

(b) According to Eusebius.

The Thirtieth Dynasty consisted of three kings of Sebennytus.

1. Nectanebês, for 10 years.
2. Teôs, for 2 years.
3. Nectanebus, for 8 years.

Total, 20 years.

(c) Armenian Version of Eusebius.

The Thirtieth Dynasty consisted of 3 kings of Sebennytus.

1. Nectanebes, for 10 years.
2. Teos, for 2 years.
3. Nectanebus, for 8 years.

Total, 20 years.

31st Dynasty XXXI

Fr. 75 (a) (from Syncellus). According to Africanus.

The Thirty-first Dynasty​40 consisted of three Persian kings.

1. Ôchus in the twentieth year​41 of his kingship over the Persians became king of Egypt, and ruled for 2 years.
2. Arsês, for 3 years.
3. Darius, for 4 years.

Total of years in Book III, 1050 years​42 [850].

Here ends the History of Manetho.

(b) According to Eusebius.

The Thirty-first Dynasty consisted of three Persian kings.

1. Ôchus in the twentieth year of his kingship over the Persians conquered Egypt, and ruled for 6 years.
2. His successor was Arsês, son of Ôchus, who reigned for 4 years.
3. Next, Darius reigned for 6 years: he was put to death by Alexander of Macedon.

These are the contents of the Third Book of Manetho.

Here ends the History of Manetho.

(c) Armenian Version of Eusebius.

The Thirty-first Dynasty consisted of Persian kings.

1. Ochus in the twentieth year of his kingship over the Persians seized Egypt and held it for 6 years.
2. His successor was Arses, son of Ochus, who reigned for 4 years.
3. Next, Darius reigned for 6 years: he was put to death by Alexander of Macedon.

These are the contents of the Third Book​43 of Manetho.

The Editor’s Notes:

1 Dynasty XX c. 1200‑1090 B.C.

Setnakht: Ramessês III c. 1200‑1168: Ramessês IV‑XI c. 1168‑1090. Manetho’s 12 kings probably included Ramessês XII and Herihor. The Great Papyrus Harris (time of Ramessês III) describes the anarchy between Dynasties XIX and XX: see Breasted, Anc. Rec. IV § 398.

A revised list of Dynasty XX is given by Newberry in Elliot Smith and Warren Dawson, Egyptian Mummies, 1924: see also T. E. Peet in J. Eg. Arch. XIV (1928), pp52 f.

2 Dynasty XXI, resident at Tanis, c. 1090‑950 B.C. (a dark period in Egyptian history). For identifications with monumental and other evidence see Meyer, Geschichte2, II.2, p20 n. This Tanite Dynasty overlapped with the Theban Dynasty XX: see the Report of Wenamon, Breasted, Anc. Rec. IV §§ 557‑591; C. A. H. II pp192 ff.

3 For Smendês or Nesbenebded, a local noble of Tanis, who seized the whole Delta and made himself king of Lower Egypt, see C. A. H. II p191; III pp253 f.

4 In Egyptian, Psusennes is PsukheꜤmnê, “the star appearing in Thebes”. In 1939‑40 tombs of certain kings of Dynasties XXI and XXII were excavated by P. Montet at Tanis, the most valuable being the intact tomb of Psusennês I, with its rich funerary equipment: in several chambers sarcophagi, vases of many kinds, and jewels were found, including the funerary outfit of Amenôphthis (Amon‑em‑apt, son of Psusennês I) and the silver sarcophagus of a certain Sesonchôsis (not the first king of Dynasty XII), (Ann. Serv. Antiq. tt. XXXIX f., 1939‑40).

5 Actual total of items, 114 years. Eusebius is probably correct with 41 years for 2nd king and 35 years for 7th (Meyer).

6 Dynasty XXII c. 950‑730 B.C., kings of Libyan origin resident at Bubastis. For identifications with the monumental and other evidence see Meyer, Geschichte2, II.2, p58. The first king, Sesonchôsis (Shishak, O. T. 1 Kings xiv.252 Chron. xii) overthrew the Tanites c. 940 B.C. About 930 B.C. he captured Jerusalem and plundered the Temple of Solomon: see Peet, Egypt and the Old Testament, 1922, pp158 ff. Albright (The Archaeology of Palestine and the Bible2, 1932‑3, p199) dates the conquest of Judah by Shishak between 924 and 917 B.C.

7 The name Osorthôn is another form of Osorchô (Dynasty XXIII No. 2 — Africanus), the Egyptian Osorkon.

8 Actual total of items, 116 years.

9 Osorthôs (Aucher, Karst).

10 Dynasty XXIII, resident at Tanis: the records of these kings (dated by Breasted 745‑718 B.C.) are much confused. The name Petubatês (see Fr. 63 for the usual Grecized form Petubastis) represents the Egyptian Pedibaste. For King Osorcho (Osorkon III) see the stele of Piankhi, king of Ethiopia, whose vassal Osorkon became (Breasted, Anc. Rec. IV §§ 807, 811, 872, 878). Psammûs has not been identified.

11 The date of the first Olympic festival was conventionally fixed at 776‑775 B.C.

12 See G. A. Wainwright, Sky‑Religion, pp35 f.

13 The fact that the name Zêt, occurring in Africanus alone, is wrapped in obscurity, has led Flinders Petrie to suggest (“The Mysterious Zêt” in Ancient Egypt, 1914, p32) that the Greek letters are a contraction for ζητεῖται or other word connected with ζητέω, meaning “A question (remains),” or “Query, about 31 years”: for 31 years at this time no single ruler seemed to be predominant, and further search was needed to settle who should be entered as the king of Egypt. “Zêt.” is found in wall-inscriptions at Pompeii: see Diehl, Pompeianische Wandinschriften, No. 682. The next inscription, No. 683, gives “Zêtêma ” in full: a riddle follows.

14 For a demotic romance of the time of Petubastis in one of the Rainer Papyri, see Krall in Vienna Oriental Journal, XVII (1903), 1: it is also found in papyri of Paris and Strassburg. Parallels may be drawn between this romance and Manetho; cf. Spiegelberg, Der Sagenkreis des Königs Petubastis (Leipzig, 1910), pp8 f.

15 Dynasty XXIV, c. 720-c. 715 B.C. Before Bocchoris, his father Tefnachte of Saïs (Tnephachthus in Diodorus Siculus, I.45.2) became the most powerful among the chiefs of the Delta (c. 730‑720 B.C.).

For King Bocchoris see Alexandre Moret, De Bocchori Rege, 1903. Cf. Diodorus Siculus, I.6579.1 (law of contract: Bocchoris legislated for commerce), and 94.5. See Breasted, Anc. Rec. IV § 884: the only extant monuments of King Bocchoris are a few Serapeum stelae and a wall inscription, which record the burial of an Apis in the sixth year of his reign.

16 See especially the demotic story (8 B.C.) of the prophetic lamb, quoted by Krall in Festgaben für Büdinger, pp3‑11 (Innsbruck, 1898): the lamb prophesied the conquest and enslavement of Egypt by Assyria, and the removal of her gods to Nineveh. Cf. Aelian, De Nat. Anim. XII.3, and Manetho, Fr. 54, §§ 232 ff. A reference to Manetho’s description of the oracular lamb is preserved in Pseudo-Plutarch, De proverbiis Alexandrinorum (Crusius, 1887), No. 21, τὸ ἀρνίον σοι λελάληκεν. Αἰγύπτιοι τοῦτο ἀνέγραψαν ὡς ἀνθρωπείᾳ φωνῇ λαλῆσαν (or, as in Suidas, ἐν Αἰγύπτῳ, ὥς φασιν, ἀνθρωπείᾳ φωνῇ ἐλάλησεν). εὑρέθη δὲ ἔχον βασίλειον δράκοντα ἐπὶ τῆς κεφαλῆς αὐτοῦ πτερωτόν (Suidas adds, ἔχοντα μῆκος πήχεων δ´), καὶ τῶν βασιλέων τινὶ λελάληκε τὰ μέλλοντα (“The lamb has spoken to you. Egyptians have recorded a lamb speaking with a human voice [or, in Egypt, they say, a lamb spoke with a human voice]. It was found to have upon its head a royal winged serpent [4 cubits in length]; and it foretold the future to one of the kings.”) See Meyer, Ein neues Bruchstück Manethos über das Lamm des Bokchoris in Zeitschr. für Ägypt. Sprache, XLVI (1910), pp135 f.: he points out the Egyptian character of the description — the royal uraeus, four cubits long, with ostrich feathers on both sides. Cf. Weill, La fin du moyen empire égyptien, pp116, 622.

17 Here some essential words have been omitted from the text.

18 Contrast the “6 years” assigned to Bocchoris by Africanus (Fr. 64): it is suspicious that Eusebius should give 44 years for each of Dynasties XXIII, XXIV, and XXV.

19 Dynasty XXV (Ethiopian), c. 715‑663 B.C.: the three kings are Shabaka, Shabatka, and Taharka.

20 Cf. Herodotus, II.137 (Sabacôs).

Shabaka had a great reputation for mildness and kind rule: Petrie (Religious Life, 1924, pp193 f.) explains that Bochchoris was treated like a mock king in the ancient festival, the burning ceremonially destroying his kingly character. See Wainwright, Sky‑Religion, pp38 ff.

21 Taharka: in O. T. 2 Kings xix.9, Tirhakah, King of Ethiopia. See Peet, Egypt and the Old Testament, 1922, pp175 ff.

22 Dynasty XXVI, 663‑525 B.C.

Saïs (see p91 n. 4), now grown in power, with foreign aid asserts independence, and rules over Egypt. Herodotus, II.151 ff., supports the version of Africanus but differs in (5) Necôs 16 years (Ch. 159), and (7) Apries 25 years (Ch. 161) (22 years in Diod. Sic. I.68). Eusebius (Fr. 69) has preserved the Ethiopian Ammeris (i.e. Tanutamûn) at the beginning of Dynasty XXVI: so in the Book of Sothis (App. IV), No. 78, Amaês, 38 years.

23 Psammêtichus I (Psametik) = Psammêtk, “man, or vendor, of mixed wine,” cf. Herodotus, II.151 (Griffith in Catalogue of Demotic Papyri in the Rylands Library, III pp44, 201). See Diod. Sic. I.66, 67.

24 Nechaô is an old name, an Egyptian plural form, “belonging to the kas” or bulls (Apis and Mnevis), O. T. 2 Chron. xxxvi.2‑4. Battle of Megiddo, 609 B.C.: defeat and death of King Josiah by Necho (2 Kings xxiii.29xxiv.1xxv.26). Johoahaz, son of Josiah, was led captive into Egypt. For these events, see Peet, Egypt and the Old Testament, 1922, p181 ff.

25 Uaphris or Apries, in Egyptian WaḥibprêꜤ, the Hophra of the O. T. Capture of Jerusalem by Nebuchadnezzar, king of Babylon, 587 B.C. See Peet, op. cit. pp185 ff.

26 Amôsis should be Amasis (Iaʽḥmase), the general of Uaphris or Apries: Amasis was first made co‑regent with Apries (569 B.C.), then two years later, after a battle, he became sole monarch.

On the character of Amasis, “the darling of the people and of popular legend,” see the demotic papyrus translated by Spiegelberg, The Credibility of Herodotus’ Account of Egypt (trans. Blackman), pp29 f.

27 Psammêtichus III, defeated by Cambyses the Persian, 525 B.C. The three Psametiks are differentiated as Psammêtichus, Psammuthis, and Psammecheritês (cf. Fr. 20, n. 1).

28 If 44 years are assigned to (5) Psammêtichus, the actual total is 167, as in the Armenian Version.

29 Persian Domination, 525‑332 B.C.

Dynasty XXVII, 525‑404 B.C. After conquering Egypt, Cambyses reigned three years, 525/4‑523/2 B.C. See Cambridge Ancient History, VI pp137 ff.

An interesting papyrus fragment (P. Baden 4 No. 59: 5c A.D. — see the facsimile in Plate III) contains this Dynasty in a form which differs in some respects from the versions given by Africanus and Eusebius. Like Eusebius the papyrus inserts the Magi, and calls Artaxerxês “the Long-handed” and his successor Xerxês “the Second”: as in Africanus, Darius is “son of Hysta[spês]” and Xerxês is “the Great”. To Cambysês the papyrus gives 6½ years: to the Magi, 7½ months. The conquest of Egypt is assigned to the fourth year of Cambysês’ reign, and it was in that year that the campaign began. Artaxerxês is described as “the son” (i.e. of Xerxês); while Darius II is correctly named “the Illegitimate”. See Bilabel’s note on the papyrus (l.c.).

30 Artabanus, vizier, and murderer of Xerxês I, 465 B.C.

31 Artaxerxês I, “Long-hand” (“whether from a physical peculiarity or political capacity is uncertain,” C. A. H. VI p2), 465‑424 B.C.

32 Xerxês II was murdered by his half-brother Sogdianus, who was in turn defeated and put to death in 423 B.C. by another half-brother Ochus (Darius II, nicknamed Nothos, “the Illegitimate”), not “son of Xerxês”. Darius II died in 404 B.C.

33 The Armenian text has “15th”.

34 Dynasty XXVIII‑XXX, Egyptian kings: 404‑341 B.C. — a brief period of independence.

Dynasty XXVIII, Amyrtaeus of Saïs, 404‑399 B.C.: no Egyptian king of this name is known on the monuments. See Werner Schur in Klio, XX 1926, pp273 ff.

35 6 years (Aucher, Karst): 6 months (Müller). The Armenian words for “month” and “year” are so similar that corruption is likely (Margoliouth).

36 Dynasty XXIX, resident at Mendês in E. Delta (Baedeker8, p183), 398‑381 B.C. On the sequence of these rulers see H. R. Hall in C. A. H. VI p145 and n.

37 Muthis or Muthês was a usurper, hence the number of kings is given as four. He is unknown to the Monuments. Aucher suggests that the name Muthis may be merely a repetition, curtailed, of the name Psammuthis.

38 Dynasty XXX, resident at Sebennytus (see Intro. p. xiii),º 380‑343 B.C.: Nectanebês I (Nekhtenêbef), 380‑363, Teôs or Tachôs (Zedḥôr), 362‑361, Nectanebus II (Nekhthoreḥbe), 360‑343. See E. Meyer, Zur Geschichte der 30. Dynastie in Zeitschrift für Ägyptische Sprache, Bd. 67, pp68‑70.

It is certain that Manetho knew only 30 dynasties and ended with the conquest of Egypt by Ôchus: see Unger, Chronol. des Manetho, pp334 f. Under Olymp. 107 (i.e. 352‑348 B.C.), Jerome (Chronicle, p203 Fotheringham, p121 Helm) notes: Ochus Aegyptum tenuit, Nectanebo in Aethiopiam pulso, in quo Aegyptiorum regnum destructum est. Huc usque Manethos. (“Ochus possessed Egypt, when he had driven Nectanebô into Ethiopia: thereby the kingship of the Egyptians was destroyed. So far Manetho [or, Here ends the History of Manetho]”).

39 For the later renown of this king as magician in popular legend, see the Dream of Nectonabôs, in Wilcken, Urkunden der Ptolemäerzeit, I pp369 ff.

40 Dynasty XXXI is not due to Manetho, but was added later to preserve the continuity, — perhaps with the use of material furnished by Manetho himself. No total is given by Africanus and Eusebius, — a further proof that the whole Dynasty is additional. In another passage (p486) Syncellus states: “Manetho wrote an account of the 31 (an error for 30) Dynasties of Egypt down to the time of Ôchus and Nectanebô”: although mistaken about the number of the Dynasties, Syncellus is in the main correct.

41 The 20th year of the kingship of Ôchus was 343 B.C.: the phrase is parallel to that used in Fr. 70, 1, and appears therefore to be Manetho’s expression.

42 The totals given by Africanus in Book III are 135, 130, 120, 89, 6, 40, 150+, 124+, 6, 20+, 38, i.e. 858+ years. To reduce to 850, assign 116 years to Dynasty XXII (as the items add), and 120 to Dynasty XXVII (Meyer).

43 Third Book (Aucher, Karst): Second Book (Müller). The Armenian words for “second” and “third” have similar forms; hence the corruption (Margoliouth).