For posts visible within the ‘Egyptian Chronology Resources’ section. (But I don’t want them to show on the Book of Mormon archaeology main page so I’m not putting it as a child under it.

The Geologic Underworld of Jerusalem: The Caves, Tunnels & Tombs of Mount Zion & Israel’s Heritage


Jerusalem’s history is richly intertwined with the unique geology up on which in sits. From it’s spectacular abundance of limestone’s from which it is built, to its karst systems housing the spring water

Hezekiah’s Tunnel

The ancient water systems of Jerusalem have a complex history. The main water source of the original City of David was the Gihon Springs located at the base of the eastern slope of the city in the Kidron Valley. The Gihon Springs provided water year round by gushing forth several times a day. This water then naturally flowed into the Kidron Valley. In the earliest days of Jerusalem’s occupation, reservoirs where built to collect the water from the Gihon Springs. Three systems were eventually designed to use this water: The Warren’s Shaft, Siloam Channel (Tunnel) and Hezekiah’s Tunnel.

These three water systems continued to bring water to the city of Jerusalem until the days of the Hasmoneans and Herod. During the last century BC and the first century AD, aqueducts were built to transfer water into Jerusalem from the southern hill country of Judea from around Hebron and Bethlehem.

David’s city of Jerusalem as it would have appeared around 1000 BC. Gihon spring emerged from a limesone cave system charged by groundwater in the vicinity of Mount Moriah.

Hezekiah’s Tunnel

Hezekiah’s Tunnel, part of Jerusalem’s water system, is located under the City of David. It connects the Gihon Spring—Jerusalem’s fresh water supply—with the Siloam Pool. According to 2 Chronicles 32:2–4 and 2 Kings 20:20, this tunnel was dug during the reign of King Hezekiah of Judah to prepare Jerusalem for the imminent attack of the Assyrian king, Sennacherib. In the Bible, Hezekiah redirected the water through old and newly dug Jerusalem tunnels.

How Zedekiah’s Cave was Discovered

Zedekiah’s cave was possibly the biggest quarry of Jerusalem in antiquity, yet it was abandoned in the Middle ages, and eventually even its location was forgotten. It was rediscovered in 1854 by American missionary James Turner Barclay who followed the rumors of a cavern near Damascus gate. About 100 m east of the gate his dog fell into a pit. Barclay noticed the pit was quite large, but he did not want to draw any attention. At night he returned with his sons and torches. Sneaking in and operating the lights, they were the first to document the caves in modern history. They also recorded a human skeleton and batches of bats hanging from the ceiling, which kept much of the public from visiting the cave.

History of Zedekiah’s cave

zedekiah cave main hall

The cave was surveyed by several scholars and expeditions and is still under development. In fact, about a third of the cave is still filled with debris. Early researches suggested the Quarry dates to the time of King Solomon, and so it was called “Solomon’s Quarries”. Furthermore, the Free Masons order adopted the site claiming the founders of their order formed this quarry. To this day they conduct annual gatherings at the site. Current research suggests the quarry was not in use before Roman times, revoking its attribution to King Solomon or King Zedekiah.

Touring Zedekiah’s Cave

The cave is maintained by the Municipality of Jerusalem and it charges a humble admission fee. A wide flight of stairs and lights are installed in the main halls of the cave. At one of its lowest point a small flow of water is identified in Jewish tradition as “Zedekiah’s Tears”. By local tradition these are the tears of the ongoing cry of Zedekiah for the Babylonian conquest and destruction of Jerusalem.

Cave of the Patriarchs

The Cave of the Patriarchs or Tomb of the Patriarchs or Mosque of Abraham’), is a series of caves situated 30 kilometres (19 mi) south of Jerusalem in the heart of the Old City of Hebron in the West Bank. According to the Abrahamic religions, the cave and adjoining field were purchased by Abraham as a burial plot, although most historians believe the Abraham-Isaac-Jacob narrative to be primarily mythological. The site is considered a holy place in Judaism and Islam. (add pics and find story of group that explored this…)

Col. Richard Meinertzhagen, an officer under the command of General Allenby visited the tombs when the British captured Hebron in November 1917. He entered the subterranean caverns through an opening on the southwestern side of the famous above-ground structure to make sure there were no enemy forces hiding out there. Read about other visits to the tombs here

An aerial view of the Cave of the Patriarchs in Hebron

Beit Guvrin-Maresha National Park

Beit Guvrin-Maresha National Park is a national park in central Israel, containing a large network of caves recognized by UNESCO as a World Heritage Site.

The Sidonian burial caves were the family tomb of Apollophanes, the leader of the Sidonian community in Beit Guvrin. The Sidonian caves are the only ones that are painted inside. The caves were burial caves for the Greek, Sidonian and Edumite inhabitants of Beit Guvrin. The first and largest cave has paintings of animals, real and mythic, above the niches where the corpses were laid. A cock crows to scare away demons; the three-headed dog Cerberus guards the entrance to the underworld; a bright red phoenix symbolizes the life after death. The Tomb of the Musicians is decorated with a painting showing a man playing the flute and a woman playing the harp.

Sidonian Burial Caves: A series of impressive burial caves from the Hellenistic period (third–second centuries BCE), located at the foot of Tel Maresha and featuring reconstructed wall paintings. The paintings, proof of the presence of other cultures at Maresha, depict hunting scenes with wild and mythological creatures and shed light on ancient artistic techniques and crafts.
columbarium caves

The largest bell caves are in the east part of the park. They have been dug since prehistoric times, the excavations reaching their zenith in the Hellenistic period and during the Byzantine and Early Arab Period, when blocks of chalkstone extracted from the caves were used for construction work (buildings, etc.). The bell caves consist of limestone in their upper-layer (to a depth of about one to two meters), beneath which is rock consisting solely of a beige-colored, soft chalkstone, utilized by its early inhabits for carving caverns and dwellings. There are numerous bell caves within the park grounds and events are held in one of them. They are large (over 60 feet (18 m) high), airy and easily accessible

Add a section on the main aquaduct.

The REAL Age of Göbekli Tepe (NOT 9500 BC!)

Göbekli Tepe (known as Girê Mirazan or Xirabreşkê in Kurdish) is an archaeological site in the Southeastern Anatolia Region of Turkey ‘supposedly‘ dating to the Neolithic. German & Turkish archaeologists led by Klaus Schmidt have dated the site to the Pre-Pottery Neolithic between c. 9500 and 8000 BCE largely based on radiocarbon samples and the absence of pottery (see dating details).

However, several clues of the Göbekli Tepe archaeological site in Turkey make it certain that the site is NOWHERE NEAR as old as generally believed. And undoubtedly dates to the Bronze age instead of the Paleolithic.

In fact, it is incredibly common for sites in the near-east with known historic dates laying within the Hallstatt Radiocarbon Plateau of 550-750 BC to give anomalous radiocarbon determinations. And just as common for organic material buried in certain types of lime and pulverized limestone to give contaminated dates which are known to be too old. (see ManningVakninBen-Yosef, etc. See also radiocarbon considerations, volcanics & the hard water effect)

Göbekli Tepe undoubtedly falls within one of these three groups, along with many of the Pre-Pottery Neolithic A (PPNA) sites in the region, mostly correlated to stylistic similarities to Jericho. The archaeological site of Jericho in Israel suffers from the same issue of likely volcanic or lime contamination (the site lays on a blocked drainage where ancient landslides blocking the drainage likely brought sub-surface waters saturated with lime into contact with dating material). Or possibly these sites were built during the same short period of spiked non-radiogenic bearing atmospheric carbon dioxide levels (possibly from a nearby volcanic field venting event from the massive Harrat Ash Shaam field in Syria or the nearby Karaca Dag volcanics.)

The first clue which makes the incorrect radiocarbon dates of Göbekli Tepe obvious is the column artwork. Particularly the bag motif in proximity to the avian vultures. This is a well known religious motif from both Neo-Assyrian (911-609 BC) artwork and the Urartu Kingdom (858-586 BC). The ‘bucket and cone‘ or bag and dobber used prolifically in Urartu art depicted the manual pollination of date palm trees with a synthetic stamen and was used to represent fertility and potency.

All three of the archaeological sites which house the religious artwork above are found within 250 miles of each other in the region of Assyria and ancient Urartu. Many similar motifs are found in numerous similar sites in the region. The more rudimentary style of the Göbekli Tepe artwork may suggest it was made earlier than the other examples, or it may just have just been carved by less talented artists and stone masons. But for these religious stylistic motifs to be 8000 years older is incredibly unlikely and borders on ridiculous. A better earliest range possibility would be 2670 BC, the last known major eruption of the Harrat Ash Shaam volcanic field (a likely source of non-radiogenic radiocarbon contamination).

Yet another evidence for the correct late bronze to early iron age date for the site lies in its similarity to other Urartu & Phoenician sites in the region. One of the most striking examples is comparing the architecture with the Phoenician Taulas of Menorca, Balearic Island. The layout of Göbekli Tepe and Menorca sites like Torralba d’en Salord and Torre d’en Galmés are almost identical. Undoubtedly influencing each other in their T-topped columns the site dates from as early as 1310 BC to as late as 300 BC Punic occupation.

Because of their striking similarity, many might confuse the images above of the Temple or Taula on Spain’s Balearic Islands of Menorca with Göbekli Tepe. Both are built in sprawling circular layouts, often on hills with T-shaped center roof columns and equispaced outer wall columns. (somewhat like Stonehenge.) Even the smaller side wall rock work is quite similar in many respects. Perhaps the most striking similarity is the celestial alignments and multi-room, rounded shared wall features.

The various animals found on the columns of Göbekli Tepe are not some early example of paleolithic animistic religion but instead representations of well known Bronze & Iron age constellation zodiac signs. Note for instance the crab/scorpion of Göbekli Tepe in comparison to the well known Babylonian astrology kudurru depicting a turtle, which was a symbol of Enki; 1125BC-1100 BCE. (from British Museum)

Another example of this ridiculous reliance on limestone contaminated radiocarbon dates of basketry is the Qumran area Muraba’at Cave, where a “Pre-Pottery Neolithic A” woven reed basket was found amidst numerous other artifacts, including a new dead-sea scroll fragment ALL clearly dating from 200 BC to 135 AD. The reed basket radiocarbon dating by Prof. Elisabetta Boaretto of the Weizmann Institute of Science in Rehovot, the IAA, dated to 9,500 BC. Yet, a nearby skeleton (also obviously contaminated) radiocarbon dated to 4000 BC. While the caves artifacts mostly dated by coins, writing and other non-radiocarbon means all dated to around the turn of the Christian era. This kind of lack of recognition of date corruption is horrible science, but sadly has become a regional staple in the Pre-Pottery Neolithic dating sequence.

Cache of Bar Kokhba coins. Dating from the time of the Bar Kokhba revolt (115 CE) Found in the same cave as the ‘6000 BP’ burial, and 10500 BP basket! Parchment and Seeds were also found (Crappy & intellectually dishost archaeologist did not publish the radiocarbon dates of the seeds)

Pre-Pottery Neolithic A (PPNA) sites: Jericho, Hallan Cemi. Jerf el-Ahmar (9500 – 8700 BC) in present day Syria

Parallel of Egyptian Monumental Kinglists

A visual comparison of the cartouches on the three inscribed king list.

The three major New Kingdom king lists inscribed in stone are:

The Abydos and Saqqara lists contain two rows of cartouches organised with the names of the pharaohs inscribed in sequential order on a single flat wall. The Karnak list contain 4 rows inscribed on three connected walls and the cartouches are not in sequential order. It is further divided into a left and right part where the pharaohs face the same direction.

For more information about the lists, check their respective page.

Hudjefa Icartouche
Hudjefa IIcartouche
Niuserra Inicartouche
Djedkara Isesicartouche
Pepi Icartouche
Nemtiemsaf Icartouche
Pepi IIcartouche
Nemtiemsaf IIcartouche
mr-n-rꜤ sꜢ-m-sꜢ-f
Neferkara IIIcartouche
Neferkara Nebycartouche
nfr-kꜢ-rꜤ nby
Djedkara Shemaicartouche
ḏd-kꜢ-rꜤ šmꜢi
Neferkara Khenducartouche
nfr-kꜢ-rꜤ ḫndw
Neferkara Tererucartouche
nfr-kꜢ-rꜤ tr-rw
Neferkara Pepisenebcartouche
nfr-kꜢ-rꜤ ppy-snb
Neferkamin Anucartouche
z-nfr-kꜢ Ꜥnw
Qakara Ibicartouche
Neferirkara IIcartouche
Mentuhotep IIcartouche
Mentuhotep IIIcartouche
Amenemhat Icartouche
Senusret Icartouche
Amenemhat IIcartouche
Senusret IIcartouche
Senusret IIIcartouche
Amenemhat IIIcartouche
Amenemhat IVcartouche
Sekhemra Khutawycartouche
sḫm-rꜤ ḫw-tꜢwi
Amenemhat V ???cartouche
Neferhotep Icartouche
Sobekhotep IVcartouche
Sobekhotep Vcartouche
Sobekhotep VI Merhotepracartouche
Mersekhemra Inedcartouche
Sobekhotep VIIcartouche
Sobekemsaf Icartouche
sḫm-rꜤ s-mn-tꜢwi
Sobekhotep VIIIcartouche
sḫm-rꜤ s-wsr-tꜢwi
Intef VIIcartouche
Senakhtenra Ahmosecartouche
Amenhotep Icartouche
Thutmose Icartouche
Thutmose IIcartouche
Thutmose IIIcartouche
Amenhotep IIcartouche
Thutmose IVcartouche
Amenhotep IIIcartouche
ḏsr-ḫprw-rꜤ stp-n-rꜤ
ḏsr-wprw-rꜤ stp-n-rꜤ
Ramesses Icartouche
Seti Icartouche
Ramesses IIcartouche
wsr-mꜢꜤt-rꜤ stp-n-rꜤ

Selected Bibliography

Abydos king list

  • Mariette, AugusteAbydos description des fouilles, Vol 1, Plate 43 (Paris 1869)
  • Duemichen, JohannesHistorische inschriften altägyptischer denkmäler, Vol 2, Plate XLV (Leipzig 1869)
  • Kitchen, Kenneth A.Ramesside Inscriptions, Vol. I, pp. 176-179 (Oxford 1975)
  • Porter and MossThe Topographical Bibliography of Ancient Egyptian hieroglyphic texts, reliefs, and paintings, Vol. VI, 25 (229)-(230)

Karnak king list

  • Burton, JamesExcerpta Hieroglyphica, (Cairo 1825)
  • Young, ThomasHieroglyphics, Vol. 2, (London 1828) Plate 96 (copy from Burton)
  • Wilkinson, J. G.Extracts from several Hieroglyphical Subjects found at Thebes, and other parts of Egypt, (Malta 1830) Plate IV
  • l’Illustration, Journal Universel, Vol. VII, p 244-245, (Paris 1846)
  • d’Avennes, PrisseMonuments Égyptiens, bas-reliefs, peintures, inscriptions, etc., (Paris 1847) Plate I
  • Lepsius, Karl RichardÜber die zwölfte Aegyptische Königsdynastie in “APAW 1852” pp. 425-455, (Berlin 1853) Plate I
  • Sethe, KurtUrkunden der 18. dynastie, IV.8-198, p. 607-610 (Leipzig, 1906)

Saqqara king list

  • Mariette, AugusteLa table de Saqqarah in Revue Archeologique, Vol 10, (Paris 1864) p. 169-186, Plate XVII
  • Mariette, AugusteMonuments divers recueillis en Égypte et en Nubie, (Paris 1872) Vol. II, Pl. 57b, 58, text Vol. I, p. 18-19
  • Meyer, EduardÄgyptische Chronologie, Plate 1, (Berlin 1904)
  • Kitchen, Kenneth A.Ramesside Inscriptions, Vol. III, pp. 481-482 (Oxford 1980)

The Reliefs of Dur-Sharrukin as Plunder from Solomon’s Temple

18 All the walls were decorated with carvings of cherubim… and there was a carving of a palm tree between each of the cherubim… carved all along the inside of the Temple, …from the floor to the top of the walls, including the outer wall of the sanctuary…” (Ezek 41:18–20) On the walls all around the temple, in both the inner and outer rooms, he carved cherubim, palm trees and open flowers. (1 Kings 6:29)


The following information came to me in a dream. I was awoken early in the morning to a voice in my head not unlike other experiences I have had time to time when working on religious research or scripture/archaeological correlations. One which from my perspective seemed to be coming from a spiritual being or angel. This voice spoke with me about the eagle and handbag motif I had recently been studying from the Assyrian temple compound of Dur-Sharrukin and its relationship to the Mesoamerican site of La Venta’s bird masked relief with a similar hand bag. After tracking the similarities between these reliefs and the temple rites found in the Kolbrin, I began assuming these were somehow related to the Northern Kingdom of Israel. Because the Assyrian reliefs date to around 720 BC, my assumption was that King Ahaz or some other Northern Kingdom monarch had spread his cultural ideas into Assyria some time before 720 BC. However, the angelic voice told me “No! These reliefs are from the Jerusalem temple and are related to Daniel.” As has been the case in other similar occasions, my mind seemed linked with a higher intelligent and I could ‘see’ everything I was being told clearly, all of it making perfect sense.

Similarities between the Mesoamerican La Venta monument #19, and Assyrian palace reliefs (note the bag & eagle head)

However, when I woke up and began thinking about this I quickly dismissed it because of many issues that just didn’t line up for me. The timing was wrong with it predating the Babylonian destruction by around 120 years. The location was wrong, because it was way too far north in Assyrian territory, and not down by the delta where most believe Babylon was. And most of all, it seemed impossible that Israel would have reliefs of animals that seemed so idolatrous to me in the temple compound. However, there were scriptures from Ezekiel and Isaiah in my mind from the visionary dream, which later in the day I decided to look up.

One after another, as I read the scriptures that talked about the temple, I was blown away. They matched NEARLY PERFECTLY with what I learned in the dream. But even then, I just could not get past the stumbling blocks of the location and date. However, as I continued to research on the source for the dates of this site, as well as the Assyrian king names I began to see how they could be misidentified and misdated. The most significant of these being the idea shown below of Nebuchadnezzar’s Babylonian Hanging Gardens actually being the Assyrian city of Nineveh. I still haven’t worked out the details, but it appears possible that Nebuchadnezzar II (or an earlier of his dynasty), conquered these Assyrian cities and made them his northern capital (with a secondary capital down near the traditional sites near the Delta). And that this could be why archaeologist have not found Nebuchadnezzar’s Babylonian garden tower, palace or evidence of him conquering Egypt or Jerusalem or much evidence for the Jedeo-Babylonian captivity. Because they have misattributed the Babylonian evidence to Assyrian kings. Below is a ‘work in progress’ article on the results of my research stemming from my dream.


Has the artwork of Solomon’s temple been lost in plain sight for 200 years? The artwork at the top of the page comes from the archaeological site of Dur-Sharrukin near the village of Khorsabad in northern Iraq.

Lost to history in antiquity, the site was first excavated in 1843 by Henry Layard… (finish into)

So how did archaeologists confuse the Nebuchadnezzar II famous city of Babylon which housed Daniel and the deported Jews with the Assyrian city of Nimrud? Renowned Assyriologist Stephanie Dalley has essentially worked that out in her groundbreaking book “The Mystery of the Hanging Garden of Babylon: An Elusive World Wonder Traced.” In it, she theorizes that the accounts Nebuchadnezzar II Hanging Gardens of Babylon might actually be the Great Ziggurat found in Nineveh. (flesh this out)

However, I believe that all her evidence and reasoning actually also works in reverse. Instead of her reasoning that archaeologists are right and Greco-Roman historians are wrong concerning the identity of the city with the Hanging Gardens, it is just as possible that the Greco-Roman historians are right and the archaeologists are wrong in where they think the hanging gardens should be! Perhaps instead, Nebuchadnezzar II actually had TWO palaces, one in the southern delta near Bagdad, and another northern capital where he reoccupied the conquered Assyrian cities near Mosul. And it is THIS northern capital of Babylon (Old Nineveh) where he built his hanging gardens, deported the Jews to, and adorned it with all the hundreds of stolen panels from the Jerusalem temple! These panels were then taken by Nebuchadnezzar II’s two successors and used to decorate their palaces as well (Nimrud & Dur-Sharrukin). [reference a more detailed description below]

This is why Stephanie Dalley found that the tombs of Nimrud contained Hebrew queens, likely from the kingdom of Judah instead of Samarian queens from Northern Israel. (see the rest of her exhaustive evidence in her book)

In addition to the Hebrew Queens Tombs, substantial evidence for this theory also exists in the Nimrud Ivories. This stash of thousands of small ivory carvings are known to have originated almost exclusively from the Levant (Israel) and Egypt. In addition to the obvious foreign artwork they also contain numerous Phoenician and proto-Hebrew inscriptions, along with an overwhelming number of motifs which tie supposed Assyrian Wall Relief artwork to Egypt and Israel. By looking through the thousands of images, one can see the evolution of the motifs from their Egyptian roots into the more “Assyrian” (Israeli) motifs seen in the wall panels. (see whitepapers here & here)

Selected ‘Nimrud Ivories‘ found buried in the same Assyrian Palaces as the wall reliefs. The ivories were clearly taken from locations with Egyptian, Phoenician and proto-Hebrew provenance and brought to Assyria.

Just as parts of the Nimrud Ivories are clearly from Phoenicia, the Levant (Israel) and Egypt, The wall reliefs of Nimrod and Dur-Sharrukin seem to have motifs straight out of the Jewish biblical record. They also bare striking resemblance to many earlier Assyrian, Babylonian, Hittite and Urartian art pieces dating from the sixth to tenth centuries. It seems logical from the biblical evidence I’m about to present, that the biblical artwork and religious motifs mentioned below were part of a regional cultural tradition which stretched from Israel into Babylon, Assyria, Turkey, Persia and even Armenia. This also fits into the biblical record where Biblical kings David & Saul conquered territory stretching to the Euphrates river and presumably allowed Israelite peoples to immigrate northward into Syria & Turkey from as early as 1000 BC. Elsewhere I make a case for the aggressive spread of this same religious iconography & culture into areas of the New World through the ancient port city of La Venta.

Various art pieces showing the winged demigod with bucket and cone sacred date palm motifs. top left: Urartu Khaldi from wikipedia. top right: Khaldi from reign of King Rusa II (685–645 BCE) from Kef Kalesi, Adilcevaz, Eastern Turkey. bottom left: Khaldi from Rusahinili fortress, Turkey. Ancient pages. bottom right: bronze Urartu  helmet from Argishti I’s era. The “tree of life” citadel of Erebuni, Armenia 782 BC (Wikipedia).

After looking through the art Assyrian art motifs above and below, not similarities between these art pieces and reliefs and biblical scriptures like Ezekiel’s vision which gives some details of what the Cherubim in Solomon’s temple looked like. He says Ezekiel 9-10

“Their faces looked like this: In front a human face, on the right side the face of a lion, on the left the face of an ox, and in back the face of an eagle. So much for the faces. The wings were spread out with the tips of one pair touching the creature on either side” (Ezek 1:10–11)
“the first face was the face of a cherub [or ‘bull‘ see CEV], the second face the face of a man, the third the face of a lion, and the fourth the face of an eagle.” (Ezek 10:14)


In case there’s any question that Ezekiel’s vision is employing exact temple imagery, compare what he says of the cherib’s wings with what is described in the description of the Cherubim in the Holy of Holies of Soloman’s temple, patterned after those on the top of the Ark of the Covenant.

Biblical Ark of the Covenant illustrated in Egyptian style by Raanan Eichler, a Ph.D. of the Department of Bible at the Hebrew University of Jerusalem. (Since the Hebrews had been in Egypt for over 200 years!)

10 …the wings were spread out with the tips of one pair touching the creature on either side… he four creatures looked like a blazing fire, or like fiery torches ” (Ezek 1:9–13)
27 He placed the cherubim inside the innermost room of the temple, with their wings spread out. The wing of one cherub touched one wall, while the wing of the other touched the other wall, and their wings touched each other in the middle of the room. 28 He overlaid the cherubim with gold. (1 Kings 6:27–28)

After more than 200 years in Egypt, the cherub of the Arc as well as those later put on the walls and in the holy of holies of Solomon’s temple were almost certainly adaptations from the sacred iconography of Egypt. For instance, in the temple of Ma’at in Kom Ombo Egypt we see an incredibly similar motif with the Goddess Ma’at acting as a Cherub (in similar style to the faravahar we’ll talk about in a moment) kneeling next to a lion and falcon, each with 6-8 outstretched wings. (note the bull as well).

Although this particular depiction dates from the Ptolmaic period of Egypt, winged depictions of Maat exist as early as in the Pyramid Texts of Unas (ca. 2375 BCE)
[Add image and description of wheels within wheels and metonic cycle here.]


The Palace Garden Scene

Believed to be Assyrian King Ashurbanipal in a scene celebrating the head of the Elamite king Teumman, this scene makes far more sense as a depiction of the events of 2 Samuel 20:3–22 Where David returns to his palace with 10 concubines from the city of Abel Beth Maakah. The preeminent woman is “the wise woman” from verse 14 who saved the city by convincing the people to give General Joab the head of the rebel Sheba (which here is seen hanging in the fir tree). The story is also depicted in midlevel art. Note also that the garland above the king seems to be composed of the same fig leaves and grapes so often associated with David in the bible and artwork in Solomon’s temple.

King Ashurbanipal ‘Garden Scene’, British Museum. Better interpreted as David in a scene from 2 Samuel 20:3–22

The Kings Library

Jewish tradition (ref) and biblical references (such as 2 Kings 22:8) state that the Jewish temple housed a great library. Is it mere coincidence then that the same palace of Ashurbanipal, housing all these reliefs which so perfectly resemble those of Solomon’s temple and palace, was also the home of the oldest surviving and perhaps most important royal library in Mesopotamia? The library housed up to 22,000 collected tablets in multiple languages. See details here. With perhaps the most complete version of the preeminent Epic of Gilgamesh, which also serves as the foundational mythic tale in the Kolbrin (therein called the story of Hurmanetar)

Ashurbanipal’s Library, British Museum.

The Flower Laced Palm Tree

Palm trees held a special place in ancient Israeli religion, being an important part of the Exodus myth, there bing12 wells and 70 palm trees in the first stop after Moses took Israel across the read sea and healed the waters in Exodus 15. Afterwards palm fronds were made to be an important part of the festival of Booths (Lev 23:40–41). Perhaps because of this, combined with the supreme importance of the Date Palm industry in ancient Israel’s economy, Solomon placed cheribum, lions and palm trees on the inner and outer walls of the temple, as well as on the panels covering the wheels of the portable water basins or arcs.

“He engraved cherubim, lions and palm trees on the surfaces of the supports and on the panels, in every available space, with wreaths [לֹיָה, garlands?] all around” (1 Kings 7:36)

More specifically, 2 Chronicles 3:5 says the Cherubim were associated with “palm trees and chains”. And that’s not chains like you’d keep a captive in, but וְשַׁרְשְׁרֽוֹת׃ or decorative jewelry chainwork, sometimes translated as “twisted chain work cordage” (stongs) or translated in NAS Ex 28:14 as filigree. Which if you’re not familiar with a flowered filigree, it’s basically a vine-like floral design. You can see examples here.

As in the picture above, filigrees are often associated with flowers, and those in Solomon’s temple appear to be no different. In 1 Kings 6:29, we see that open flowers were an important part of the chained or garlanded palm trees.

On the walls all around the temple, in both the inner and outer rooms, he carved cherubim, palm trees and open flowers. (1 Kings 6:29)

I’m not sure how to better describe the “Assyrian Trees of Life”, than the bible’s description of the corded/chained palms with open flowers of Solomon’s temple. And these would have been not just on the inside of the temple, but in the “outer rooms”, as well as on the panels of the wagons used for the movable arcs (ref)

The date palm and Cherub scenes were both inside the temple (completely coated with hammered gold), but also in the outer rooms.
The same types of reliefs were on each panel of the movable arcs. Making them especially easy to take back to Babylon. (find a pic of Assyrian relief, and Photoshop onto one of these (they likely hid the wheels)

In fact this same palm tree garland design is repeated in the two massive brass columns in the front of the temple. These were instructed to have massive lily pedals on top which likely mimicked palm fronds. In 1 Kings 7:15–22 it also states that the capitals or “caps” on the columns were to have “checker-work with wreaths of chain work” likely forming a pattern similar to the palm trees we’ve been talking about.

Ezekiel in his vision, which obviously drew on temple imagery, he adds the detail that these peculiar chained/flowered palms were between two cherubs. Cherubs which in some cases looked like a man and in other cases had the face of lions.

“18 All the walls were decorated with carvings of cherubim, each with two faces, and there was a carving of a palm tree between each of the cherubim. 19 One face, that of a man, looked toward the palm tree on one side. The other face, that of a young lion, looked toward the palm tree on the other side. The figures were carved all along the inside of the Temple, …from the floor to the top of the walls, including the outer wall of the sanctuary…” (Ezek 41:18–20)
25 The doors leading into the sanctuary were decorated with carved cherubim and palm trees, just as on the walls. And there was a wooden roof at the front of the entry room to the Temple. On both sides of the entry room were recessed windows decorated with carved palm trees. (Ezek 41:18–20)

Honestly its hard to see how the world has missed the obvious likelihood that these “Assyrian” reliefs of Ashurbanipal are actually plunder from Solomon’s temple, taken by Nebuchadnezzar II and placed in his palace.

Supposedly, An Ugallu—with the head of a lion, body of a man, and feet of an eagle, North Palace of Ashurbanipal at Nineveh, British Museum.
More protective Ugallu or supposed ‘lion spirits’. British Museum

now put a close up of the full cherubim scene… find this high detail.

Pslams give a convincing background for both the lion slaying scenes and the dragon slaying scene. It says.

“3 Surely he will save you… 5 You will not fear the terror of night… For he will command his angels [Seraphim?] concerning you to guard you in all your ways; 13 You will tread on the lion and the cobra; you will trample the great lion and the [dragon]. (Pslams 91:13)

Supposedly, Ninurta with his thunderbolts pursues Anzû stealing the Tablet of Destinies from Enlil‘s sanctuary (Austen Henry Layard Monuments of Nineveh, 2nd Series, 1853)

Note also that many of the Cherubim have two sets of wings, or FOUR wings in addition to their arms, just as said in Ezekiel.

Each had… four wings, and under their wings was what looked like human hands [arms]. (Ezek 10:21)

Many of the motifs are combined in this following mural. With so called Assyrian winged genie who are actually biblical cheribum standing before the Tree of Life represented by the chained palm tree (talk about fertility of palm fertilizations), above it are the protective wings of the Lord

5 Also out of the midst thereof came the likeness of four living creatures. And this was their appearance; they had the likeness of a man. 6 And every one had four faces, and every one had four wings. 7 And their feet were straight feet; and the sole of their feet was like the sole of a calf’s foot: and they sparkled like the colour of burnished brass. 8 And they had the hands of a man under their wings on their four sides; and they four had their faces and their wings. 9 Their wings were joined one to another; they turned not when they went; they went every one straight forward. 10 As for the likeness of their faces, they four had the face of a man, and the face of a lion, on the right side: and they four had the face of an ox on the left side; they four also had the face of an eagle. 11 Thus were their faces: and their wings were stretched upward; two wings of every one were joined one to another, and two covered their bodies. (Ezekiel 1:5–11)

Supposedly, Assyrian Tree of Life motif or zigzaggy tree flanked by a pair of winged genii, British Museam

Note that in Isaiah he also utilizes temple motifs in his vision… He sees a beast with 6 wings which may well have been a motif somewhere in the temple, as existing reliefs vary in the number of wings from none, to four in one relief.

Above it stood the seraphims: each one had six wings; with twain he covered his face, and with twain he covered his feet, and with twain he did fly. (Isaiah 6:2)

Talk about the Eagle thing that’s thought to be Persian, and how its found in Darius Wall and in Roman Mithraic temple’s. Understanding its true source in Judaism, helps tie these cultures together, as the Kolbrin shows the jewish roots of Mithra, and Darius, “worshipped the Lord” (ref) and was a follower of … The wings as a symbol of Jehovah in the temple can be seen in the following Psalms

7 In my distress I called to the Lord; I called out to my God. From his temple he heard my voice; 10 He parted the heavens and came down… 11 He mounted the cherubim and flew; he soared on the wings of the wind. (2 Sam 22:7–11)
4 He will cover you with his feathers, and under his wings you will find refuge. (Psalm 91:4)
11 Like an eagle that stirs up its nest and hovers over its young, that spreads its wings to catch them and carries them aloft. 12 The Lord alone led him (Duet 32:11-12)

Close up of the image above. A faravahar above the tree of life in the “Assyrian” wall reliefs (actually stolen from Solomon’s temple)

“17 Make an atonement cover of pure gold… 18 And make two cherubim out of hammered gold at the ends of the cover. 19 Make one cherub on one end and the second cherub on the other; make the cherubim of one piece with the cover, at the two ends. 20 The cherubim are to have their wings spread upward, overshadowing the cover with them. The cherubim are to face each other, looking toward the cover. 21 Place the cover on top of the ark and put in the ark the tablets of the covenant law that I will give you. 22 There, above the cover between the two cherubim that are over the ark of the covenant law, I will meet with you and give you all my commands for the Israelites.” (Ex 25:17–22)

Israel’s Arc of the Covenant, decorated with 2 winged Cherubim (of unknown gender). God was to appear between the wings, just as symbolized with the faravahar.

Another hint that this was first the national symbol of Israel comes from the famous “Black Obelisk” of Assyria. On its sides, pictures and cuneiform text tell of 31 military campaigns led against five kingdoms conquered by Assyrian king Shalmaneser III (858–824 BC). On it, the symbol is used only in conjunction with Israel’s king Jehu. See more details of this event here.

Jehu, king of Northern Kingdom of Israel submits to Shalmaneser III of Assyria beneath the wing symbol of Israel’s god. British Museums.

Solidifying the argument that the Faravahar symbol was in fact the National Symbol of Israel is the Hezekiah bulla, found by archaeologist in Jerusalem in the rubble of a building just off the temple mount, destroyed by the Babylonians. Which clearly displays the Faravahar and the Egyptian Anke symbol, which although likely popular religious symbols of Egypt and the greater near-eastern religious culture in general, must have held special prominence for the Jewish

Text on the Hezekiah Bulla reads “of/belonging to Hezekiah [son of] Ahaz, king of Judah”

The existence of the “Zoroastrian Faravahar” in association with the Cheribum and Tree of Life is incredibly relevant. As the Kolbrin has MANY stories and sections which seem to tie Zoroastrian Mithraism to early Israeli beliefs. By considering the possibility that Solomon’s Temple is the root and source of the Faravahar, its adoption by Cyrus the Great & Darius actually makes more sense. Darius was a sycophant of Jewish culture and following Isaiah’s prophesy of him by name is said to have sought to spread Israeli belief. Note his promotion of the Jewish Lord God (Jehovah) in the following verses

“26 I decree that everyone throughout my kingdom should tremble with fear [worship] before the God of Daniel. For he is the living God, and he will endure forever. His kingdom will never be destroyed, and his rule will never end. 27 He rescues and saves his people; he performs miraculous signs and wonders in the heavens and on earth. He has rescued Daniel from the power of the lions.” (Daniel 6:26–27)

22 Now in the first year of Cyrus king of Persia, that the word of the Lord by the mouth of Jeremiah might be fulfilled, the Lord stirred up the spirit of Cyrus king of Persia, so that he made a proclamation throughout all his kingdom and also put it in writing: 23 “Thus says Cyrus king of Persia, ‘The Lord, the God of heaven, has given me all the kingdoms of the earth, and he has charged me to build him a house at Jerusalem, which is in Judah. Whoever is among you of all his people, may the Lord his God be with him. Let him go up.’ (2 Chron 36:22-23)

With this understanding, now it makes sense why Darius & Cyrus’ new capital at Persepolis Iran, copies the Assyrian motifs! Not because he was a worshiper of the Assyrian gods or because Assyrians were Zoroastrians, but because Cyrus was a worshiper of David & Solomon’s monotheistic god, Jehovah. He then spread his belief of the Armenian blend of Judaism spoken of in the Kolbrin (which we call Zoroatrianism) throughout his empire by making it the state religion.

The same Faravahar at Persepolis, Iran. The capital of Cyrus the Great’s empire.
Assyrian-style lamassu mimicking the style of those at Nimrud and Dur-Sharrukin (but actually Cheribum from Solomon’s temple)

The Jerusalem Temple Complex would have been one of the most impressive in the ancient world. Here’s a well done illustration showing the scales of the differing buildings and courtyards laid out in the bible.

-Add this: This should be obvious from the ‘Assyrian Timber Transportation relief’ of Dur-Sharrukin in the Louvre. Which obviously is another relief stolen from Jerusalem (probably both the temple complex and Solomon’s palace) illustrating the construction of the temple and transport of Cedars of Lebanon used in the temple as described in 2 Chron 2:7-13

Assyrian Timber Transportation relief’ of Dur-Sharrukin in the Louvre

The Lion Hunt

The many lion hunt scenes from the Palace of Ashurbanipal also share a connection to Hebrew scripture. Not only would these reliefs explain the cultural nickname given to David and the Southern Kingdom as “the Lion of Judah”, it also … (finish — add some lion hunt scenes)

Supposedly, Ashurbanipal slaying a wounded lion as he has it by the throat. Lion Hunt, British Museum.

Kolbrin Temple Rites
The Kolbrin incorporates all these motifs into a secret temple rite which the “sons of light” participated in. (under construction. I’ll finish presenting the evidence here sometime. Also I need to finish adding the animal references below… and the Mithraism stuff — one of the primary reasons is that the priests of Judah would never parade these sacred motifs in front of the world. They would only be IN the temple. With the cherubs of the arc. Note that not only did Solomon place Cheribim over the Arc (1 Kings 6:27), they were on the temple doors (1 Kings 6:32), and all the walls.

“He overlaid the ceiling beams, doorframes, walls and doors of the temple with gold, and he carved cherubim on the walls.” (2 Chronicles 3:7)

“1.1 Herein are recorded sacred things, which should never be written, but the memory of man is like a storehouse made of straw… placing his trust fully in the protecting wings which are spread by the words issuing… 1.7 Look now at the great dark water mirror and see what is reflected there from the mists… 10. Even as it was in the Land of the Great River [Egypt], so let it be here. Let him not be cut off by distance.

1.29 O everlasting Kohar, take this man of goodness… he is the drop returning to the filled pitcher, the leaf returning to the tree [of life] 3.1 wearing white sandals and fine linen… many come bearing cakes of fine meal and barley cakes, large, fat-bodied fish and meats… honeywine in jars… his arm is strong and he issues his commands to the guardians… 3.8 If there be benevolent Life Shadows beyond the protective pale, they may enter…according to the rites of the Sons of Fire, and thus it shall be for those who enter the chambers of stone.

5.2 He has passed through the Wide Hall and through the Narrow Portal… He continues past the Place of Waiting Souls and sees the awaiting Kohars who will unite with the ascending spirits of men. He bears in his hand the Book of Life and glides over the pure pastures, past the bright dividing flame…”  5:4 The ferryman hesitates; he says, “Show me your token, that I may know you have truly passed the tests”… he is not of Earth, neither is he of Heaven. He is at the place where the two meet and intermingle.. He eats the fruit of the [sic] tree… 21.1 Lord of Life and Light, Creator of the Tree of Life, who made the herb and fruit to nourish men and grass to feed the cattle…  hear the cry of my spirit!  (Kolbrin, Sacred Registers, SCL ch 1-20)Read the rest of the amazing temple rite in the Kolbrin

-make a map showing every site these reliefs come from and a timeline of the kings which ruled from them AND then the reoccupation of their capitals by BABYLON, research and write out the narrative of how

OUTLINE (to flesh out)
-points us to Hoshkiah coming to Britain from Israel with Sons of Light, who’se timing is dated from references to ‘the scattering’ and ‘going north’. Also Amos is only prophet quoted. Also last reference to Egypt is Akenaten, and also a reference to David being contemporary with Ahmose and the Hysos, which helps us see some likely problems with radiocarbon dates, Egyptian chronology and the bible (which we already suspect)
-Then Hosea, points us to Mesoamerica, with the eagle and the serpent and the 52 weeks.
-Then the temple ceremony account gives us some real evidence that the eagle/falcon, serpent and satchel are closely associated with the Jewish temple ceremony & mysteries.
-Which makes us take a closer look at the Assyrian temple busts and reliefs that illustrate the Eagle, Bull, Lion and Anuku. –Which the dream told me — these are from Solomon’s temple. (something I refused over and over to believe)
-Which leads us to Ezekial and Kings/Chronicles which make it hard to dismiss, these are from Solomon’s temple! (walls were decorated inside and out with Cherubim, palms, flowers and pomegranates (show pics). Ezekial likely details the Cherubim are Eagle, Lion, Bull, face of man. And lots of wheels, just like the reliefs.
(now flesh this out)

The Kolbrin also gives an account of the Israeli sacred temple rites. A ceremony apparently performed to initiate inner circle priests not only in the temple at Jerusalem, but in satellite sanctuaries among the scattered people of Israel. Its not clear whether the same temple rite was used among the Northern Kingdom and Southern Kindom of Judah, but the resemblance of the motifs incorporated in the Kolbrin Temple rite leads us to believe that wall reliefs found in the Assyrian palace at Nimrud and Dur-Sharrukin, actually originated in the Jewish Temple.

This conclusion is not the obvious one, as current archaeological thought dates Sargon II’s temple of Dur-Sharrukin at about 720 BC. This conclusion was reached about the turn of the 20th century based on inscriptions mentioning Sargon. This inscription led to the conclusion that the palace of Dur-Sharrukin belonged to Sargon the Assyrian of the bible and therefore the agreed upon date falling in the Assyrian dynasty.

However, the Kolbrin offers a few details which suggest a reconsideration of this date. Primarily the afore mentioned temple rites of SCL 1-30, in which we see motifs which are so uncannily similar to the depictions in the reliefs of Dur-Sharrukin and Nimrud as to seem impossible a coincidence. Namely, The Tree of Life (SCL:21:1, 21:10, 33:20), A ‘date stone” referring to a date seed, which matches the Assyrian tree of life (SCL:32:4), Falcon or Eagle (ref), Bull ( SCL:1:41, 9:15) and Lion (SCL 33:10) as Cheribim.

-The two most notable places where the genies existed were Ashurnasirpal II’s palace Kalhu and Sargon II’s palace Dur-Sharrukin. (reference)
-Dur-Sharrukin contained a reference to Sargon II. Who sounded like the Sargon of Assyria, so the city was dated to that time. But the truth is, Sargon of Assyria was Sargon of Akkad!, and this reference is just Nebacenzer or someone related using the title. Sargon II, was a ‘cup-bearer’ which sound more like a Nehemiah-like servant, not the king.
-But there has been considerable debate concerning the true names and identity of these two cities. Early archaeologists identified the site with the ancient city of “Larissa” named in Greek historian Xenophon’s book Anabasis. Even today archaeologist find the site’s wall, ziggurat and stelas match perfectly with his description. HOWEVER, Xenophon in Bk. 3 Ch. 4 Verse 12 (and another historian), say the city “was besieged by the king of the Persians at the time when the Persians were seeking to wrest from the Medes their empire.” This equates the city with that sacked by Cyrus the Great (king of the Persians) in 557 BC! (see this amazing reference)
-On top of this, surviving Babylonian letters describing Dur-Sharrukin sound exactly like Nebechadnezzer and his Hanging Gardens (which have never been found), see “On the central canal of Sargon’s garden stood a pillared pleasure-pavilion which looked up to a great topographic creation: a man-made Garden Mound. This Mound was planted with cedars and cypresses and was modelled after a foreign landscape” (see wiki)
-These two sites are home to the amazing wall reliefs of the Bull, Lion and Eagles with faces of a man. These motifs match exactly with Ezekiel’s description of the Cheribim of Solomon’s temple in Ezekial 9-10. In chapter nine he sees those who are coming to “execute judgement on the city” (Ezek 9:1–3). Then in an ethereal visionary experience, he sees the Cherubim carried off amidst a whirlwind of wheels and defiled eyes (Ezek 10:1–20). The four cherubim of the temple he describes as “the first face was the face of a cherub [or ‘bull’ see CEV], the second face the face of a man, the third the face of a lion, and the fourth the face of an eagle.” This is EXACTLY the description of the Assyrian wall relief Cheribs of Dur-Sharrukin and “Ninevah!” Why? Because these are not Assyrian capitals but the Babylonian capital of Nebecanezzer!

-I still need to figure out the significance of these scenes… one is obviously lots of cedars of Lebanon, likely a fig tree in there too. Whats the monument commemorating?
-point out somewhere how the temple was meant to look like a man? Two columns being legs and like Daniel’s dream.
-Is the ‘standard inscription’ written on the panels original? (Some of it yes? Some of it no?) Is it all propaganda and graffiti from Nebuchadnezzar? From Omri? From David or Solomon? (ie. Ashur-nasir-pal II is one of those figures). Answer: Across every relief is similar writing called “the standard inscription.” Read about it here. You need to find the original sources for EVERY Assyrian king list, especially those with Ashur-nasir-pal I or II, and find out if its possible the floating chronologies are arrange wrong and Ashur-nasir-pal is earlier or later. (Note Ashur has Semitic origins, Ashur-dan is an especially biblical sounding king name with both parts one of the ’12 tribes’.)
-Is the library entirely from the temple, or a mixture of sources? Are the tablets originals, or did Daniel and the Jewish scribes transcribe them all into Babylonian cuneiform?
-Does Nebuchadnezzar’s madness match whats said in the Kolbrin of the unworthy attempting to be twice born? Is this why his successor abandoned it? Did he burry the palace too?
-Is Sargon the Great David and Hammurabi Solomon? Does much of our info on them come from the library?
-Many of these questions can be answered by reading the cuneiform chronicles of Assyria & Babylon, available at

-some of the best pictures (easy to screen capture):
-British museum has virtual tours, here and here. Others can be googled.
-see also the Louve’s site.

After writing this article, I found this youtube article with a great overview of the pale and cone motif. Mystery of the Sumerian Handbags SOLVED – YouTube

A Revised Egyptian Chronology. Errors in Early Iron Age through Bronze Age Radiocarbon Correlations.


Near-eastern prehistory is in need of a significant chronological overhaul. Egyptian & Babylonian timelines as well as global radiocarbon date correlations for our modern views of prehistory are off by at least 500 years. This largely because of previously unrecognized mistakes in the ancient Egyptian timeline which were then propagated into most other near-eastern prehistory timelines and even radiocarbon correlations curves.

These timeline mistakes were made as early as 70 AD in the writings of Josephus (and later Christian redactors of the Greco-Egyptian historian Menetho) whose desires to correlate biblical events such as Moses & the Exodus into Egyptian history caused them to place the Hyksos of the Second Intermediate Period during the Egyptian Captivity of Israel (1802–1550 BC). When in fact, this period actually correlates with the post exilic period of 1300-1050 BC. This false correlation was then propagated into modern archaeology by early Christian scientists & enthusiasts who were enamored with the idea of many of the impressive Ramesean monuments being related to Biblical Egyptian stories. Ironically, because of that desire of early religiously motivated archaeologists, most prehistory scholars today do not see many of the accounts in the bible before about 850 BC as reliable history because the accepted timelines create so many problems with biblical accounts vs archaeological correlations.

My first premonitions for the need of a chronological adjustment came from early encounters with the numerous ‘repeats’ of events, empires and individuals in the near-east prehistoric record. Old Babylon vs. Neo Babylon. Old Assyria vs Neo Assyria. Mythical Ramesses & Seti vs the New Kingdom characters vs Persian references. Mythical Sargon vs Sargon II. Bronze age Nebuchadnezzar I vs Nebuchadnezzar II. Then my suspicions were truly validated when I began to compare the ancient Kolbrin text to true history. In its pages are amazing references to Egyptian & near-east history & myth with a specific reference equating a red haired Canaanite King (obviously David) warring with Pharaoh Ahmose/Thothmose.

Now even our radiocarbon correlation curve institutions have made the early Iron age Hallstatt radiocarbon anomaly (450-950 BC) into a plateau when it should be a cliff (rewrite, simplify). At around 500-850 BC, radiocarbon dates very quickly jump from nearly correct readings to 300-350 years too old! (c14 1050 BC = 750 BC) But because of the incorrect Egyptian dating, radiocarbon correlators who did in fact realize the need for correlation, but went the wrong direction! (c14 1050 BC = 1150-1350 BC!). Undoubtedly, very low CO2 levels played a part, with plants up taking lower amounts of c14 than the historic average during the early iron age & bronze ages. (put the details down in the article)

Note (rewrite and put this in body) A huge part of the mixup is the partially mythical story of the brothers Ramesses/Seti (also called Egypt). These brothers conquered from Egypt to Anatolia & Greece and became a powerful mythos behind the common ties of Greece, Phoenicia and Egypt. The original story may be as old as the great monuments of Egypt itself, but throughout Egyptian history, any pharaoh who expanded Egyptian territory into Anatolia took the title Rameses. This included Sesostris I (1800 BC – note that Herodotus mentions a carving of Sesostris in Nif Dagi, thought by Archaeologist to be Ramesses II), Kamose/Ahmose (1000 BC) who subjugated Israel & the Phoenicians, Amasis/Apries who conquered to the Euphrates. The title was then adopted by Darius & Alexander/Ptolemy to legitimize the Greco-Egyptian Empire.

Actual DateHistorically Known Empire or CultureArchaeologically Dated EquivalentArcheol. Date
1400-1000 BCAmalekites / Davidic KingdomEarly/Late Hyksos Dynasties 14-161725-1550 BC
1037-931 BCSaul/ David (&Jonatan)/ SolomonSaltis (Beon)/ Khyan (Jannas)/ Apophis (Apepi)1620-1550 BC
1069-609 BCThird Intermediate to Late PeriodEgyptian New Kingdom1550-1069 BC
911-609 BCNeo Assyrian EmpireMiddle Assyrian Empire (parts)1365–1050 BC
605-556 BCNeo Babylonian Dynasty (X)Babylon Dynasty IV & Sargonid Dynasty1153-609 BC
605-562 BCNebuchadnezzar II (same person as >)Nebuchadnezzar I1121-1100 BC
722-560 BCMedes/Babylonians/Early PersiansElam/Kassites1531-1155 BC
732-530 BCGreeks/Early PersiansSea Peoples/Hittites1292-1189 BC


Near-eastern prehistory is a patchwork of ancient floating chronologies hashed together over the last 300 years on often contradictory data garnered from archaeological contexts (such as radiocarbon dates, king lists and monuments) combined with historical sources like the Bible, Eusebius/Africanus, Josephus, (quoting Manetho), Herodotus and more. Small revisions and adjustments to these correlations has been an ongoing process, worked on continually by many authors. However, only from time to time do authors attempt major revisions which reassess the very foundations that modern dating techniques are based on. In this paper I attempt to show that largescale global and regional fluctuations in the earth’s magnetic field have caused massive gaps and repeats in current prehistory paradigms which have not yet been addressed by any of the available radiocarbon calibration curves.

The primary evidence of these radiocarbon fluctuations are seen in the well known ‘wiggles’ or variations in ancient radiocarbon levels such as seen in the Hallstatt Plateau. Radiocarbon variation during this era have made the dating of artifacts with known dates from 800-400 BC nearly impossible. Archaeologists familiar with this radiocarbon phenomena have referred to the Hallsatt Plateau as “the 1st millennium BC radiocarbon disaster” (see James, 19933) During this period the geomagnetic field in the Near East was characterized by “rapid changes and high intensity values, including several spikes of more than twice the intensity of today’s field.” (see Manning, Vaknin, Ben-Yosef, etc.)

The anomaly is named after the late Bronze Age Hallstatt period in which it most notably manifests as well as the salt mines of Hallstatt Austria which form the type locality for the site. Disturbingly, this period of geomagnetic/radiocarbon instability was not found by dendrochronologists or geochronologists, but only by archaeologists working with near-eastern settings of known age. Predominately Biblical sites with archaeological evidence which could not be confused from historical contexts. This means, were it not for the fact that archaeologists positively knew the sites actual date and reported the faulty radiocarbon result, the false age would likely never been discovered.

Furthermore, I believe that this anomalous “plateau” has been misinterpreted by geochronologists and its logical effects on Bronze Age dates ignored. Instead of a “plateau”, I believe the Hallstatt anomaly actually a general cliff in the dating regimen, with a number of small range series spikes. Spikes which causes artifacts with true ages between 800-400 BC to yield dates of 3000-1400 BC! And although the phenomena is recognized on the “historical end” in settings known from the bible to date to 800-400 BC, it is often missed in archaeological contexts without positive historical markers.

“When dealing with the period after ~800 BCE, our archaeomagnetic dating is particularly useful, due to the plateau in the radiocarbon calibration curve which limits high resolution dating. During this period the geomagnetic field in this region was characterized by rapid changes and high intensity values, including several spikes of more than twice the intensity of today’s field”

(In Reconstructing biblical military campaigns using geomagnetic field data, Yoav Vaknin, 2022)

Thus we get various sites or artifacts with a radiocarbon dates around 2400 BC which actually date to around 800 BC. Even the type locality of Hallstatt Austria for which the radiocarbon plateau is named shows a suspicious bimodal array of dates covering not only the early Iron Age of 800-500 BC, but recently a middle Bronze age array of dates from 1200-800 BC have manifest in the area which I suspect are actually just anomalous dates from one of the several radiocarbon peaks which existed during the seventh to ninth century BC. (see Agerskov et al and Grabner et al)

Dipole moment or general magnetic field polarity for the last 9000 years (from Nilsson, et al, 2022). The authors note the sharp drop in strength at 600 BC (400-900 BC), which coincides with the Hallstatt Platea. Note similar rapid changes in dipole strength occur at c14 dates of 3000-4000 BC & 6500-7000 BC which likely correspond to similar unrecognized radiocarbon anomalies. Note also the 650/700 year cycles.

Nilsson, Suttie, Stoner & Muscheler. Recurrent ancient geomagnetic field anomalies shed light on future evolution of the South Atlantic Anomaly. Nature, 2022 (great read)





Or… [give a few more examples from my repeating culture chart up top and then propose the idea that the cause has been staring us in the face with the biblical account of the “sundial of Ahaz” which points to a rapid true polar wandering event (TPW), which I believe is only one example of many episodes of axial instability. Something which caused sea travel across the Atlantic and pacific to grind to a halt, because of increased volcanism on the spreading ridges. Also, that this is a 700 yr cycle with known occurrences at: Moses 1500 BC, Hezekiah 780/722 BC, 33 AD, 774/5 AD/820 AD, 1482 AD, and the next due around 2200 AD, major instability seen in 586 BC, Babylonian burning of Jerusalem]

In this article I offer a fairly large revision created by large scale repeating patterns I’ve noticed over my decades of research supported by new information from Britain’s mysterious and controversial ancient history book, The Kolbrin. Although dismissed by many who don’t understand it. The Kolbrin contains some of the most impressive Near-eastern and British history of any book in its spurious mystical-history genre.

One of the most intriguing historical references in the Kolbrin is a section suggesting that Pharaoh Ahmose (called Atmose, SOF 6:9) was a contemporary with King David and Hiram of Tyre mentioned in the Bible (ref). The reference reads as following:

“In the days when Hiram [of Tyre] came to Egypt, the Pharaoh Athmos ruled. In those days, Egypt was at war with the Abramites, for their great red-headed king had committed adultery with the wife of a prince of Paran. The remorseful king reaped as he had sown, for his favourite daughter was ravished by her own brother, and his wives were humiliated and ravished before the eyes of all men.”

(Sons of Fire:6:9)

Although many Pharaohs have used titles similar to Ahmose (son of iah/Jah), The thing that makes this reference so impressive is the way that following its logic ties together several other historical parallels between Egyptian Chronology and the Bible.

For instance. Because Ahmose is well known as the is the first Pharoah of the 300-400 year long 18th Dynasty who freed the Egyptian Delta from the mysterious late Hyksos. Placing Ahmose (who is usually dated to about 1550 BC) as a contemporary of David
-means the hysos were Israelite (and earlier amalakites), which the kolbrin mentions
-means the amarna letters match hoshea
-means the nubian pharoes are likely the same as the ethiopian menationed in the bible AND the 25th dynasty ethiopians
-explains why akenhaten was a monotheist, because they were allied with Israel from david’s time but now began to side with the assyrians
-explains why Herodotus seems to match with Menetho’s amasis myth with Greeks and the Ramesses/Sethos brothers? (rethink this logic)
-puts the ramesses as ptolemies! (column in alexandria, lots of other temples, and an understanding of Ptolmies claim to the throne because of the legend of Sethos and Ramesses who founded lydia? in Greece and was a greek sympathizer.

Kolbrin offers a few other chronological markers to correlate Thutmose II (called Tathomasis, MAN:34:29) and Akhenaten (called Nabihaton, MAN:34:29) to the same dynasty.
This adjustment pushes the end of the Eighteenth dynasty to around 700 BC solving the mystery of why the Greek Historian Herodotus places Sethos of the 19 dynasty at around 700 BC, as well as why every retelling of Manetho’s work omit the Pharaohs of the 20th Ramesside dynasty. And why Egyptian temple chronology inscriptions like the Abydos, and Saqqara lists stop at Ramesses II, yet match almost perfectly with the Egyptian Menetho’s work who lived during Ptolemy II.

Fix this animation. its timeline is wrong.

All of these points of evidence point toward a historical parallel or synchronicity which I have been suspecting for years. Which is that the Ramesside dynasty and the Ptolemaic dynasty are actually one and the same.

coming soon: a correlation chart like this one, but with the dates, dynasties and famous pharaohs more prominent..

The Ptolemaic dynasty which includes Pharaohs Ptolemy I to X or so, is known from Greek and Roman historical sources [note x] and is therefore dated historically from 332 to 45 BC. The Ramesside dynasty on the other hand, also includes Pharaohs I to X (Ramesses I to XI) but information for them is derived almost entirely from radiocarbon dated archeological sources giving dates from 1190 to 1077 BC.

Each of these dynasties were among the most prolific builders in Egyptian history, strangely building on the same sites and temples throughout Egypt [fn]. In fact, almost without fail, known Ptolemaic motifs or writing will show up randomly within major Ramesside buildings and vise versa. “Strangely”, ALL of the resplendent Tombs of the Rameses have been found and carbon dated. But for some “unknown reason”, ZERO of the famed “more recent” Ptolemy tombs have been found. In fact historical king lists derived from Herodotus as well as Manetho (a historian commissioned by Ptolemy II) do not include the Ramesside 20th dynasty in them at all! Instead in the Manetho accounts of Josephus, Eusebius & African we are given dynastic lists which match almost perfectly with king list on Rameses temples, with a few non-Theban disjointed dynasties thrown in after. I see this as clear evidence that the king lists on the Ramesside temples of Abydos and Karnak which radiocarbon date to around 1100 BC, actually came from Ptolemies’ historian Manetho who lived around 300 BC.

Even the famous Lighthouse of Alexandria, historically known to have been by Ptolemy II built around 270 BC, when recently excavated curiously contained “half a dozen columns carved in the Egyptian style had markings dating back to Ramses II, nearly a millennium before Alexandria was founded.” (see Smithsonian article) This phenomena of mismatched artifacts of Ptolmaic/Ramesside periods, if far more the rule than the exception. (ref)

“Curiously, half a dozen columns carved in the Egyptian style had markings dating back to Ramses II, nearly a millennium before Alexandria was founded.”

This phenomena of Ramesside artifacts being mixed in with Ptolemaic artifacts is incredibly common.

And the strange repeated near-east history does not stop there. Sargon of Akkad, radiocarbon dated to xxx is likewise unbelievably similar to Sargon the Assyrian historically dated to xxx. And again Sargon’s palace has not been found. Although his brothers mask…

Likewise entire cultures have come to “repeat” in our modern chronologies as historically dated sites and artifacts conflict with radiocarbon & Egyptian dated


Ancient variations in ancient native carbon-dioxide and radiocarbon levels are known to skew radiocarbon dates for given time periods. This is something all scientists well studied in radiocarbon dating understand. Several calibration curves (such as IntCal) have been created to attempt to ‘correct’ for these variations in order to translate a laboratory ‘radiocarbon date’ to a true calendar date. In this paper I propose that a previously undetected large variation in atmospheric carbon dioxide occurred from at least the onset of the Christian era to around the second millennium BCE in the Mediterranean region. This variation skews dates for the given period up to a 1000+ years causing our modern models of pre-Christian history to essentially ‘repeat’– with written historic empire and dynasty sequences from about 100-900 BCE, duplicating in an artificial ‘radiocarbon dated history’ dating from about 900-4000 BCE.

[—add illustration here or at top with the IntCal correlation curve next to my proposed correlation curve —]

Thus the well known historically dated empire and dynasty sequences of the Grecian, Median, Persian, Neo Babylonian and Neo Assyrian Empires, completely repeat with an identical radiocarbon dated empire and dynasty sequence of the ‘sea peoples’, Hittite, Hyksos, Old Babylonian or Sumerian and Akkadian Empires. I propose that these latter empires are identical to the former. This repetition of history caused by insufficiently calibrated dates, of course should have been obvious to the scientific community of the mid twentieth century, however I suggest that Early Christian archaeologists and historians were eager to have the tales of the bible validated by archaeological findings. And it just so happened that radiocarbon dates for many of the most monumental architecture there (New Kingdom) happened to radiocarbon date to about the time that the Israelites in the Bible were supposedly slaves in that land. Additionally the prestige and ability to publish when one finds archaeological evidence of ‘new and previously unknown empires’ as well as a lack of general understanding among archaeologist at the tenuous results of uncalibrated radiocarbon dates caused them to overlook the obvious ‘repetition’ of history that these radiometrically dated archaeological finds were creating in the broader view of prehistory.

So even though Manetho who was commissioned by Ptolemy III around 240 BC, starts his famous ‘history of Egypt’ going back in time from Rameses II, archaeologist discarded the obvious fact that Rameses II WAS IN FACT Ptolemy II, in favor of the idea that Rameses (one of the most prolific builders in Egyptian history) was actually the Rameses of the bible’s story of Moses. Forget the fact that Rameses dynasty has countless similarities to the Ptolemaic dynasty or that the second most important Persian/Egyptian historian Herodotus says nothing of the Rameses New Kingdom dynasty. [rewrite… this isn’t true]

These mistakes took hold because of a disastrous coincidence. This being that radiocarbon dates just happened to somewhat correlate in certain areas with the erroneous histories of Eusebius, and Jerome who cherry picked & added to the works of Manetho in order to create an Egyptian & Mesopotamian timeline that fit the bible. [fn. he himself says in the beginning of his book ‘Chronicles’, that he was seeking to “establish how long before the life-giving revelation [of Christ] Moses and the Hebrew prophets who succeeded him lived and what they, filled with the divine spirit, said before [the time of Christ]” (Chronicles, p.5) However, a simple look at Josephus ‘Against Apion‘, who Eusebius quotes at length shows that Eusebius almost certainly added to both Josephus and Manetho’s king list every dynasty after the New Kingdom. Its obvious Josephus’ Egyptian history was trying to wrongly prove that the ‘Shepard Kings’ of Manetho were actually the Jews of Moses from around 1600 BC. When in fact they are actually Persians of 500 BC. (rewite this whole thing. Outline it.) Note on how many king lists start with Rameses/Seti. The Abydos, the , Why? Because, like Manetho they were comisioned by Ptolemy to legitimize his dynasty!] So this is the troubled foundation that Willard Libby and radiocarbon dating entered the scene on. And because the radiocarbon dates for the famed Ramesses and Atmose dynasties somewhat loosely matched the “historical” dates (the historical dates have since been changed by over 500 years, so I use the term ‘loosely’, loosely. [I need to compare the dates of the artifacts found in this analysis of libby’s work, (here’s the original chart from Libby, see this too) As well as many taken since in this work as in this study. And find a pre-Libby Egyptian chronology from the 40‘s just before Libby and see how they actually correlate. I’ll bet they hardly do AT ALL, but I MUST prove this. And I need to write out this paragraph better

But because it roughly correlated with the biblical story and false or skewed historic sequences built on poor biblical correlations they ran with it. And since then the field of prehistory has been built on so many studies based on circular reasoning and those initial false histories that the entire scientific community has simply explained away the thousands of examples where historically dated and radiometrically dated artifacts seem like they should belong to the same culture or timeframe and yet do not. An occurrence which has given rise to confusing nomenclatures like old Babylon vs neo-Babylon (ie. historically dated Babylon vs. radiocarbon dated Babylon)

Eusebius, one of the three sources we have of Menetho, says of the account,

Perhaps it happened that there were many kings in Egypt at the same time. They say that some of them were kings of Thinis, some of Memphis, some of Sais, and some of Ethiopia; and there were yet others in other places. And as it seems that these dynasties ruled each in its own [time, but] no, it is very unlikely that they ruled in succession to each other. Rather, some of them ruled in one place, and others in another place. Therefore the increase in the number of years can be explained in that way. But we will leave this matter, and proceed to the details of the chronology of the Egyptians… (Eusebius. p.137)


LIST OF POSSIBLE DUPLICATED HISTORY (things that seem strangely repetitive)


Hyksos Pharoah Khyan holds an enormous ritual feast just before the abandoment of his palace, filling several 5 m (16 ft) wide pits with animal bones and thousands of pottery fragments in consequence. Some of these fragments came from an array of vessels produced by the Kerma culture of Nubia (allies). This sounds a lot like Saul or David. Both David & Solomon conquer from the Euphrates to Gath & the Border of Egypt. (Joshua 15:20,47 / Isaiah 27:12; 1 Chron 18:1,3; 1 Kings 4:21)

The Sea peoples “Philistine” called Peleset (Egyptian: pwrꜣsꜣtj) or Pulasati from the Temple of Ramses III at Medinet Habu (1150 BC) likely match with Phoenician/Palestine groups mentioned in Assyrian texts from 720-600 BC like Iamani of Ashdod. The biblical early Philistines & Amalekites were Hyksos. (and ruled all the way to Memphis at one point)

Hammurabi as Solomon (1770 BC = 990 BC) – NOPE

-the distinct similarities between not only Hammurabi’s law code but also his songs and biblical law and psalms is far to strong to be coincidence. Many historians dismiss the account of 1 Chronicles 18 and 2 Samuel 8 where David is said to have conquered the land to the Euphrates River. However several authors see extensive evidence for this occurence in a correlation with Zimri-Lim & Hammurabi . See Hammurabi and Zimri-Lim as Contemporaries of Solomon by Damien Mackey
-there are strong similarities between the goring ox of Exodus 21 and the same occurrence in what is called LH 251 of Hammurabi’s Code. Just as striking are the contrasts between the Torah Law and Hammurabi’s Code (see: LH 16, 19, 106, 197, 209, 210, 229 and 230) in the laws of runaway slaves, the rejection of cross-generational civil punishment, and even the famous lex talionis.

Hyksos & Ahmose I as Amalekites & David (1570 = 1000 BC)

-There is overwhelming archaeological and epigraphical evidence showing that the Kolbrin not only solves the identity of Manetho & Josephus’ Hyksos Shepherd Kings. But also that the Egyptian timeline is in need of revision.

Josephus goes to great lengths to try and prove the Hyksos as captive Israelites under Moses. But the Kolbrin has this to say, “In the days when Hiram [of Tyre] came to Egypt, the Pharaoh Athmos ruled. In those days, Egypt was at war with the Abramites, for their great red-headed king had committed adultery with the wife of a prince of Paran. The remorseful king reaped as he had sown, for his favourite daughter was ravished by her own brother, and his wives were humiliated and ravished before the eyes of all men.”

(Sons of Fire:6:9)

The identity of this “red haired” king as David is easily recognized from both the description of his red hair in 1 Samuel 16:12 as well as the story of the rape of his daughter Tamar by Amnon her half brother in 2 Samuel 13:1-21.

Archaeologists have failed to find any evidence that the Davidic kingdom achieved any of the size or importance given it in the Bible, but if David is in fact the king who warred with Egypt during the reign of one called Athmos (Ahmose I?), then what Manetho says works well the the biblical record (the current version of which came from Alexandria in the same decade as Menetho!). In Against Apion, Josephus quotes Manetho in stating that the first shepherd king’s name was Salatis who conquered both upper and lower Egypt and even built a palace in Memphis. He left garrisons throughout Egypt building a primary outpost in Avaris, which he walled and left 240,000 men to keep it.

After his death it states that his successor Beon (Soloman?) reigned 44 years, a series of five puppet kings/governess are named who all together hold Egypt as a vassal for some 278 years.

Finally, Manetho says, Under Tethmosis (thought to be Ahmose I), the kings of Thebes and the other parts of Egypt “made an insurrection against the shepherds, and that there a terrible and long war was made between them.” He says further, “That under a king, whose name was Alisphragmuthosis, the shepherds were subdued by him, and were indeed driven out of other parts of Egypt, but were shut up in a place that contained ten thousand acres; this place was named Avaris.” Manetho says, “That the shepherds built a wall round all this place, which was a large and a strong wall, and this in order to keep all their possessions and their prey within a place of strength, but that Thummosis the son of Alisphragmuthosis made an attempt to take them by force and by siege, with four hundred and eighty thousand men to lie rotund about them” (Against Apion, Bk 1 v14)

As unbelievable as this account is, especially in supposing Saul or David to be the first Shepherd king, its hard to dispute the evidence of the scores of severed hands found in Averis around the time of Ahmose I. (see article on it here). Compare that to 2 Samuel 4:12 which tells us, “And David commanded his young men, and they killed them and cut off their hands and feet and hanged them beside the pool at Hebron”. This may have been a common practice and thus coincidence. OR this may be evidence that David was in Avaris during the reign of Ahmose. Archaeologists say of Averis, “At Avaris, the evidence shows a small group of settlers from the Canaan/Syria area settled on virgin ground, rapidly grew to a huge population”

What’s I propose is that the Hyksos were Amalekites and Canaanites that continually fought Israel until David conquered or killed them all. And the last few Hyksos were actually David, Solomon and Rehoboam (who was then conquered by Egypt and Jeroboam after 4 years). Another point of evidence might be Sheshi, the Hyksos king thought to be Manatho’s Salitis, he leaves hundreds of some of the first Scarabs to appear throughout Canaan, Egypt and Nubia. David is known to have allied with Nubia, and Solomon allied with Egypt. Why is ‘the seal of Solomon such a big legend? A match?

There’s more evidence here..  Read and add it.

(Note this also suggests then, that David conquered to the rivers (Mesopotamia).. Judah including egypt, and the northern kingdom including all of Syria and perhaps parts of Assyria?

-Tell el-Dab near Avaris (northeast delta) has a population explosion during 1590 and 1570 BCE, could this be evidence of David taking it from the Amalekites? (this is speculative, learn more)

Hyksos as Early Persians (or David’s Kingdom in one instance?) –NOPE

Summary of Correlations
-Note that the term ‘Hyksos’ is used on the tomb of Petosiris to designate Artaxerxes III the Persian. ref
-The Kolbrin tells of a war between Egypt and the Abramites who were led by a red haired king who perfectly fits the description of David in the days of the Phoenician Hiram and Pharaoh Ahmose. (although names like Ahmose might have been re-used over and over, and red hair kings who cut off hands might have been common for centuries)
-Ahmose is well known as being the Pharaoh who drove out the Hyksos. (he should be the Pharaoh who let them in)
-Manetho says Hyksos were Jewish (Cananite?) aggressors (give all details of this). Josephus tried (poorly) to prove they were captives.
-Archaeology shows: They spoke Aramaic & Canaanite dialects.
-They likely lived close by and were prolific, because they had been migrating into Egypt for a few centuries. ref ref.
-War in the Hyksos takeover could have been partly minimal. Instead they used diplomacy and expansion. ref
-They had a custom of cutting off hands as a bounty, Just as 2 Samuel 4:12 says David did. ref.
-They seem to have been in alliance with the Nubians of Ethiopia (ref)
-The independent Thebans came to battle the Hyksos (because of an argument over hippos) and were defeated (is this in the bible?) ref
-They are the ones who bring the compound/composite bow and horse chariot to Egypt. Their Asiatic technology advances Egypt. ref
-they wore bright colored Canaanite clothing. ref (1900 BC to 1750 BC)

Behistun Inscription lists the lands conquered and ruled by Darius the Great. It includes Egypt. (and lists his genealogy)
-Isaiah 44:28 reads: “says of Cyrus ‘He is My shepherd, And he will carry out all My desire’.”.
-Be sure in the paper to note that Sumerian kings in general were known ash shepherd kings. Two kings on the Sumerian King list are literally called ‘shepherds’, “Etana, the shepherd, who ascended to heaven and consolidated all the foreign countries” and “Lugalbanda the shepherd.” Urukagina who reigned seven years in Lagash around 2375 B.C is also called a shepherd king.

Ninteenth Dynasty Correlations Overview
-It seems unlikely that the 19the dynasty is cohesive. It is likely missing people and time. The question is where? I suspect the biginning (after Ahmose, because I’ll bet their two of them), Middle (ideas?) and End (Seti could be pre-Alexander?)

Ahmose & Pinedjem II as Contemporary of David (1550 =1000 BC)
-The Tomb/Mummy of Ahmose I (1549–1524 BC) is thought to have ‘been relocated from its original burial place… and re-wrapped’ in the 21st dynasty because the name of Pinedjem II (990-976 BC.) is on his wrappings! (ref) More likely Pinedjem II was Ahmose’ high priest, or his father Pinedjem I (-1032 BC), again making him a contemporary of David like the Kolbrin says.
-In fact the mummies of pharaohs Ahmose I, Amenhotep I, Thutmose II, Thutmose III, Ramesses I, Seti I, Ramesses II, and Ramesses IX were ALL put in Pinedjem II’s tomb! (
-Note that Ahmose is credited with bringing war horses to Egypt. (ref) Its thought this technology came from the Hyksos because of evidence from Avaris. (ref). This works with the fact that the bibles first mention is of the Canaanite’s (king Jabin, Judges 4) surrounding Israel. (ref, ref) The first use BY Israel seems to be David stealing 1000 chariots & 100 horses from King of Zobah at the Border of the Eurphratees (1 chron 18:3-6, 2 Sam 8:3–6), which Solomon multiplies into 12,000 horses (1 Kings 10:26). Only by Persian times are war-horses ubiquitous.

Egyptian Syria Kadesh as Biblical Gaza Kadesh? (1506 – 1274 BC = 722 – 600 BC) PROBABLY NOT
-First problem is there’s three of them. One in Negiv, one in southeast Gaza, and one in Syria. So its confusing.
-King Hoskiah comes from here in Kolbrin. (SOF 7. probably the Gaza one on the border of Egypt)
-Thutmosis first battles Mitanni there in 1504 BC. Armana letter EA189 tells of the Habiru taking the city and then mayor loyal to Pharaoh taking it back around 1350 BC. Seti I with Ramesses II his son retakes it & Carchemish from Hittites in 1306 and then 1274 BC. These are all believed to be the Syrian Kadesh. BUUT Ahmose I, Tuthmosis III and Ramesses III are all known to have fought important battles in Gaza Kadesh..
-A major link is Ptolemy II’s epic battle of Raphia/Gaza (which is likely Ramesses II’s Kadesh) which could be the same as Ramesses II
-Nebuchadnezzar II was defeated against the Egyptian army under pharaoh Necho II at Migdol near Gaza Kadesh, which he later takes in 568 BC. And Cambyses I looses to Egypt there in 529 BC.

—————– radiocarbon date bump? (older) ——————–

Sargon of Akkad as Sennacherib/Sargon II of Assyria (2200 BC = 722 BC) NOPE

-Several rulers take the title of ‘Sargon of Akkad’, causing much confusion.
-Might the pole shift of Ahaz in 736 BC have cause radiocarbon dates to get OLDER again for a time? Or is Sargon just dated wrong?
-Sargon the Great of Akkas founds the Akkadian empire in (2334–2279) is almost certainly the same person as Sennacherib of neo-Assyria (705-681 BC). Note that Sargon the Great (of Akkad) is known mostly from Assyrian tablets from the 700’s !!!! Much info of him comes from a “Neo-Assyrian text from the 7th century BC purporting to be Sargon’s autobiography”. His name is “identical to the name of the Neo-Assyrian king Sargon II” (
Sennecherib/Sargon II makes Nineveh his glorious capital, but Sargon of Akkad’s capital hasn’t been found, nor have any contemporary documents of his life! Why? Because Sargon of Akkad is an invention to explain the radiocarbon and Egyptian chronology discrepancies found in archaeology. (see chronology of the near east)
(note: Shalmaneser V is the one who carried off Israel in 722 BC)

-This discrepancy is almost certainly caused by a volcano or major global climate change event giving rise to a major marine reservoir effect in the near east or global changes in carbon reservoirs.
-Archaeology in the city of Elba (home of the Elba Tablets) shows three destructions at 2500-2300 BC reportedly by Sargon of Akkad. A second destruction dates to 2050-1950 BC, a third at 1600 BC by Hittites and never recovers. On a circular Tel dates same as great pyramids and Stonehenge
-This is fitting, suggesting Assyrian war drove the builders of Stone Hinge to Britain at the same time as Hoskiah and the Sons of Light. Around 720 BC.

Mari in Syria Destroyed by both Sargon and Hammurabi, is largely dated by radiocarbon (and 25k tablets found in its library), is a great place to sort out who Sargon and Hammurabi are. I think in this case Hammurabi is actually Darius? re-using the old title for Solomon. Ḫapiru (“Hebrews”) mentioned but so also remarkably are the Banu Yamina (“Benjaminites”) which they say lived NORTH of Mari (showing ancient Israel’s boundaries larger than supposed).
-It’s relationship to Tel Hazor is another important key, as Hazor is mentioned in the Mari Tablets, Amarna letters, Annals of Thutmose II, Anastasi papyrus AND Egyptian Execration text. Although I feel like its likely Tel Hazor is NOT the same as the ancient, the records speaking of it should help to correlate dates.

Thutmose III as Necho II-probably no (1479 – 1425 BC = 610–595 BC) NOPE
-they both fight battles in many similiar places. Particluarly against the nubians
-Necho II works on the Suez canal and Tuthomse II at least has a residence out there…
-They both are the ONLY pharoahs to cross the Euphrates! (because Necho was helping the Assyrians fight the rising Babylonians)
-They both fight in the Battle of Megiddo! (take Megiddo and control the region. 1457 BC vs. 609 BC)
-see Defacing of Monuments for thutmose vs Necho

Thutmose III Battle of Megiddo as Necho II Battle of Megiddo?-probably no (1457 = 609 BC)
-This might be the best example of why these two are the same person. They both have epoch “battle of megiddos”. These two battles with the same name and same location are believed to be two separate events simply because one is dated archaeologically w/ Egyptian history and the other biblically. You can read about them here and here
Or see:

The Armana Letters as Letters Between Ethiopia and Rulers of Judah from 2 Kings 17:4. (1352 BC = 720 BC) YES!
These letters provide the best opportunity to revising Egyptian chronology of the 18th dynasty. These letters attest to a very strong Egyptian state which allies with Canaan as well as Turkey & Babylon. The main aggressor being the Hirbu who seemed to be a raiders.
Letter EA287 is a great example where the ruler of Jerusalem begs for help from Kushite archers of the Amarna Egyptian kings. Compare that to 2 Kings 19:9 & Isaiah 37:9 where we’re told that the “King of Ethiopia (Kush), waged war against Sennacherib in reign of King Hezekiah” (about 716–687 BC) and 2 Kings 17:4 that says that king Hoshea (730-721 BC) sent letters to “So, King of Egypt”. So is often erroneously attributed to Osorkon IV who ruled nothing… but is FAR more likely Oros or Shebitko (who are likely the same person), even though one is the father of 18th dynasty Akhenaten and the other the 25th dynasty Nubian Pharaoh who fought Sennacherib.
-In the Bible, Ethiopians/Cushites are presented as ruling Egypt all the way from Hezekiah ~720 BC and Isaiah (Isa 18-20, 2 Kings 19) to presumably just before Josiah and the Pharoah Necho II around 620 BC. I believe archaeologists mistake the Assyrians of Nineveh who were actually Babylonians under Nebuchadnezzar II. Jeremiah & Ezekiel prophesy of his conquering of Egypt, but because of the mix-up, historians/archaeologists don’t believe Babylon every conquered Egypt. Archaeologists believe the 25th dynasty Cushites gained control of Egypt by aligning with the Assyrians around 720 BC. But I’m pretty sure its actually the Babylonians, who Josiah was aligned with. 25 & 26 dynasties are probably somewhat concurrent as Egypt, just like Israel is in a north/south civil war going back and forth on whether to align with Assyria or Babylon. These correlate with the 18 dynasty which is also mixed between Monotheistic Cushite and Egyptian Pharaohs.
-The Kolbrin explains that the Monotheism of Akhenaten had long been part of Egyptian religion but hidden from the commoners who held deeply entrenched polytheistic beliefs. The Armana Letters show the growing power and influence of these Nubian rulers and their treaties with those of Canaan and Babylon.
Insights from the Armana Letters:
-lots of letters from Asqalon king Widia. And Ashkalon was taken by Sennacherib and Nebuchadnezzar. (supposedly later in history but I say actually during the neo-Assyrian & neo-Babylonian conquests)
-five letters to Lakis (Lachish, Israel), really pertinent because seven Lachish Letters were found there dating to likely just before Nebuchadnezzar in 588BC. (but these are in paleo-Hebrew & Amarna was cuneiform, There’s also a Lachish Relief in Assyria which is cuneiform I think). NOTE THAT LACHISH is the Lachish reliefs show this is where Sennacherib (actually Nebuchadnezzar II) attacked Jerusalem from… further proving that Lachish was smartly aligned with Babylon, but Jerusalem flipped allegiance and sided with Pharaoh.

Sartrap Aryandes & The New Kingdom.(524 BC = 1020 BC) NOPE! In the final days of Egypt new kingdom (1570-1070 BC) non-coin form of silver shaped like rings and gold pieces shaped like sheep centuries were exchanged before the minting coins out different metals. (ref) Herodotus and later Polyaenus claimed “that the satrap started minting his own silver coinage, calling it aryandic in opposition to the golden, already existing, daric, thus irritating the Persian king.” (ref, Herodotus, Histories IV, 166 )

18th Dynasty Thutmose III (or Ay) as relative of 25th Dynasty Piye & Shabaka. (1479-1425 BC = 747-705 BC)
A Shabaka inscription in the Temple of Ptah @ Karnak built by Thutmose III suggest Piye & Shabaka somehow closely related to Thutmose & Hatshepsut or Ay?. Piye was Kushite and Hatshepsut ‘conquered’ Nubia and had her monuments defaced by later Egyptians (likely because she was a foreign Ethiopian wife of Thutmose that somehow gained the kingdom for Nubia instead of a native of Karnak who simply ruled Nubia!). Both Shabaka & Hatshepsut were prolific builders. (of course everyone in this age is. I’m pretty sure either these rulers overlap with either the Kushite/Nubian rulers of the 25th dynasty or the Egyptians that retake Egypt from them in the 26th! The same parallel of builders happens between 18th and 25th dynasties in The Temple of Amun at Jabel Barkal in Sudan.

Note that both the the 18th AND 25th dynasties are closely related to Kush/Nubia. The 25th are said to be Kushite rulers who controlled Middle Egypt, whereas the 18th are said to be Middle Kingdom rulars who controlled Kush/Sudan. Ether way, Assyria is closely involved with both (shown by the Amarna letters for the 25th).

There may even be a relationship between the names of monotheistic Amarna (Akanaten’s new capitol name for the Beni Amran tribe), Solomon’s close alliance with Sheba and Armenia with its relationship to Israel.

Ramesses Dynasty as Ptolemies (1292–1051 BC = 332-80 BC)
-From Ramesses I to Ramesses XI was 241 years vs. Ptolemy I to Ptolemy XI was 252 years! What are the chances?! thats huge, because it shows the historical dates are mixed up, but fairly accurate overall!!!
-The temple walls at Medinet Habu suggest the ‘sea peoples’ were composed (at least in part) of the Minoans from Crete. ‘Coincidentally’, again Ptolemy (especially Ptolemy V) engaged in long wars with Crete (see Cretan Wars). So the Minoans who radiocarbon date from 2000-1100 BC, are actually just radiocarbon/Egyptian dated Macedonian Cretans. The Hyksos of Avaris have a lot of Minoan artifacts too. (could Averis be by/where the real Pi-Ramesses is? (if its not alexandria and was really on the east delta)

Twenty-First Dynasty (1077-1051) Likely Pre-Roman Ptolemies? (80 – 44 BC?)
-Note that Ptolemy I’s, Ptolemy III and Ptolemy X are married to Berenice I,II & III ; AND Setnakhte, Ramesses III and Ramesses X are married to Tiy, Tiye and Tyti. This is no coincidence. Note these wives might unravel the duplicity in Seti II&II as Seti II was also married to Tiye (also spelled Tiy or Tiaa). So Seti II maybe the same person as Senakhte or a family member?. Note there seems to be three titles used among Ptolemy consorts, Bernice, Arsinoe and Cleopatra. Likewise there seems to be three names in 18/19 dynasty consorts Tiye, Nefertari, Meritamon. Use these to unravel people.
-This really needs to be looked at, most importantly to see if there are actually radiocarbon dates on the latest Ramesses or figures like Neferkare/Amenemnisu to see if radiocarbon years are still off by 1000 years at this point, or if they equilize part way through the Ptolemaic period but Egyptologist discard the dates that suddenly get younger.

Other Notes on Repeating History

-Temple of Hibis is one of the only existing temples known to be built by Darius I. (my bet is all others were redone by Ramesses/Ptolemy). “The temple bears a close resemblance – both architecturally and regarding inscribed texts – to Theban temples of the New Kingdom and also of the Ptolemaic period” (which means perhaps you can use its architecture to compare things built by Ahmose who might be the vassal pharaoh of Darius?
-another good way to Link Darius to a Pharaoh is his known work on the Darius Canal. Aristotle and Strabo say Sesostris is the first to try building the canal (just before Darius), which Egyptologist correlate with  12th Dynasty, Pharaoh Senusret III (1878–1839 BC). Which may be based on nothing… But many articles say the Suez canal was worked on during the new kingdom. (so Amhose I? is Darius?) see here and here. Thutmose II had a residence out there, so that more evidence.

-Rameses Horus name means “The strong bull who rejuvenates the royalty”. The Apis Bull was the Egyptian equivilent of Savior (Just like Ptolemy Soter/Savior). Ptolemy created the new God Ser-apis (Zues-Apis Bull). built his great Serapeum in Alexandria, nearby the famous library, to elevate his new god as a deity (see here & here). Since at least Cambyses the bull was ritually killed (like Spanish bull fighters), embalmed and then resurrected. “Coincidentally”, a Serapeum in Saqqara was built by Ramesses II to embalm bulls just like the Sarapeum in Alexandria built by Ptolemy. Ptolemy II (of course) then “extended” and adds to it as well (actually the same builder!).

-Mithras Scene. This tradition of killing, interring/mummifying and resurrecting the zues-apis bull serves as the backdrop for the Christ narrative. It is almost certainly what is represented in Mithraic tauroctony and was practiced not just in Egypt but also Turkey and Italy. Many Serapeum‘s or Bull Tombs are found in Egypt, Turkey & Italy.

-Note that many temples such as the Temple of Khonsu, are “originally constructed” by Ramesses I,II, or III but then have sections thought to be “added” by Ptolemy I,II, or III. Why? Because they are the same people, but archaeologists have aspects attributed to one or the other (such as Greek writing vs radiocarbon dates or c14 dated paraphernalia that contradict, forcing them to hypothesize a ‘dual’ construction. (other examples?)

-also Temple of Edfu. “started during the reign of Ptolemy III Euergetes and completed in 57 BC under Ptolemy XII Auletes. It was built on the site of an earlier, smaller temple also dedicated to Horus… [built under] the New Kingdom rulers Ramesses I, Seti I and Ramesses II”

-same thing happens with Dendera Temple complex. Egyptologists know from inscriptions that the temple was built by Nectanebo II around (360–343 BC), but radiocarbon and other associated evidence leads them to believe it was built ontop of a temple by Pepi I and/or an Eighteenth dynasty ruler from (1550 – 1292 BC).

-In the Esna temple, An out of place “Jam of a Gateway” from the reign of Thutmose II (Eighteenth Dynasty) his strangely placed as a door sill in the Esna temple known to be the work of Ptolemy III Euergetes (known as a “restorer of Egypt” because so many things are re-used in his building projects”. Or is it that…

-Why is it that pieces of King Ramses II statue were found in the Ptolmaic temple of Kom Ombo?
Note how the Ptolemaic temple of Kom Ombo has the same motifs and honors the same gods as a “previous” temple built by the Ramesses in the New Kingom. “A temple was already built in the New Kingdom to honor these gods”

-Cuneiform inscriptions from Hattusa, Turkey mention Mithra and that Hittite king Suppiluliuma (reigned between 1344 to 1322 BCE) who achieved fame as a great warrior and statesman, ordered the recording of a peace treaty between himself and the Armenian king Šattivaz (reigned ca. 1350-1320 BCE). Mithra isn’t found again until the fourth century BC under Achaemenid king Xerxes (son of Darius) and Armenian king Tiridates.

-Medinet Habu and The temple of Anum inscribed as built by Hatshepsut and Thutmose III but then “modified” in the Greco-Roman period. (Yet its artwork still has paint! one of the best preserved temples in Egypt)

-Temple of Amun at Medinet Habu (which is Ramesses III funerary complex has a ‘Gate of the Ptolemies’ built by …

-Tuna el-Gebel, like pretty much all ptolmaic temple complexes has 18-20th/New Kingdom foundations and temples sprinkled throughout (where they have c14 dates or writing that correlates it to ‘Older’ Dynasties.

-Records of Ramesses III talk about a crop failure that might be a volcanic eruption. An ash layer is found in peat deposits that radiocarbon dates to 1087-1006 BC.

-Ramesses III killed (or close to) in ‘harem conspiracy’ led by his second wife Tiye, ct scans shows wounds from multiple attackers which seem fatal but debate exists. Ptolemy II’s wife is exiled for plotting his murder. Records say she failed, but perhaps that was a lie to hide the murder from the people. Ptolemy III takes throne and pays his mom a stipend in her exile in coptus. Its unknown what punishments’ Tiye received.

-Ramesses III – X are not in any king lists. Sources include: The hieratic Harris Papyrus,

  • The Temple of Amun at KarnACK: The temple complex was built by the pharaohs of the New Kingdom, including Amenhotep I, Tuthmosis III, and Ramses II. But then Ptolemy III Euergetes and Ptolemy IV Philopator “added” a number of structures to the temple complex, such as a pylon, a temple of Isis and a birth house.
  • The Temple of Horus at Edfu: built by Ptolemy III Euergetes and Ptolemy IV Philopator added a number of structures to the temple, such as a pylon, and a birth house
  • The Temple of Khonsu at Luxor: built by Tuthmosis III, Amenhotep III and Ramses II but Ptolemy III Euergetes and Ptolemy IV Philopator added a number of structures to the temple complex, such as a pylon, and a birth house
  • The Temple of Isis at Philae: built by Nectanebo I, and Ptolemy II Philadelphus and Ptolemy IV Philopator added structures to the temple complex.
  • The Temple of Amun at Thebes: built by pharaohs such as Amenhotep I, Tuthmosis III, and Ramses II
  • The Temple of Montu at Medamud: built by Ramses II (perhaps on an Old Kingdom Sanctuary), but with structures from the Ptolemy VIII period.
  • The Temple of Seti I at Abydos: built by Seti I, yet Ptolemy IV Philopator added a number of structures to the temple complex, such as a pylon and a birth house.
  • The Temple of Sobek at Crocodilopolis: built by Ramses II but Ptolemy III Euergetes and Ptolemy IV Philopator added a number of structures to the temple complex, such as a pylon and a birth house.
  • The Temple of Ptah at Memphis: built by Ramses II complete with a 36 foot high statue of himself, but Ptolemy IV Philopator added a number of structures to the temple complex, such as a pylon and a birth house.
  • The Temple of Ptah at Luxor/Karnak contains mixed motifs from Thutmose III & Shabaka (1479-1412 = 705-690 BC) as well as Ramesside & Ptolmaic pharoes (1200’s = 200’s BC). Built by Thutmose III, but Ptolmaic ‘additions include’ in first gateway crosses an enclosed cartouche of Ptolemy VI. On the interior façade of the first gateway are passages of Ptolemy XI and Ptolemy XIII. The second and fourth gateways contain cartouches in the name of Shabaka. The third gateway cartouche is in the name of Ptolemy XIII. The fifth gateway leading to the portico columns of Ptolemy III contains the title of Tuthmosis III and on the gate contains the name of Ptolemy III.
  • The Temple of Amun at Jebel Barkal, Sudan was also built by 18th AND 25th dynasty rulers. In the 18th, at least Thutmose III, Amenhotep IV (Akhenaten), Tutankhamun and Horemheb as well as worked on by Seti I & possibly Ramesses II. This seems to suggest that ALL these pharaoh’s were associated with Nubia. The site was then ‘neglected’ until the reign of Nubian King Piye who added extensively to it. (forerunner to Shabaka) Once again this seems to show a synchronism or parallel between the 18th AND 25th dynasties. Close study of these will likely show them to be repeats of the same dynasty.,_Jebel_Barkal

Important Events of Judah & Israel in Relation to Egypt & Mesopotamia
-Saul/David/Solomon appear to gain first independence from Canaanites & Amalekites
-in ~920 BC, Jeroboam flees to Egypt, allies with them and comes back to conquer Judah making Israel a vassal of Egypt (date)
– 700-900 BC, are somewhat of an Egyptian dark age. Probably when the Armarna letters occur!
-in 701 BCE, Hezekiah of Judah, Lule king of Sidon, Sidka, king of Ascalon and the king of Ekron formed an alliance with Egypt against Assyria (with Pharoah ___?), nevertheless, Sennacherib conquers the Northern Kingdom and parts of Judah (701 BC?), but stops short of Jerusalem & Egypt.
– in 671 Assyrian Esarhaddon sacks Memphis, conquers Egypt, takes massive spoils and captives to Assyria, appoints new rulers at every level including Necho I as king at Sais (673-663 BC)
– in 667 BC Ashurbanipal, quells revolts, reasserts Assyrian rule in Egypt
– in 655 BC Psamtik I threw off his ties to the Assyrians and allies with Greece.
– by 635 BC Egypt recaptures Ashdod.
– in 650-600, Egyptians were actively aiding the Assyrians in an attempt to help them survive from growing power of Babylon.
– in 609 BC, Jehoahaz, became king, the king of Egypt, Necho I (put into power by the Assyrians), rushed into Judah and deposed him, and Judah again became a tribute state of Egypt
– in 605 Babylon defeats Egypt at Carchemish and then Ashkelon.. (Jer 46:2). Jer & Ezek prophesied that Babylon would destroy Egypt (Ezek 29-32). But historians believe NO Babylonian army took Egypt, and Egypt stayed independent from the Assyrian conquest to the Persian Conquest.
– from 589-570 BC Apries or Biblical Pharaoh Hophra of Jer 44:30, 43:8-13, Ezekiel 17:15, is the one Hezekiah tries to ally with against Babylon. This suggests Israel was formerly independent of Egypt. Likely since the Assyrian fall of Egypt.

Actual DateHistorically Known Empire or CultureArchaeologically Dated EquivalentArcheol. Date
911-609 BCNeo Assyrian EmpireOld Assyrian Empire2600-2154 BC
605-556 BCNeo Babylonian EmpireOld Babylonian Empire1894-1595 BC
460-332 BCLate Achaemenes occupation of EgyptAhmose gains Egyptian semi-independence. Takes Memphis & battles averis.1550–1320 BC
332-30 BCPtolemaic Kingdom of EgyptRamessid 19th Dynasty of Egypt1292-1189 BC

Note 1: Egyptian artifacts first show up in Mesopotamia in Nimrud, which becomes a major Assyrian capital in 1350 BC. This date

Table of Pharaohs mentioned in the Kolbrin and possible correlations.

Actual DateKolbrin NameEquiv?Hist. DateDetails
~2400HanokNoahGLN:4:29 Hanok and the Ark/great ship. Had three brothers who divided the land.
BeltsheraBabel?GLN 3:7-9 The floodgates [of Atuma] were opened… “the people left… Shinara..fled up a mountain… built a gateway to heaven”
1450 BCAnked(Moses)MAN 6:1-48 Story of Moses & the Destroyer. “Kair taught these things to the Children of Light.. before the death of the Pharaoh Anked”. Mentions places: Remwar, Noshari, Maha, Pikaroth, Mara. City/God called “Thom”
970 BCAthmosAhmose1550 BCSOF 6:9 HUGE. This verse suggests that the Hyksos were Davidic Israel! David warred with Egypt at the same time Ahmose chased the Shepherd kings out.
910?TathomasisThutmose I or IV?1490 BCIf this is true… then Akhenaten is NOT Darius, but likely a follower of Babylon or Israel‘s cult.
772?NabihatonAkhenaten1352 BCMAN 34:29 Starts the story of how he had a demon and corrupted Egypt. Mother is Towi (Tiye) Name composed of Fathers ‘Nab’ adn ‘henaten’.
720 BCNafohiaunknown??SOF 1:1 “Father of sons of light (Hoskiah) came out of Egypt in days of Pharaoh Nafohia. (Should be about the time of the Assyrian conquest or Sargon of Akkad?)

Table of Pharaohs mentioned in the Bible and possible correlations.

Actual DateBible NameEquiv?Hist. DateDetails
?Rameses?unknown!1546 BCGen 47:11, Ex 1:11, Ex 12:37, Num 33:3–5 A pharaoh named Rameses is never mentioned in the Bible, but Joseph settles Jacob & his family “in the land of Rameses” and Israel “built Pithom & Rameses and on (named as Heliopolis east of Cairo in Spt.) as store cities for Pharaoh before fleeing to Succoth just before the Exodus. Rameses in the bible is thus just a region/city in Egypt meaning “Ra created it”. (see biblehub).
?Pharaoh??1 Kings 11:18–23. Hadad flees to Egypt from Paran, Pharaoh gives him wife Tahpenes’ sister to wife. They have son Genubath who’s raised in Pharaoh’s household.
?Pharaoh??1 Kings 3:1, 9:16 Gives Solomon his daughter and city of captured Gezer in Alliance. Thutmose III (1479–1425 BC) has inscription of conquering Gezer. Armana period leaders swear allegiance to Egypt. Siamun & Psusennes II common matches.
?Shishak??943-922 1 Kings 11:40 & 2 Chronicles 12:2 Tell of his Jeroboam’s escape to Egypt and return with Shishak to take Jerusalem.
?So’unknown730 BC2 Kings 17:4 says that king Hoshea sent letters to “So, King of Egypt”.  commonly identified with Osorkon IV (730–715 BC)
?Tirhakahunknown715 – 6862 Kings 19:9 & Isaiah 37:9. King of Ethiopia (Kush), waged war against Sennacherib in reign of King Hezekiah.. Some scholars have identified him as the pharaoh Taharqa (Ethiopia ruled Egypt from this point to Necho/Babylon, much like the late 18th dynasty)
sameNecho Necho II610–5952 Chron 35:20, 36:4, 35:22. Necho puts his brother Jehoiakim on throne of Judah (609 BC). Necho battles kills Josiah in Carchemish (605 BC). Takes King Jehoahaz captive in another Carchemish battle? Read and put dates.
sameHophraApries589-570Jer 44:30. I will give Pharaoh Hophra king of Egypt into the hand of his enemies and into the hand of those who seek his life, as I gave Zedekiah king of Judah into the hand of Nebuchadnezzar. Also mentions Pathros (upper), Noph (lower) & Tehpanhes border Egypt (43:7)

-One of the most important things in the Kolbrin is CRT 7:5 which explains that the Mayan/Aztec Calendar is the correct cycle for the destroyer, NOT the later Israelite 49 year cycle. “Habaris… taught them the mysteries concerning the wheel of the year and divided the year into a … a great year circle of fifty-two years, a hundred and four of which was the circle of The Destroyer”

Egyptian King Lists

HERODOTUS- The king list given us by Herodotus is all over the place but helps us to understand how likely it is that those of Manetho are completely erroneous is too. Since Herodotus lived 484-425 BC just after Darius we can likely trust the 26th dynasty names he lists. One big question is… where does the 18th dynasty fit in? It is the last true names in Menetho & Abydos/Saqqara King Lists made by Ptolemy III so I think it makes sense that these were all ruler between Darius & Ptolemy.

ChapTransPharaohMenethoM. DynSM. DATE
2.99.2MinaNarmerMenes1st dynasty62/ 3150 BC
2.100.2NitokrisNetjerikaraNitokris6th dynasty12/ 2182–2179 BC
2.101.1MoeriusAmenemhat IIIAmmenemes11? dyn16
2.102.1SesostrisSenusret IIISesostris12th dynasty48/ 1878–1860 BC
2.121.1RhampsinitosRamesses IIInot present
2.124KheopsKhufuSouphis?4th dynasty63/ 2589–2566 BC
2.127KhephrenKhafraSouphis?4th dynasty66/ 2558–2532 BC
2.129MycerinusMenkauraMenkheres4rth dynasty63/ 2532–2503 BC
2.137Sabakon/NeferkareShabakaSeberkheres? Sabakon? 4rth? 25th?8/ 705–690 BC
2.140.2AmurtaiouAmyrtaeusAmurtaios28th dynasty6/ 404–398 BC
2.141.1SethosShebitko? Seti?Sebikhos? Sethos?25th? 19th?55/ 714–705 BC
2.151.2PsammetikhosPsamtik IPsammetikhos26th dynasty54/ 664–610 BC
2.152.1NeconNecho INekhao26th dynasty8/ 672–664 BC
2.158.1NecosNecho IINekhao II26th dynasty6/ 610–595 BC
2.159.3PsammiPsamtik IIPsammouthis?26th dynasty6/595–589 BC
2.161ApriesApriesOuaphris26th dynasty25/ 589–570 BC
2.172AmasisAmasisAmosis26th dynasty44/ 570–526 BC
3.14-15PsammetichusPsamtik IIIPsammekherites?26th dynasty6m 526–525 BC
MesutreCambyses IISon of Cyrus the Great27th dynasty6/ 525-522 BC
SetetureDarius Ithen Xerxes, artexerxes, Darius II27th dynasty36/ 522-486 BC


Does the fact that Herodotus has ZERO New Kingdom (18th dynasty) Pharoah’s suggest that most the 18th came AFTER cyrus? Or is it because they are all right after David and are too OLD for accurate records?
-Amasis II might be a good match with Thutmose III based on both their conquests of Cyprus, power and military prowess. Thutmose II lead at least 17 campaigns from Syria to Nubia.

-Josephus last Pharoah reference is Sethos of whome he says, after Amenophis came… “Sethosis, and Ramesses, two brethren: the former of whom had a naval force; and in an hostile manner destroyed those that met him upon the sea. But as he slew Ramesses in no long time afterward, so he appointed another of his brethren [named Armais] to be his deputy over Egypt.” then… “For Manetho says, that Sethosis was himself called Egyptus: as was his brother Armais called Danaus” He sums the whole history as those who “inhabited this country, three hundred ninety and three years before Danaus came to Argos” (read it here).
Danaus is a famous legend, but like Herodotus, it seems very likely referring to Darius? My logic is this… Look at Armesis and Kherres in Eusibius. Josephus prolog suggests all the last pharoahs are contemporary with him. Is it coincidence that the last 2 pharaohs in Herodotus are named Amasis/Amosis and Apries? Probably not!

Footnotes In Paper

x. [[Sources of the Ptolmaic Dynasty include: 1. The “Canon of Kings” is an ancient Egyptian list of pharaohs that includes the Ptolemaic dynasty. It is inscribed on the walls of the temple of Seti I at Abydos, and is one of the oldest surviving king lists from ancient Egypt.
2. The “Alexandria List” is another ancient Egyptian king list that includes the Ptolemaic pharaohs. It was discovered in the Serapeum of Alexandria, a temple dedicated to the god Serapis.
3. The “Turin Canon” is an ancient Egyptian papyrus that contains a list of pharaohs, including the Ptolemaic dynasty. It was discovered in the 1820s in Turin, Italy and is now housed in the Museo Egizio in Turin.
4. The “Chronicle of the Pharaohs” by the Egyptian priest Manetho, written during the Ptolemaic period provides a list of the pharaohs of Egypt from the earliest times to his own day, including the Ptolemaic pharaohs.
5. The “Roman historian” Appian of Alexandria, wrote about the history of the Roman Republic and Roman Empire, including the Ptolemaic dynasty.
6. Plutarch, a Greek historian, biographer, and essayist wrote about Ptolemy I Soter and Ptolemy II Philadelphus in his biography “Life of Alexander” and “Life of Demetrius”]]

y. [[Egyptian temples which share

z. [[Sources that detail Ramesside period Pharaohs after Ramesses III are limited to: 1. Primarily archaeological information from the Tombs in the Valley of the Kings.
2. A little from a relief in the Temple of Ramesses III in Medinet Habu.
3. Papyri and ostraca discovered in various locations in Egypt, including Deir el-Medina


The history of Manetho as preserved by Eusebius, and Jerome (Armenian version). Or perhaps better, by Dynasty (book I, book II)

The History of Manetho as preserved by Josephus in ‘Against Apion‘

The Histories by herodotus. (1890, Macaulay translation. 2013 Rawlinson Translation. Egyptian section spans from [99-172] )

Strabo’s Geography has some important information on Egypt. Has a great catalogue of translated ancient egyptian texts from 800 BC – 50 BC (chronological order) and even better one of all dates earlier than 800 BC. Pdf’s most with hieroglyphic transcriptions., best resource on king lists and cartouches. (be sure to check out its library & bibliography)

Digital Egypt. This whole site could be turned into a map like my North America Archaeology one. I probably should. resources on king lists, dynasties and tombs.

Overview and back-check check of Willard Libby’s initial paper “on the age of things”.

Huge amount of information on dates and cultures. Egypt and the Mediterranean. Radiocarbon Dating and Egyptian Chronology

Histomap of the world. An old empire harmony chart.

Babylonian Chronicles. Babylonian Chronicles – Wikipedia

Egyptian texts: St Andrews Corpus, attalus,

Huge number of artifacts used as original sources: List of inscriptions in biblical archaeology – Wikipedia

Faulty radiocarbon dates in Pompeii. Lindroos, Alf & Heinemeier, J. et al (2011). Problems in radiocarbon dating of Roman pozzolana mortars. Building Roma Aeterna. Current Research On Roman Mortar and Concrete. 214-230.

Radiocarbon dating in ‘The Manchester Museum Mummy Project‘, illustrated how different materials can produce large discrepancies in radiocarbon results, illustrating the importance of consistency and proper methods in gathering radiocarbon samples. (cloth vs bone on Egyptian mummies resulted in 1000 year + different results. A re-wrapping is assumed.)

Family Tree of the Ramessean 19th Dynasty

Family Tree of the Ptolemaic Dynasty

Radiocarbon Dating:
20 instances of false rings since 1932: Actual article here: (Extrapolating that data suggests a two thousand year old tree could have as many as 400 in a 2000 year old tree.)

Libby presentation summarizing first publications:
Initial Libby paper (first page):

Re-dating some of Libby initial samples:

Some new radiocarbon dates on major Egyptian periods.

186 radiocarbon dates from 1st dynasty Egypt. An absolute chronology for early Egypt using radiocarbon dating and Bayesian statistical modelling. Dee, Michael, Shortland, Andrew, Et al. Royal Society Publishing, Nov 2013 [put these in teh libby table next to pre-c14 dates to show how off they are!]

Radiocarbon-Based Chronology for Dynastic Egypt, Ramsay et al. Probably the most complete paper of assorted dates.
Read the paper here:
Supplemental Material Here:

Pre-carbon dating chronologies:

Mediterranean radiocarbon off from northern Europe:

Mediterranean radiocarbon offsets and calendar dates for prehistory. (Intcal adjustments for meditranian dates, especially because of santorini issues) webmap:

Global radiocarbon database: webmap:

How Old is the Earth? How the Bible Timeline Fits with Earth’s Geologic & Archaeological Prehistory.

I believe the hebrew Old Testament was created as an academic history. Just as Pharaoh Ptolemy commissioned Manetho to write Aegyptiaca, the History of Egypt. It seems obvious that the post exilic Jewish priesthood commissioned Ezra to assemble a sizable team of their best scholar-priests and write the history of the world through the Jewish lens from the libraries and best resources they had in 491 BC. (Before both Herodotus’ Histories & Menetho’s Aegyptiaca)

Furthermore, I believe Ezra and his team utilized spiritualist adepts not unlike John Ballou Newbrough (1828–1891) or John S.M. Ward (1885 – 1949) who claimed to have channeled large sections of their impressive historic works through a type of mediumship which allowed them to see history in a condensed visionary and symbolic/meaningful way. (read their impressive works here)

It’s layout is far simpler than most imagine. And after a short overview, I will go into greater detail on each individual portion and how each symbolic section corresponds to true history.

It is separated into three main sections. 1. Then ten demigods. 2. The ten Patriarchs 3. The history of the current cycle.

Timeline correlations

First in its timeline are the ten demigods. Most ancient histories of Ezra’s day started with the demigod’s of their culture with lifespans ranging from the hundreds to the tens of thousands. An account of many such ancient demigod genealogies can be read about in Diodorus and Eusibus Chronicle here. (Both the oldest Babylonian & Egyptian histories started with the demigods.)

For Ezra, he employed exactly ten demigods between Creation and Flood, followed by exactly ten patriarchs between Flood and Abraham (the father of his Nation). The number ten in each case symbolizing a complete age, and fulfilling multiple purposes in his Chronology. By making each demigod have a lifespan approximating 1000 years he symbolized an Egyptian concept of a full ‘age’ or cycle of heavenly time. Joseph Smith attempted to explain this in saying.

And I, Abraham, had the Urim and Thummim, which the Lord my God had given unto me, in Ur of the Chaldees; And I saw the stars, that they were very great, and that one of them was nearest unto the throne of God; and there were many great ones which were near unto it; And the Lord said unto me, by the Urim and Thummim, that Kolob was after the manner of the Lord, according to its times and seasons in the revolutions thereof; that one revolution was a day unto the Lord, after his manner of reckoning, it being one thousand years according to the time appointed unto that whereon thou standest. This is the reckoning of the Lord’s time, according to the reckoning of Kolob. (Book of Abraham 3:1–4) As also “Kolob, signifying the first creation, nearest to the celestial, or the residence of God. First in government, the last pertaining to the measurement of time. The measurement according to celestial time, which celestial time signifies one day to a cubit. One day in Kolob is equal to a thousand years according to the measurement of this earth, which is called by the Egyptians Jah-oh-eh.” (facsimile 2, figure 1)

This concept is further explained in the apocryphal channeling Oahspe. Where the Egyptian cycle is called a ‘dan’ and is said to equate to roughly 2500-4500 years of earth’s orbit wherein it passes through a celestial zodiac and makes a complete harvest of souls before a time of cosmic destruction. (quote?). Therefore, the ten demigods roughly represent 10 past cycles of time which approximated 3500 years each, or a Platonic Great Year of 36,000. By adding 2 such sequences of 10 (the demigod plus the patriarchs), Ezra meant to equal 70,000 years. Seven thousand years short of the important cosmic processional number of 77,400 years. Or a period of 3 great years.

Dualistically, Ezra used numbers slightly less than 1000 in order to get Shem & Ham to match with the Egyptian records for Menes, called Aegyptus and the father of the Egyptian race (according with Hermes in Greek). Abraham in turn was also to match with a semi-mythical character in the Egyptian, Babylonian & Hebrew records who accords with. This in turn would get his history to Moses, who was the beginning the current Cycle and of well documented history of the old world.





[the intro featured image to this should be the timeline… but I should really pack a TON of info and color into it]


Put on both web sites. This is where you should explain how the fight between religion & science has ruined both. Each takes an extreme position and the truth is in the middle.

Moses 1 is the key. It explains clearly that Moses’ revelation of the earth is only PARTIAL, and gives an account ONLY of this cycle of THIS earth. In verse 30 Moses essentially asks “why did you create the universe (heavens), earth, it continents (lands) and people?” And god makes it clear that he is not going to answer that question. He responds in verse 31, “For mine own purpose have I made these things. Here is wisdom and it remaineth in me” (Moses 1:31)

Discontent with being denied an answer, Moses tries a more specific question, “Be merciful unto thy servant, O God, and tell me concerning this earth, and the inhabitants thereof, and also the heavens, and then thy servant will be content.”

The answer given to Moses question is confused in translation, as we have lost common usage of the idiom “the heavens and earth shall pass away”. The ancients understood well that the history of the earth was one of global destruction and re-creation.

38 And as one earth shall pass away, and the heavens thereof even so shall another come; and there is no end to my works, neither to my words…

40 And now, Moses, my son, I will speak unto thee concerning this earth upon which thou standest; and thou shalt write the things which I shall speak.

We have thought this mean, I’m going to tell you about the planet earth, and its creation and history. But it is actually saying I will tell you about THIS CYCLE of earth (heavens & earth)

Rewrite the above, and summarize a bit better. To just explain that its a “symbolic summary”.

Geology of the Bible

Texts such as the Kolbrin (which contains material that pre-dates the Bible) make it clear that the bible was NOT meant to be taken literally in it pre-Moses timespans. Revealed texts such as Oahspe, and Joseph Smith’s book of Moses also make this clear, although the talking snake (Egyptian apep, god of the under world) and woman coming from man’s rib should be enough of a hint that the formative periods of the book are meant to be a deeply symbolic metaphor.

Howver, what many might not have considered is that Genesis is actually meant to accord or roughly correspond to the visions seen by Moses (according to LDS theology–see Moses ch. 2) or seen by the adepts of old (see Oahspe) concerning the formation of the earth. In fact for a modern example of this, see J.S.M. Ward’s vision of the formation of the earth here. This would explain why it begins with details of the formation of energy/light, the galaxy, the planets and the plants and animals. For a more detailed ancient view of those parts of the bible, see the opening books of the Kolbrin (Link).

In correlating the bible with Geology, I believe the important geophysical events such as the creation of earth, the creation of animals (and beginnings of them dying and making fossils) as well as The Flood and separation of the Continents at Peleg at least seem to be put in the correct order, but then superimposed upon the narrative of mankind so as to create a timeline which correlates natural science with scripture. (ie. Things start living and dying in both the Garden of Eden and Cambrian Explosion, then there’s a Great Dying at the Flood/Permian Extinction, then there’s a separation of the continents at Peleg/Pangea, and then a general march to the conditions of today.

As I know there are many Jews, Muslims and Creationists who visit this site, I offer the following Geologic/Scriptural correlation that is at least somewhat rational. (Which is more than I can say for the majority of creationist biblical correlations out there). Take it for what it’s worth even though it is only meant to represent what I believe the writers might have intended or perhaps even thought in the way they saw the earth’s progression through time.

AND NOTE. The ONLY rational placement of a Global Flood is with one of the two mega-extinction events such as the Great Permian Extinction superimposing geologic events over the human timeline. Any other placement comes up against insurmountable problems. Also the separation of the ‘land’ or continents at Peleg can match only with the separation of Pangea in the Permian. The following correlation would have to assume things like 1. Current Radiometric dates are off by millions of years. 2. Man existed in the early geologic record but left no trace in the fossil record. 3. Rates of erosion and deposition in the deep past occurred under uniformitarian principles, but at vastly higher rates because of the draining of creation and flood waters from the land over hundreds of years. 4. Oogenesis is driven by rapid pole shift, not convection cells.

Chart shows the rough symbolic correlation between true prehistory and the events of scripture which the adepts who authored the bible (chiefly the Egyptian Moses) attempted to create correlations to.