Reform Action #2 of 20 (see overview page)
The church needs to come to grips with the fact that early church Polygamy was not divine in the way it was revealed or implemented. And that even if polyamory is to be tolerated as a workable marriage arrangement among consenting adults, it should NEVER be institutionalized, promoted, or used in a spiritualized environment of manipulation by men in power.
In this theological essay, I’d like to make a case for the idea that admitting that early Church leaders screwed up with instituting polygamy does not need to destroy anyone’s faith in Joseph Smith, the LDS church or the church’s founding revelations. Much like admitting King David sinned with Bathsheba or that small parts of the Mosaic law were uninspired cultural norms attributed to God (think Numbers 5:11–22), or that the old LDS doctrines of racism through priesthood were as well, I believe it’s simply a step the church needs to make in order to try and make past wrongs right.[See ‘A Timeline of Joseph’s Polygamy‘ for details concerning information in this article. I still need to go through add add scores of footnotes with primary sources to everything I summarize in this article… so be patient]
To Begin. It’s Important to address Emma’s testimony and the question of who started polygamy
The following first hand account of a question and answer session between Emma Smith and her son Joseph Smith III was published just after her death. In it, Emma flatly denies Joseph ever engaged in polygamy.
Question. What about the revelation on polygamy? Did Joseph Smith have anything like it? What of spiritual wifery?
Answer. There was no revelation on either polygamy or spiritual wives. There were some rumors of something of the sort, of which I asked my husband. He assured me that all there was of it was, that, in a chat about plural wives, he had said, “Well, such a system might possibly be, if everybody was agreed to it, and would behave as they should; but they would not; and besides, it was contrary to the will of heaven.” No such thing as polygamy or spiritual wifery was taught, publicly or privately, before my husband’s death, that I have now, or ever had any knowledge of.
Question. Did he not have other wives than yourself?
Answer. He had no other wife but me; nor did he to my knowledge ever have.
Question. Did he not hold marital relations with women other than yourself?
Answer. He did not have improper relations with any woman that ever came to my knowledge.
Question. Was there nothing about spiritual wives that you recollect?
Answer. At one time my husband came to me and asked me if I had heard certain rumors about spiritual marriages, or anything of the kind; and assured me that if I had, that they were without foundation; that there was no such doctrine, and never should be with his knowledge or consent. I know that he had no other wife or wives than myself, in any sense, either spiritual or otherwise.
Joseph Smith himself also Denied and Denounced Polygamy in EVERY public instance
In ‘Address of the Prophet—His Testimony Against the Dissenters at Nauvoo’ (Sunday, May 26, 1844), shortly before his death, Joseph stands by his assertion that everyone accusing him of Polygamy was lying.
Be meek and lowly, upright and pure; render good for evil. If you bring on yourselves your own destruction, I will complain. It is not right for a man to bare down his neck to the oppressor always. Be humble and patient in all circumstances of life; we shall then triumph more gloriously. What a thing it is for a man to be accused of committing adultery, and having seven wives, when I can only find one. I am the same man, and as innocent as I was fourteen years ago; and I can prove them all perjurers. I labored with these apostates myself until I was out of all manner of patience; and then I sent my brother Hyrum, whom they virtually kicked out of doors. (
Its important to understand that the question of whether Joseph engaged in polygamy is a he said/she said investigation into which the answer cannot definitively be known. There is a good amount of evidence that he did engage in polygamy, however a VERY good argument can be made that the practice actually began with Brigham and his post-Nauvoo contemporaries, who conspired to create a massive cover-up in order to protect the church and possibly Joseph’s reputation from the huge corpus of slander spread around by Joseph’s enemies concerning his accused sexual improprieties. Nearly all of which could very well have all been fabricated as nearly ALL of it comes from either 1-enemies of Joseph in Nauvoo, or 2- from ‘witnesses’ who were loyal to Brigham speaking during the Utah period after Joseph’s death. Either way, one group was lying and creating a complex cover-up. The only question is, was it Joseph because he wrongly dabbled in polygamy and then feared for his life as much of the leadership turned on him? Or was it Brigham and his inner circle who wrongly believed the defamation of William Law conspirators and lied/rewrote history to absolve himself and those who believed the false spiritual wifery doctrine?
For the sake of argument, in this article we will not argue against the truth of whether Joseph participated in polygamy, but against the church’s current narrative, led largely by Brian Hales concerning the rationale for his supposed polygamy.
Many of the church’s most prominent founders rejected polygamy
Oliver Cowdary and David Whitmer believed polygamy was not of god. After supposedly acquiescing to it for a time, Emma also denounced it – and ever after denied she or Joseph were ever involved in it. Joseph’s living sons were all ardent opponents of polygamy and made trips to Salt Lake City to try and convince the Saints of as much. Many of the early members of the Quorum of the twelve who left the church, denounced polygamy. Both its institution and cessation caused the largest schisms in the church’s history (involving both members and top leadership). David Whitmer, one of Joseph’s closest family friends, wrote an entire book combining his faithful testimony of the Book of Mormon with an outline of Joseph’s mistaken dissent into infidelity and polygamy. His treatment of Joseph is kind, faithful and fair… but firm that Joseph was deceived in instituting polygamy. One of Brigham Young’s wives likewise wrote an expose on the horrors and ungodly beginnings of the practice. Along with some of these early church members (whose testimonies are unfairly denounced as apostate), I hope to show within a framework of one believing and faithful to the modern LDS church how polygamy could not have been from the same source as Joseph’s earlier revelations.
For although a man may have many revelations, and have power to do many mighty works, yet if he boasts in his own strength, and sets at naught the counsels of God, and follows after the dictates of his own will and carnal desires, he must fall and incur the vengeance of a just God upon him. (D&C 3:4)
From my reading it seems hypocritical to believe that the “god of good” and god of moral agency taught of in 3 John 1:11; Ether 4:12 and especially D&C 121:35–44 would send an “angel with a drawn sword“, to impose polygamy on his supposed people by coercing his prophet to go behind his wife’s back, and perform a secret mock wedding before a secret sexual relationship with his hired 17 year old house-help. (Emma did not know about this supposed “marriage”, and kicked Fanny out of the house when she found out about it). LDS members can read about this first “polygamous” relationship in paragraph 9 of the new church gospel topic essay, and the rest of the story in the online version of the new book “Joseph Smith’s Polygamy” sold at Deseret Book. As hard as it is to believe, this is exactly how polygamy was “revealed”, and it’s the narrative the new church essays are tacitly asking members to believe! Of course the church essay leaves out all the above details which are readily available in contemporary first hand sources. Instead this is what the Church essay says of his affair with 17 year old house nanny, Fanny Alger.
Fragmentary evidence suggests that Joseph Smith acted on the angel [with a sword’s] first command by marrying a plural wife, Fanny Alger, in Kirtland, Ohio, in the mid-1830s. Several Latter-day Saints who had lived in Kirtland reported decades later that Joseph Smith had married Alger, who lived and worked in the Smith household, after he had obtained her consent and that of her parents… After the marriage with Alger ended in separation, Joseph seems to have set the subject of plural marriage aside until after the Church moved to Nauvoo, Illinois. (lds.org > plural marriage in kirtland and Nauvoo)
I suggest that once members investigate all the facts of early LDS polygamy it becomes obvious, even to the faithful lds worldview, that Joseph and the Saints were at best allowed like the ancient prophet/king David and other prophets of the scriptures to “follow the dictates of their own wills and carnal desires” (D&C 3:4) in introducing the doctrine of dynastic polygamy. The Book of Mormon makes it pretty clear that “God” gives to people according to their desires. And learning the details of early LDS polygamy that are coming to light, it’s easy to see how the same might be said of the early LDS Saints as was said about the ancient Jews in LDS scripture. Jacob 4:4 suggest God’s covenant people can be “stiffnecked” and “blind”, without being disavowed by God—in fact according to this, divinity eventually just gives people what they want even if it leads to trouble.
But behold, the Jews were a stiffnecked people; and they despised the words of plainness… Wherefore, because of their blindness… God hath taken away his plainness from them, and delivered unto them many things which they cannot understand, because they desired it. And because they desired it God hath done it, that they may stumble. (Jacob 4:14. See also Alma 29:4, Ether 12:29)
All earlier revelations (including the Bible) forbid or frown upon polygamy
In fact in every instance prior to D&C 132, Joseph’s revelations denounced and forbid polygamy. Although current LDS apologists like to twist and redefine the meaning of the Book of Mormon phrase “to raise up seed unto me” into meaning “multiply seed” ( see Jacob 2:30), the Book of Mormon actually condemns polygamy (click the following expando-link for a deeper understanding of the Book of Mormon phrase “raise up seed unto me” and how a revelation denouncing polygamy was twisted into an excuse to practice it!) Expand Me
The Book of Mormon explicitly condemns David and Solomon’s use of polygamy to multiply children and build their dynasties (see Jacob 2:23–26, as does Deut 17:17). Early LDS leadership ignored the context and meaning of this condemnation and used a few ambiguous words in the revelation to justify the righteousness of polygamy. Specifically they twisted the words “raise up seed unto me” into something meaning “increase the population for me”— something that the revelation does not say. The verse in question says,
“For if I will, saith the Lord of Hosts, raise up seed unto me, I will command my people; otherwise [polygamy is to be forbidden]”. (Jacob 2:30)
To “raise up seed” does not in any way infer the use of polygamy to take many wives to multiply seed or increase the population. It is a direct quote from Genesis 38:8, referring to a caveat of the Mosaic law in Deut 25:5–7 (which Christ referred to in Matt 22:24) where if a man dies without having children, his brother (even if already married) was to take his brother’s widow as a (second) wife in order to “raise up seed” “in the name of his brother”. In other words, to “raise up an heir” to the brother. Or if a wife is infertile a second wife could also be taken to “raise up seed” to the family (like Abraham & Sarah). Since in ancient law, property was tied exclusively to men and their children, in this way the wife could bare children who could still lay claim to the birthright and her dead husband’s assets, and thus preserve the family name under civil law. (or a childless couple could get a property heir through a surrogate.) Both the story of the early Patriarchs as well as Judah and Tamar draw on this law of birthright to illustrate how god “rose up” seed or a “righteous branch” through the folly of his servant’s gross improprieties (see Gen 38, Gen 21, Gen 29:21–35, Jer 23:5–6). To suggest that this reference meant that God might randomly command his people to start engaging in rampant dynastic polygamy in order to increase population is unfounded in scripture and frankly a bit twisted.
Even the Mosaic Law — which suffered the cultural practice of polygamy — forbid that it be practiced by Jewish leaders as a dynastic tool to multiply many wives (see Deut 17:14–17,17).
“Neither shall he [a Jewish King] multiply wives to himself, that his heart turn not away: neither shall he greatly multiply to himself silver and gold.” (Deut 17:17)
The 1835 edition of the Doctrine and Covenants stated specifically in section 101 that, “Inasmuch as this church of Christ has been reproached with the crime of fornication, and polygamy: we declare that we believe, that one man should have one wife.” (It was taken out in 1876) I suggest that instead of using and searching for scriptures to justify and defend the rightness polygamy as we have since 1845, the Saints need to begin to use and focus on scriptures which prove that historical prophets and church leaders often made mistakes! And also emphasize scripture which teach that when some spiritual being comes and commands a person or prophet to do some puzzling act they know might hurt others, they should “try the spirits, whether they are of God” (1 John 4:1).
“I would that ye should do in all holiness of heart, walking uprightly before me, considering the end of your salvation… that that ye may not be seduced by evil spirits, or doctrines of devils, or the commandments of men; for some are of men, and others of devils…Wherefore, beware lest ye are deceived; and that ye may not be deceived seek ye earnestly the best gifts, always remembering for what they are given;” (D&C 46:7–8)
Wherefore, it shall come to pass, that if you behold a spirit manifested that you cannot understand (see Jacob 4:14), and you receive not that spirit, ye shall ask of the Father in the name of Jesus; and if he give not unto you that spirit, then you may know that it is not of God. And it shall be given unto you, power over that spirit; and you shall proclaim against that spirit with a loud voice that it is not of God— (D&C 50:31–35)
Once you educate yourself to all the facts of early LDS polygamy, you’ll see why its a pity Joseph and the Saints didn’t better follow the advice of these early revelations which taught the saints to constantly be on the lookout for false revelations which lead to poor outcomes. The problem is that according to the records, some of the girls and women that Joseph propositioned, did seem to receive spiritual confirmations that polygamy was right — they seem to have seen it as a great honor to be “chosen” to be with the prophet, whereas likely as many (including Emma) felt inspired to denounce it as not of God (go figure). Joseph’s revelations also gave a great answer to deal with these types of contradictions concerning personal revelations. It can be found in the Law of Common Voice & Common Consent which teach that all supposed revelations should be democratically put before the church for a vote of confirmation (I write about this elsewhere). If Joseph and these assorted girls felt polygamy to be right, it would have needed to be put before the body of the church and voted upon so that Emma and the church as a body could receive a spiritual confirmation for or against it as official church policy (Mosiah 29:26, D&C 1:19–20, D&C 26:2; D&C 28:13, D&C 38:21–27, D&C 102, D&C 104:71–85, D&C 51:4). These scriptures apply democracy to revelation, knowing it’s easy for a few people to confuse their own feelings or false revelations with real ones, but it’s far more difficult for a whole church to do such. And no one should have been coerced into accepting any supposed revelations by threats of destruction from God or stories of destroying angels. Nor should anyone have been coerced to believe Joseph’s revelation of plural wives with indoctrinating sermons suggesting “the prophet is always right”. Putting a vote to the body of the thoughtful and prayerful members of the church as a whole is the best way to avoid the deception of false revelations and assure church revalators are receiving revelations which represent the desires of the whole church, instead of just the desires of a few.
4 …for I know that [God] granteth unto men according to their desire, whether it be unto death or unto life; yea, I know that he allotteth unto men, yea, decreeth unto them decrees which are unalterable, according to their wills, whether they be unto salvation or unto destruction. (Alma 29:4)
But that’s absolutely not how polygamy was introduced, and Joseph instead propositioned girls in secret, mostly behind his wife’s back, and often (according to several sources) with a story of how an angel with a drawn sword was forcing him to start polygamy or face death.
The scriptures are full of prophets who sin or misrepresent god’s will
The scriptural record suggests its fairly common for prophets and priests to royally screw up. The mistakes and misunderstandings of Old and New Testament spiritual leaders seems to be a central theme of the Bible. Some of the most prominent prophets in the Christian scriptures seem to be allowed (or led?) to do stupid and sinful things which end up fulfilling their roles of being archetypes or symbols of the people they lead. Moses & Aaron were not allowed to enter the promised land because they boasted and took credit for God’s miracle of giving living water to Israel from the rock (Num 20:12,24). This harsh symbolic curse may have been related to Moses’ and Aaron’s previous acts of murder (Ex 2:12; 32:25-29). The deep symbolism in their mistakes and curse almost certainly was meant to be a foreshadow of Israel itself not entering Christ’s Kingdom of God because of pride, fanaticism and genocidal violence all in the name of God — culminating in their rejection and murder of Christ with his living waters. (see Num 20:8–12, Jer 2:13, John 4:10, D&C 11:24). In a very similar vein, David who was a prophet and king “after God’s own heart”, killed Uriah to sleep with his wife and was not allowed to finish God’s temple (Acts 13:22, 2:30, 1 Sam 13:14, 2 Sam 11-12, 1 Chron 28:2-6). This was yet another sin almost certainly foreshadowing Israel’s coming inability to fully build the kingdom of God amidst their whoredoms and thirst for blood. Abraham’s willingness to transgress former commandments and murder his own son (see Gen 9:4–6), and then faithlessly have a child with his servant who he later allowed to be banished, may have been a foreshadowing and archetype of the violent division which would develop among his posterity and his posterity’s eventual murder of the “Son of God”. We should not forget that even Peter, the chief apostle, denied his Savior– likely as a scriptural foreshadowing of his dispensation’s coming missteps (Matt 26:75, Thes 2:3).
In fact LDS scriptures such as D&C 84:23–27 and Jacob 4:14 strongly suggest that the unchristian aspects of the Old Testament narrative like polygamy, brutality and genocide were not the will of God, but the result of Israel’s own wickedness and “hard hearts”. Scriptures like Romans 1:24, Acts 7:42 & Psalms 81:12 echo the same message by stating that “god turned away from [from the ancient Israelites]” and “gave them over to their stubborn hearts to follow their own devices.” The narrative advanced by these scriptures is that God gives “his people” and leaders lots of freedom to “work out their own salvation with fear and trembling” as Paul put it (Phil 2:12). Paul seems to suggest that an individual or prophet’s relationship with God ends up being a “mirror” of themselves (1 Cor 13:12 see NIV version). Perhaps this is why Mosiah tells us that a “seer” who “looketh for that which he ought not” would cause him to “perish”. Because both personal and prophetic revelation often ends up being a reflection of our own desires. And evil, violent or lustful desires bring revelations of evil, violence and lust which lead to destruction (Mosiah 8:13,19. see also Alma 29:4).
Instead of the redemption of Zion occurring in Joseph’s generation (D&C 10:33), and in Missouri as the “only place appointed” (D&C 101:20), the Doctrine and Covenants says that because of divisions and “in consequence of the transgressions of my people”, they would have to “wait a little season for the redemption of Zion—That they themselves may be prepared, and that my people may be taught more perfectly, and have experience, and know more perfectly concerning their duty, and the things which I require at their hands” (D&C 105:9–13). It seem obvious when one really gets to studying the polygamy and crazy fundamentalism of the Kirtland and Nauvoo Saints, that they largely reaped the consequences of their own sinful issues. And if one is to believe the revelation’s of Joseph Smith, an argument can be made that they were chased to Utah to have some quiet time to learn to actually obey the early revelations they were given— revelations such as the one’s that forbid polygamy and sexual exploitation (D&C 90:35–37; D&C 42:24–25,75,80 D&C 59:6; 66:10).
Joseph’s revelation on polygamy in D&C 132, coerces Emma into polygamy in an evil way
To show how ridiculous the idea that God commanded Joseph to introduce polygamy the way the record says it was introduced— we’ll use the churches new essays on the topic. But first sit back and enjoy a short video illustrating what “positive spin” is. You’ll need this humor as we go through the Church Essay and see how certain forces in church leadership continue to try and positively spin Joseph Smith’s polygamy in ways that aren’t telling the whole story. It’s not unlike the positive spin applied in the past to the church’s doctrinal denial of Blacks to the Priesthood. But just like the Church has finally admitted their complete error concerning that historical misstep, (without the church imploding!), I have faith the Church will also eventually stop making excuses for the early prophets and saints and just admit that there’s no way Mormon polygamy was of God. And church leadership will be able to stop making fools of its members by trying to spin obviously evil things off as good. This kind of honesty is the first step in helping repair the breach of trust that the whole polygamy experience has left many members and ex-members with.
Part of the problem with the church essays and portrayal of polygamy is that they use “positive spin” to distort the details and temporal relationships of what went down in Mormon polygamy. They make it sound like Joseph and the early Saints were all continually against the idea of polygamy and then God suddenly came out of the blue and commanded them to do this hard, hard thing. They leave out the context that many of the Saints were pushing for polygamy as early as ~1832 because they had been seduced by the doctrines of Jacob Cochran. Joseph and the saints are instead portrayed as faithful and innocent as they selflessly obey a sudden and impossible to understand commandment from God. Once you look at the historical facts, however, this narrative falls apart. You see instead that in about 1834 Joseph foolishly put himself in a compromising situation by allowing a well-endowed attractive 17 year old girl to live with him in his home— quite likely when his wife was sick, pregnant and likely not fulfilling him sexually (look carefully at the timelines of his Marriage to Fanny vs the birth of Frederick G.W. Smith). This situation led to a sexual relationship to which Joseph “confessed humbly, and begged forgiveness” after the truth came out. Around four years of fidelity go by before Joseph and other leaders come up with the spiritual justification of polygamy which they begin to practice completely in secret behind their wive’s and their people’s backs. A story of an “angel with a drawn sword” is used to convince women that these men are just fulfilling the commandments of a forceful Old-Testament-like God (and have little say in the matter). And D&C 132 appears in order to justify the practice. A “revelation” which manipulatively threatens Emma and other wives, saying that if they don’t let their husbands fulfill the practice “they will be destroyed”. After three years of marrying somewhere between 33 and 40 women (and documented sexual relations with as least eleven of them), Joseph is strangely the one who gets destroyed, instead of the women who were threatened in the revelation. To illustrate the distorted nature of D&C 132, think carefully about the manipulation being used in this verse of Section 132, and the irony of who actually gets destroyed after Emma rejects polygamy. Bracketed clarifications mine.
64 And again, verily, verily, I say unto you, if any man have a wife, who holds the keys of this power, and he teaches unto her the law of my priesthood, as pertaining to these things [of polygamy], then shall she believe and administer [additional wives] unto him, or she shall be destroyed, saith the Lord your God; for I will destroy her; for I will magnify my name upon all those who receive and abide in my law. (D&C 132:64. see also v. 26)
Did you catch what this verse is saying? It manipulatively has “god” saying that if a man who has the “keys” to the law of plural marriage teaches his wife about it, and she does not believe it and administer the law by granting him additional wives, then God will execute her!
Some of the other language in the revelation make a lot more sense when you draw from letters and other historical information from the time. Verse 51 for instance opaquely commands Emma to “not partake” of something in relation to polygamy that Joseph had already offered her.
51 Verily, I say unto you: A commandment I give unto mine handmaid, Emma Smith, your wife, whom I have given unto you, that she stay herself and partake not of that which I commanded you to offer unto her; for I did it, saith the Lord, to prove you all, as I did Abraham, and that I might require an offering at your hand, by covenant and sacrifice. (D&C 132:51)
What was it that Joseph offered Emma that she’s later command not to partake of? There are multiple sources which suggest it was some kind of mutal agreement where Emma could take a “spiritual” husband (aka plural husband). William clayton, Joseph’s scribe said this,
This A.M. President Joseph took me and conversed considerable concerning some delicate matters. Said [Emma] wanted to lay a snare for me. He told me last night of this and said he had felt troubled. He said [Emma] had treated him coldly and badly since I came…and he knew she was disposed to be revenged on him for some things. She thought that if he would indulge himself she would too. (William Clayton and George D. Smith, An Intimate Chronicle: The Journals of William Clayton)
Some FAIR apologists try to assert that it was a divorce that Joseph offered, which as we’ll see makes absolutely no sense given the context. But William Law, Joseph’s second counselor in the first presidency at one time, echoes William Clayton’s testimony about what Joseph offered her in regards to plural marriage. He suggests that Joseph had offered Emma a plural husband in return for allowing Joseph to take plural wives.
Joseph offered to furnish his wife, Emma, with a substitute for him, by way of compensation for his neglect of her, on condition that she would forever stop her opposition to polygamy and permit him to enjoy his young wives in peace and keep some of them in her house and to be well treated, etc (Letter from William Law to Editor Dr. W. Wyl – 1887)
As we’ll see toward the end of this article, the part of this statement concerning keeping “some of them in her house” is corroborated by some of the very girls (plural wives) that were allowed by Emma to “room with Joseph” for a short time. In yet another document, Law states that he talked with Emma about the polygamy issue and revelation on multiple occasions, in one of which Emma concluded that she clearly got the message in the revelation telling her that she must submit to the doctrine or be destroyed.
“Well, I told you that she [Emma] used to complain to me about Joseph’s escapades whenever she met me on the street. She spoke repeatedly about that pretended revelation. She said once: “The revelation says I must submit or be destroyed. Well, I guess I have to submit.” On another day she said: “Joe and I have settled our troubles on the basis of equal rights.” (William Law interview with the SLC Tribune – 1887)
Really the best evidence that the above accounts are accurate is the crazy emphasis that D&C 132 puts on the idea that polygamy was not to be an “equal rights” endeavor. After saying essentially, “just kidding Emma, I was just testing you” in verse 51 the revelation spends verses emphasizing the fact that only men of the high priesthood could have multiple spouses, not vice versa… and they had to be virgins. A detail that Joseph seems to have overlooked as he sealed himself to already married and widowed women.
61 And again, as pertaining to the law of the priesthood—if any man espouse a virgin, and desire to espouse another, and the first give her consent, and if he espouse the second, and they are virgins, and have vowed to no other man, then is he justified; he cannot commit adultery for they are given unto him; for he cannot commit adultery with that that belongeth unto him and to no one else. 62 And if he have ten virgins given unto him by this law, he cannot commit adultery, for they belong to him, and they are given unto him; therefore is he justified. 63 But if one or either of the ten virgins, after she is espoused, shall be with another man, she has committed adultery, and shall be destroyed
So the revelation makes it official— Joseph and the other high priests could have one or two or ten virgins and it wasn’t adultery (with or without their spouses consent). But contrary to Joseph’s earlier offer, if Emma tried to take an additional husband she would be destroyed. And not only that, if she didn’t give her consent for Joseph to take additional spiritual wives, she would be destroyed and God would give Joseph “an hundred-fold wives” regardless of her opinion on the matter.
52 And let mine handmaid, Emma Smith, receive all those [women] that have been given unto my servant Joseph, and who are virtuous and pure before me; and those who are not pure, and have said they were pure, shall be destroyed, saith the Lord God.
53 For I am the Lord thy God, and ye shall obey my voice; and I give unto my servant Joseph that he shall be made ruler over many things; for he hath been faithful over a few things, and from henceforth I will strengthen him.
54 And I command mine handmaid, Emma Smith, to abide and cleave unto my servant Joseph, and to none else. But if she will not abide this commandment [of giving more wives] she shall be destroyed, saith the Lord; for I am the Lord thy God, and will destroy her if she abide not in my law.
55 But if she will not abide this commandment, then shall my servant Joseph do all things for her, even as he hath said; and I will bless him and multiply him and give unto him an hundred-fold in this world… wives and children, and crowns of eternal lives in the eternal worlds. (D&C 132:52–55)
Once again, the coercive manipulation is glaring. By July 1843, when this “revelation” was given, Joseph had taken some 28 women to wife. All but 3 of those were within a year of the “revelation”. Its unknown at what point Emma found out about these secret marriages going on behind her back. The only solid date that can be given is May 1843, a few months before D&C 132 is “received”. As is often the case of women who find out about their husbands affairs, perhaps Emma began making excuses for her husband who she believed to be above such infidelity. The revelation seems to suggest she had raised objections to Joseph suggesting that many of these woman were adulterous predators praying on his fame and notoriety (instead of the other way around). To assuage these fears the “revelation” assures Emma that any of those women “given to my servant Joseph… who are not pure… shall be destroyed”. But once again, Emma is threatened with death if she didn’t accept and promote Joseph’s polygamy. The records suggest that this manipulation worked on Emma long enough for her to “give” Joseph four women to wife and bed (see evidence of sexuality). But after some soul searching she joined the three witnesses in rejecting the revelation and the doctrine of polygamy, but not Joseph’s prophetic calling or the Book of Mormon. Her behavior of denial, acceptance, regret then denouncement helps make sense of why she seems to have lied to her children until her death about her and Joseph’s involvement in polygamy (she blamed it all on Brigham Young).
Joseph’s excuse that an angel with a drawn sword forced him to institute polygamy is reminiscent of this Back to the Future’s scene. “Silence earthling! I am Darth Vader from the planet Volcan”, you must take multiple wives and sleep with them or I will melt your brain!” 🙂 It’s really kind of a ridiculous idea to suggest God would ever behave that way. (Yet the recent church essay’s suggest just that!)
The evidence is overwhelming
I know this is a lot to take in for a faithful LDS member who wants to believe the best of Joseph Smith. Especially when the Book of Mormon and so many of his early revelations teach such profound sacrifice, wisdom and self abnegation. But after reading pages of dairy entries, transcripts and quotes in the polygamy repository I reference at the end of this article, this seemed to be the most probable conclusion. Let me hit this home by quoting the legal transcript of the court deposition of Emily Partridge (Young)—Joseph’s 17th “plural wife”, who “married” Joseph at age 19. This testimony was given during the “Temple Lot Trial“, where the Utah LDS Church was attempting to prove ownership of the Independence Temple Lot. In the court case, plural wives of Joseph were sent to testify of their marriage and sexuality with Joseph in hopes to secure legal title of the land. Emily Partridge (who married Brigham Young after Joseph’s death) was one of the few that Emma actually knew about and “gave” Joseph out of fear of disappointing the Lord and being destroyed. Like all of Joseph’s conjugal relationships, she would have sex with Joseph (according to her testimony), but never live in the same house. You can see how confused she is in the deposition, lying, stumbling over her statements and not fully understanding the questioner’s use of the words “roomed”, “ever” and never. Her confusion, and likely fear, is a good example of how most LDS people feel as they learn that Joseph’s “polygamy” was often nothing more than two years of “marrying” scores of girls and women so they could come and have sex with him but never share in any of the actual joys of marriage. (After two years of this, Joseph is murdered.) Bracketed notes mine.
Q. Had you roomed with him [Joseph] prior to … the night after you were married the last time?
A. No sir, not roomed with him.
Q. Well had you slept with him?
A. Yes sir.
Q. [Had you] slept with him … before the fourth of March 1843? [their marriage date].
A. No sir…
Q. Did you ever live with Joseph Smith after you were married to him after that first night that you ‘roomed’ together?
A. No sir. Emma knew that we [her and other girls] were married to him, but she never allowed us to live with him.
Q. Do you make the declaration now that you ever roomed with him at any time?
A. Yes sir.
Q. Do you make the declaration that you ever slept with him in the same bed?
A. Yes sir.
Q. How many nights?
Q. Only one night.
A. Yes sir.
Q. Then you only slept with him in the same bed one night?
A. No sir.
Q. Did you ever have carnal intercourse with Joseph Smith?
A. Yes sir.
Q. How many nights?
A. I could not tell you. [obviously a lot more than once] Q. Do you make the declaration that you ever slept with him but one night?
A. Yes sir. [apparently many sexual visits but only one full night stay?] Q. And that was the only time and place that you ever were in bed with him?
A. No sir. [no because there were many sexual visits] Q. Were you in bed with him at any time before . . . you were married?
A. No sir, not before I was married to him. I never was
(Temple Lot Case depositions. full transcript available here. See also the Malissa Lot deposition here, which is very similar, but perhaps even more specific about the nature of the sexual relationship)
Emily Partridge was the daughter of Edward Partridge, the first Bishop of the Church. After the Saints came to Utah, Brigham Young took the girl (who was 23 years younger than him) as one of his many wives. This heartbreaking confession by a young girl manipulated into sex at age 19 and a life of polygamy by both her father and “prophet”. Read the following LDS scriptures and re -read Joseph’s earlier revelations and contrast them with Joseph’s last few years of life—and ask god what is true and what is not. And more importantly, ask yourself which parts are good and worthy of supporting, and which parts in need of being reformed.
12 Wherefore, all things which are good cometh of God; and that which is evil cometh of the devil; for the devil is an enemy unto God, and fighteth against him continually, and inviteth and enticeth to sin, and to do that which is evil continually.
13 But behold, that which is of God inviteth and enticeth to do good continually; wherefore, every thing which inviteth and enticeth to do good, and to love God, and to serve him, is inspired of God.
14 Wherefore, take heed, my beloved brethren, that ye do not judge that which is evil to be of God, or that which is good and of God to be of the devil. (Moroni 10:12–14)
11 But he that believeth these things which I have spoken, him will I visit with the manifestations of my Spirit, and he shall know and bear record. For because of my Spirit he shall know that these things are true; for it persuadeth men to do good.
12 And whatsoever thing persuadeth men to do good is of me; for good cometh of none save it be of me. I am the same that leadeth men to all good… (Ether 4:12)
8 Yet you [Joseph] should have been faithful; and he would have extended his arm and supported you against all the fiery darts of the adversary; and he would have been with you in every time of trouble.
9 Behold, thou art Joseph, and thou wast chosen to do the work of the Lord, but because of transgression, if thou art not aware thou wilt fall.
10 But remember, God is merciful; therefore, repent of that which thou hast done which is contrary to the commandment which I gave you, and thou art still chosen, and art again called to the work;
11 Except thou do this, thou shalt be delivered up and become as other men, and have no more gift. (D&C 3:8–9)
Another damning confession is that of Sylvia Sessions Lyons. On her deathbed in Utah, Sylvia confessed to her daughter Josephine that she believed her to be the daughter of Joseph Smith. Josephine wrote in 1915,
Just prior to my mothers death in 1882 she called me to her bedside and told me that her days on earth were about numbered and before she passed away from mortality she desired to tell me something which she had kept as an entire secret from me and from all the others but which she now desired to communicate to me. She then told me that I was the daughter of the Prophet Joseph Smith, she having been sealed to the Prophet at the time that her husband Mr. Lyon was out of fellowship with the Church. (Wells, Emmeline, “Patty Sessions,” Women’s Exponent, v. 13, September 1, 1884, p. 95)
This testimony is supported by many other pieces of evidence, including the admission of church presidents of it’s truth in order to prove to Joseph Smith III (who did not at the time believe his father practiced polygamy) that his father was indeed a polygamist. The worst part of this confession is that recent DNA tests on Josephine decedents show conclusively that Josephine was mistaken… proving that not only did Joseph have sex with his his “plural wife” Sylvia… but he was doing so while Sylvia was still married to, and having sex with her lawful husband (Joseph married Sylvia during the time of her husband’s disfranchisement from the church. After he short time, they got back together). One can see all the available evidence of this adulterous relationship called “plural marriage” by Joseph in the following well-researched video.
Please go to the online version of Brian and Laura Harris Hales new book on Joseph’s Polygamy (sold at Deseret Book, but available in it’s entirety online). If nothing else, read each piece of evidence concerning Joseph’s Sexual relationships, and connect the dots by comparing it to the new church essay on Joseph’s Polygamy. http://josephsmithspolygamy.org/common-questions/sexuality-2/ Read the many links I provide in this article. I think everyone will come to the same conclusion, that no matter how you look at the evidence, Joseph’s Polygamy appears to have been contrary to the character of Jesus Christ and the revelations given to Joseph earlier in his life.
Really this is all pretty common information, and I encourage you to search the issues yourself. Hundreds of original documents can be found at mormonpolygamydocuments.org. Another great resource is josephsmithpolygamy.org. The more comprehensive but less faithfully framed information at MormonThink is also worth some study. But in the rest of this article, lets just go through these truths hidden within the positive spin of the Church Essays. I’ve copied relevant parts of the first essay on polygamy, and placed my commentary in red. Click the image below to go to the annotated essay.
Follow this link for an annotated version of the church essay which outlines issues with the essay.
From “Some of smith’s older wives were sometimes used to prepare (or groom) younger girls for smithi. One of these was elizabeth Durfee,…
“Soon after this he was at my house again, where he occupied my Sister Almira’s room and bed, and also asked me for my youngest sister, Esther M. I told him she was promised in marriage to my wife’s brother. He said, “Well, let them marry, for it will all come right.””
– Joseph Smith’s personal secretary and church patriarch, Elder Benjamin F. Johnson, My Life’s Review” http://www.i4m.com/think/history/angel_sword.htm
MY THOUGHTS ON IF JOSEPH ACTUALLY PRACTICED POLYGAMY
One by enemies of the church in Nauvoo to try and justify their own immorality. (And the massive #metoo type scandals which occurred in 1841-1844
And a second by leaders of the Church after coming to Utah. I believe largely well-meaningly based on their own misunderstandings of Joseph’s teachings and intents with spiritual sealings, his momentary dabbling in the idea of polygamy, their belief in the false rumors spread by group one, and their desire to justify their own desires for polygamy and clear Joseph’s name from the slander that they believed.