Pre-Christian Era Variations in Radiocarbon Dates

Actual DateHistorically Known Empire or CultureArchaeologically Dated EquivalentArcheol. Date
305-30 BCPtolemaic Kingdom of EgyptRamessid 19th Dynasty of Egypt1292-1189 BC
1020-900 BCDavidic Kingdom of Israel, Egypt and NubiaHyksos Kingdom invaders of Egypt & the Levant1650–1530 BC
556-605 BCNeo Babylonian EmpireOld Babylonian Empire1894-1595 BC
609-911 BCNeo Assyrian EmpireOld Assyrian Empire2154-2600 BC

Introduction

In this article I offer a few examples of where radical errors in radiocarbon dating results, as well as over-reliance on erroneous ancient chronology sources have produced erroneous fragmented timeline sequences which have been placed incorrectly in the historical sequence by several thousands of years.

Ancient variations in ancient native carbon-dioxide and radiocarbon levels are known to skew radiocarbon dates for given time periods. This is something all scientists well studied in radiocarbon dating understand. Several calibration curves (such as IntCal) have been created to attempt to ‘correct’ for these variations in order to translate a laboratory ‘radiocarbon date’ to a true calendar date. In this paper I propose that a previously undetected large variation in atmospheric carbon dioxide occurred from at least the onset of the Christian era to around the second millennium BCE in the Mediterranean region. This variation skews dates for the given period up to a 1000+ years causing our modern models of pre-Christian history to essentially ‘repeat’– with written historic empire and dynasty sequences from about 100-900 BCE, duplicating in an artificial ‘radiocarbon dated history’ dating from about 900-4000 BCE.

[—add illustration here or at top with the IntCal correlation curve next to my proposed correlation curve —]

Thus the well known historically dated empire and dynasty sequences of the Grecian, Median, Persian, Neo Babylonian and Neo Assyrian Empires, completely repeat with an identical radiocarbon dated empire and dynasty sequence of the ‘sea peoples’, Hittite, Hyksos, Old Babylonian or Sumerian and Akkadian Empires. I propose that these latter empires are identical to the former. This repetition of history caused by insufficiently calibrated dates, of course should have been obvious to the scientific community of the mid twentieth century, however I suggest that Early Christian archaeologists and historians were eager to have the tales of the bible validated by archaeological findings. And it just so happened that radiocarbon dates for many of the most monumental architecture there (New Kingdom) happened to radiocarbon date to about the time that the Israelites in the Bible were supposedly slaves in that land. Additionally the prestige and ability to publish when one finds archaeological evidence of ‘new and previously unknown empires’ as well as a lack of general understanding among archaeologist at the tenuous results of uncalibrated radiocarbon dates caused them to overlook the obvious ‘repetition’ of history that these radiometrically dated archaeological finds were creating in the broader view of prehistory.

-Note that the New Kingdom does NOT exist in Manetho or any king list or Herodotus records, so its entirely placed by radiocarbon dating.
-the Hyksos are similar. Their king list is given only by Josephus quoting Menetho, but the many inscriptions and artifacts related to them, are radiocarbon dated and likely attached to Josephus, only because of the dates?

Hyksos as David’s Kingdom

Summary of Correlations

-Note that its used on the tomb of Petosiris to designate Artaxerxes III the Persian. ref
-The Kolbrin tells of a war between Egypt and the Abramites who were led by a red haired king who perfectly fits the description of David in the days of the Phoenician Hiram and Pharaoh Ahmose.
-Ahmose is well known as being the Pharaoh who drove out the Hyksos. (he should be the Pharaoh who let them in)
-Manetho says Hyksos were Jewish aggressors (give all details of this). Josephus tried (poorly) to prove they were captives.
-Archaeology shows: They spoke Aramaic & Canaanite dialects.
-They likely lived close by and were prolific, because they had been migrating into Egypt for a few centuries. ref ref.
-War in the Hyksos takeover was likely minimal. Instead they used diplomacy and expansion. ref
-They had a custom of cutting off hands as a bounty, Just as 2 Samuel 4:12 says David did. ref.
-They seem to have been in alliance with the Nubians of Ethiopia ref
-The independent Thebans came to battle the Hyksos (because of an argument over hippos) and were defeated (is this in the bible?) ref
-They are the ones who bring the compound/composite bow and horse chariot to Egypt. Their Asiatic technology advances Egypt. ref
-they wore bright colored Canaanite clothing. ref (1900 BC to 1750 BC)

There is overwhelming archaeological and epigraphical evidence showing that the Kolbrin not only solves the identity of Manetho & Josephus’ Hyksos Shepherd Kings. But also that the Egyptian timeline is in need of revision.

Josephus goes to great lengths to try and prove the Hyksos as captive Israelites under Moses. But the Kolbrin has this to say, “. In the days when Hiram [of Tyre] came to Egypt, the Pharaoh Athmos ruled. In those days, Egypt was at war with the Abramites, for their great red-headed king had committed adultery with the wife of a prince of Paran. The remorseful king reaped as he had sown, for his favourite daughter was ravished by her own brother, and his wives were humiliated and ravished before the eyes of all men.” (SOF:6:9)

The identity of this “red haired” king as David is easily recognized from both the description of his red hair in 1 Samuel 16:12 as well as the story of the rape of his daughter Tamar by Amnon her half brother in 2 Samuel 13:1-21.

Archaeologists have failed to find any evidence that the Davidic kingdom achieved any of the size or importance given it in the Bible, but if David is in fact the king who warred with Egypt during the reign of one called Athmos (Ahmose I?), then what Manetho says makes the Davidic kingdom almost beyond belief.  In Against Apion, Josephus quotes Manetho in stating that the first shepherd king’s name was Salatis who conquered both upper and lower egypt and even built a palace in Memphis. He left garrisons throughout Egypt building a primary outpost in Avaris, which he walled and left 240,000 men to keep it.

After his death it states that his successor Beon (Soloman?) reigned 44 years, a series of five puppet kings/governess are named who all together hold Egypt as a vassal for some 278 years.

Finally, Manetho says, Under Tethmosis (thought to be Ahmose I), the kings of Thebes and the other parts of Egypt “made an insurrection against the shepherds, and that there a terrible and long war was made between them.” He says further, “That under a king, whose name was Alisphragmuthosis, the shepherds were subdued by him, and were indeed driven out of other parts of Egypt, but were shut up in a place that contained ten thousand acres; this place was named Avaris.” Manetho says, “That the shepherds built a wall round all this place, which was a large and a strong wall, and this in order to keep all their possessions and their prey within a place of strength, but that Thummosis the son of Alisphragmuthosis made an attempt to take them by force and by siege, with four hundred and eighty thousand men to lie rotund about them” (Against Apion, Bk 1 v14)

As unbelievable as this account is, especially in supposing Saul or David to be the first Shepherd king, its hard to dispute the evidence of the scores of severed hands found in Averis around the time of Ahmose I. (see article on it here). 

Compare that to 2 Samuel 4:12 which tells us, “And David commanded his young men, and they killed them and cut off their hands and feet and hanged them beside the pool at Hebron”

What are the chances that these hands dating to 1500 BC during the reign of Ahmose are coincidence? Archaeologists say of Averis, “At Avaris, the evidence shows a small group of settlers from the Canaan/Syria area settled on virgin ground, rapidly grew to a huge population”

What’s amazing here is that since the times of Josephus, Biblical apologists have been trying to match Averis and the Shepherd kings with captive Israelites of Moses. But the Kolbrin shows us, they were (just as Menatho said) actually highly war-like Israelite invaders under David and subsequent Kings of Judah, who ruled Egypt for several centuries.

There’s more evidence here..  Read and add it.

(Note this also suggests then, that David conquered to the rivers (Mesopotamia).. Judah including egypt, and the northern kingdom including all of Syria and perhaps parts of Assyria?

PUT SOMEWHERE….

So even though Manetho who was commissioned by Ptolemy III around 240 BC, starts his famous ‘history of Egypt’ going back in time from Rameses II, archaeologist discarded the obvious fact that Rameses II WAS IN FACT Ptolemy II, in favor of the idea that Rameses (one of the most prolific builders in Egyptian history) was actually the Rameses of the bible’s story of Moses. Forget the fact that Rameses dynasty has countless similarities to the Ptolemaic dynasty or that the second most important Persian/Egyptian historian Herodotus says nothing of the Rameses New Kingdom dynasty. [rewrite… this isn’t true]

These mistakes took hold because of a disastrous coincidence. This being that radiocarbon dates just happened to somewhat correlate in certain areas with the erroneous histories of Eusebius, and Jerome who cherry picked & added to the works of Manetho in order to create an Egyptian & Mesopotamian timeline that fit the bible. [fn. he himself says in the beginning of his book ‘Chronicles’, that he was seeking to “establish how long before the life-giving revelation [of Christ] Moses and the Hebrew prophets who succeeded him lived and what they, filled with the divine spirit, said before [the time of Christ]” (Chronicles, p.5) However, a simple look at Josephus ‘Against Apion‘, who Eusebius quotes at length shows that Eusebius almost certainly added to both Josephus and Manetho’s king list every dynasty after the New Kingdom. Its obvious Josephus’ Egyptian history was trying to wrongly prove that the ‘Shepard Kings’ of Manetho were actually the Jews of Moses from around 1600 BC. When in fact they are actually Persians of 500 BC. (rewite this whole thing. Outline it.) Note on pharoe.se how many king lists start with Rameses/Seti. The Abydos, the , Why? Because, like Manetho they were comisioned by Ptolemy to legitimize his dynasty!] So this is the troubled foundation that Willard Libby and radiocarbon dating entered the scene on. And because the radiocarbon dates for the famed Ramesses and Atmose dynasties somewhat loosely matched the “historical” dates (the historical dates have since been changed by over 500 years, so I use the term ‘loosely’, loosely. [I need to compare the dates of the artifacts found in this analysis of libby’s work, (here’s the original chart from Libby, see this too) As well as many taken since in this work as in this study. And find a chronology from the 40‘s just before Libby and see how they actually correlate. I’ll bet they hardly do AT ALL, but I MUST prove this. And I need to write out this paragraph better

But because it roughly correlated with the biblical story and false or skewed historic sequences built on poor biblical correlations they ran with it. And since then the field of prehistory has been built on so many studies based on circular reasoning and those initial false histories that the entire scientific community has simply explained away the thousands of examples where historically dated and radiometrically dated artifacts seem like they should belong to the same culture or timeframe and yet do not. An occurrence which has given rise to confusing nomenclatures like old Babylon vs neo-Babylon (ie. historically dated Babylon vs. radiocarbon dated Babylon)

Eusebius, one of the three sources we have of Menetho, says of the account,

Perhaps it happened that there were many kings in Egypt at the same time. They say that some of them were kings of Thinis, some of Memphis, some of Sais, and some of Ethiopia; and there were yet others in other places. And as it seems that these dynasties ruled each in its own [time, but] no, it is very unlikely that they ruled in succession to each other. Rather, some of them ruled in one place, and others in another place. Therefore the increase in the number of years can be explained in that way. But we will leave this matter, and proceed to the details of the chronology of the Egyptians… (Eusebius. p.137)

[ —- add illustration here of my repeating history gif —- ]

Note there is some really interesting ideas concerning a journey to America. Likely the Gulf of Mexico and Olmec people who are ‘giants’ and play a game. https://www.bibliotecapleyades.net/hercolobus/esp_hercolobus_91.htm

[ —- add table of empire correlations —- ]

Table of Pharaohs mentioned in the text and possible correlations.

Actual DateKolbrin NameEquiv?Hist. DateDetails
?NafohiaunknownSOF 1:1 “Father of sons of light came out of Egypt in days of Pharaoh Nafohia
970 BCAthmosAhmose1550 BCSOF 6:9 HUGE. This verse shows that the Hyksos were Davidic Israel! David conquered Egypt and was the shepherd kings. Ahmose chased him out.
910?TathomasisThutmose I or IV?1490 BCIf this is true… then Akhenaten is NOT Darius, but likely a follower of Israel’s cult.
772?NabihatonAkhenaten1352 BCMAN 34:29 starts the story of how he had a demon and corrupted egypt. Mother is Towi (Tiye) Name composed of Fathers ‘Nab’ adn ‘henaten’.

References

The history of Manetho as preserved by Eusebius, and Jerome (Armenian version). Or perhaps better, by Dynasty (book I, book II)

The History of Manetho as preserved by Josephus in ‘Against Apion‘ https://penelope.uchicago.edu/josephus/apion-1.html#S14

The Histories by herodotus. (1890, Macaulay translation. 2013 Rawlinson Translation. Egyptian section spans from [99-172] )

Strabo’s Geography has some important information on Egypt.

Pharoe.se, best resource on king lists and cartouches. https://pharaoh.se/comparing-the-kinglists (be sure to check out its library & bibliography)

Digital Egypt. This whole site could be turned into a map like my North America Archaeology one. I probably should. https://www.ucl.ac.uk/museums-static/digitalegypt//chronology/index.html

phouka.com resources on king lists, dynasties and tombs. http://www.phouka.com/tr/egypt/history/KLManetho.html

Overview and back-check check of Willard Libby’s initial paper “on the age of things”. https://www.researchgate.net/publication/324749521_Radiocarbon_Dating_and_Intercomparison_of_Some_Early_Historical_Radiocarbon_Samples

Huge amount of information on dates and cultures. Egypt and the Mediterranean. Radiocarbon Dating and Egyptian Chronology

Some new radiocarbon dates on major Egyptian periods. compare to this timeline?

186 radiocarbon dates from 1st dynasty Egypt. An absolute chronology for early Egypt using radiocarbon dating and Bayesian statistical modelling. Dee, Michael, Shortland, Andrew, Et al. Royal Society Publishing, Nov 2013

Histomap of the world. An old empire harmony chart. http://www.visualcapitalist.com/wp-content/uploads/2017/11/histomap-big.jpg

Babylonian Chronicles. Babylonian Chronicles – Wikipedia

Huge number of artifacts used as original sources: List of inscriptions in biblical archaeology – Wikipedia

Faulty radiocarbon dates in Pompeii. Lindroos, Alf & Heinemeier, J. et al (2011). Problems in radiocarbon dating of Roman pozzolana mortars. Building Roma Aeterna. Current Research On Roman Mortar and Concrete. 214-230.

Radiocarbon dating in ‘The Manchester Museum Mummy Project‘, illustrated how different materials can produce large discrepancies in radiocarbon results, illustrating the importance of consistency and proper methods in gathering radiocarbon samples. (cloth vs bone on Egyptian mummies resulted in 1000 year + different results. A re-wrapping is assumed.)