Pre-Christian Era Variations in Radiocarbon Dates

Actual DateHistorically Known Empire or CultureArchaeologically Dated EquivalentArcheol. Date
911-609 BCNeo Assyrian EmpireOld Assyrian Empire2600-2154 BC
605-556 BCNeo Babylonian EmpireOld Babylonian Empire1894-1595 BC
522-460 BCMedes/Persians (Cyrus to Artaxerxes I)Mitanni/Hyksos1720-
460-332 BCClassical GreeksMycenean Civilization1550–1320 BC
332-30 BCAntigonid EmpireSea Peoples/Hittites1292-1189 BC


Near-eastern prehistory is a patchwork of ancient floating chronologies hashed together over the last 300 years on often contradictory data garnered from archaeological contexts (such as radiocarbon dates, king lists and monuments) combined with historical sources like the Bible, Eusebius/Africanus, Josephus, (quoting Manetho), Herodotus and more. Small revisions and adjustments to these correlations has been an ongoing process, worked on continually by many authors. However, only from time to time do authors attempt major revisions which reassess the very foundations that modern dating techniques are based on. In this paper I attempt to show that largescale global and regional fluctuations in the earth’s magnetic field have caused massive gaps and repeats in current prehistory paradigms which have not yet been addressed by any of the available radiocarbon calibration curves.

The primary evidence of these radiocarbon fluctuations are seen in the well known ‘wiggles’ or variations in ancient radiocarbon levels such as seen in the Hallstatt Plateau. Radiocarbon variation during this era have made the dating of artifacts with known dates from 800-400 BC nearly impossible. Archaeologists familiar with this radiocarbon phenomena have referred to the Hallsatt Plateau as ” the 1st millennium BC radiocarbon disaster” (see James, 19933) During this period the geomagnetic field in the Near East was characterized by “rapid changes and high intensity values, including several spikes of more than twice the intensity of today’s field.” (see Manning, Vaknin, Ben-Yosef, etc.)

Disturbingly, this period of geomagnetic/radiocarbon instability was not found by dendrochronologists or geochronologists, but only by archaeologists working with near-eastern settings of known age. Predominately Biblical sites with archaeological evidence which could not be confused from historical contexts. This means, were it not for the fact that archaeologists positively knew the sites actual date and reported the faulty radiocarbon result, the false age would likely never been discovered.

Furthermore, I believe that this “plateau” has been grossly minimized by geochronologists and its logical effects on Bronze Age dates ignored. Instead of a “plateau”, the Hallstatt anomaly is known to be a series of spikes. Spikes which causes artifacts with true ages between 800-400 BC to yield dates of 3000-1400 BC! And although the phenomena is recognized on the “historical end” in settings known from the bible to date to 800-400 BC, it is ignored on the non-historical end, meaning archaeological contexts without positive historical markers get dated to 3000-1500 BC and those dates are wrongly trusted.

“When dealing with the period after ~800 BCE, our archaeomagnetic dating is particularly useful, due to the plateau in the radiocarbon calibration curve which limits high resolution dating. During this period the geomagnetic field in this region was characterized by rapid changes and high intensity values, including several spikes of more than twice the intensity of today’s field”

(In Reconstructing biblical military campaigns using geomagnetic field data, Yoav Vaknin, 2022)

Thus we get artifacts like the pyramids at Giza or Stonehenge with a radiocarbon dates around 2400 BC which actually date to around 800 BC. Or… [give a few more examples from my repeating culture chart up top and then propose the idea that the cause has been staring us in the face with the biblical account of the “sundial of Ahaz” which points to a rapid true polar wandering event (TPW), which I believe is only one example of many episodes of axial instability. Something which caused sea travel across the Atlantic and pacific to grind to a halt, because of increased volcanism on the spreading ridges. Also, that this is a 700 yr cycle with known occurrences at: Moses 1500 BC, Hezekiah 780/722 BC, 33 AD, 774/5 AD/820 AD, 1482 AD, and the next due around 2200 AD, major instability seen in 586 BC, Babylonian burning of Jerusalem]

In this article I offer a fairly large revision created by large scale repeating patterns I’ve noticed over my decades of research supported by new information from Britain’s mysterious and controversial ancient history book, The Kolbrin. Although dismissed by many who don’t understand it. The Kolbrin contains some of the most impressive Near-eastern and British history of any book in its spurious mystical-history genre.

One of the most intriguing historical references in the Kolbrin is a section suggesting that Pharaoh Ahmose (called Atmose, SOF 6:9) was a contemporary with King David and Hiram of Tyre mentioned in the Bible (ref). The reference reads as following:

“In the days when Hiram [of Tyre] came to Egypt, the Pharaoh Athmos ruled. In those days, Egypt was at war with the Abramites, for their great red-headed king had committed adultery with the wife of a prince of Paran. The remorseful king reaped as he had sown, for his favourite daughter was ravished by her own brother, and his wives were humiliated and ravished before the eyes of all men.”

(Sons of Fire:6:9)

Although many Pharaohs have used titles similar to Ahmose (son of iah/Jah), The thing that makes this reference so impressive is the way that following its logic ties together several other historical parallels between Egyptian Chronology and the Bible.

For instance. Because Ahmose is well known as the is the first Pharoah of the 300-400 year long 18th Dynasty who freed the Egyptian Delta from the mysterious late Hyksos. Placing Ahmose (who is usually dated to about 1550 BC) as a contemporary of David
-means the hysos were Israelite (and earlier amalakites), which the kolbrin mentions
-means the amarna letters match hoshea
-means the nubian pharoes are likely the same as the ethiopian menationed in the bible AND the 25th dynasty ethiopians
-explains why akenhaten was a monotheist, because they were allied with Israel from david’s time but now began to side with the assyrians
-explains why Herodotus seems to match with Menetho’s amasis myth with Greeks and the Ramesses/Sethos brothers? (rethink this logic)
-puts the ramesses as ptolemies! (column in alexandria, lots of other temples, and an understanding of Ptolmies claim to the throne because of the legend of Sethos and Ramesses who founded lydia? in Greece and was a greek sympathizer.

Kolbrin offers a few other chronological markers to correlate Thutmose II (called Tathomasis, MAN:34:29) and Akhenaten (called Nabihaton, MAN:34:29) to the same dynasty.
This adjustment pushes the end of the Eighteenth dynasty to around 700 BC solving the mystery of why the Greek Historian Herodotus places Sethos of the 19 dynasty at around 700 BC, as well as why every retelling of Manetho’s work omit the Pharaohs of the 20th Ramesside dynasty. And why Egyptian temple chronology inscriptions like the Abydos, and Saqqara lists stop at Ramesses II, yet match almost perfectly with the Egyptian Menetho’s work who lived during Ptolemy II.

All of these points of evidence point toward a historical parallel or synchronicity which I have been suspecting for years. Which is that the Ramesside dynasty and the Ptolemaic dynasty are actually one and the same.

coming soon: a correlation chart like this one, but with the dates, dynasties and famous pharaohs more prominent..

The Ptolemaic dynasty which includes Pharaohs Ptolemy I to X or so, is known from Greek and Roman historical sources [note x] and is therefore dated historically from 332 to 45 BC. The Ramesside dynasty on the other hand, also includes Pharaohs I to X (Ramesses I to XI) but information for them is derived almost entirely from radiocarbon dated archeological sources giving dates from 1190 to 1077 BC.

Each of these dynasties were among the most prolific builders in Egyptian history, strangely building on the same sites and temples throughout Egypt [fn]. In fact, almost without fail, known Ptolemaic motifs or writing will show up randomly within major Ramesside buildings and vise versa. “Strangely”, ALL of the resplendent Tombs of the Rameses have been found and carbon dated. But for some “unknown reason”, ZERO of the famed “more recent” Ptolemy tombs have been found. In fact historical king lists derived from Herodotus as well as Manetho (a historian commissioned by Ptolemy II) do not include the Ramesside 20th dynasty in them at all! Instead in the Manetho accounts of Josephus, Eusebius & African we are given dynastic lists which match almost perfectly with king list on Rameses temples, with a few non-Theban disjointed dynasties thrown in after. I see this as clear evidence that the king lists on the Ramesside temples of Abydos and Karnak which radiocarbon date to around 1100 BC, actually came from Ptolemies’ historian Manetho who lived around 300 BC.

Even the famous Lighthouse of Alexandria, historically known to have been by Ptolemy II built around 270 BC, when recently excavated curiously contained “half a dozen columns carved in the Egyptian style had markings dating back to Ramses II, nearly a millennium before Alexandria was founded.” (see Smithsonian article) This phenomena of mismatched artifacts of Ptolmaic/Ramesside periods, if far more the rule than the exception. (ref)

“Curiously, half a dozen columns carved in the Egyptian style had markings dating back to Ramses II, nearly a millennium before Alexandria was founded.”

This phenomena of Ramesside artifacts being mixed in with Ptolemaic artifacts is incredibly common.

And the strange repeated near-east history does not stop there. Sargon of Akkad, radiocarbon dated to xxx is likewise unbelievably similar to Sargon the Assyrian historically dated to xxx. And again Sargon’s palace has not been found. Although his brothers mask…

Likewise entire cultures have come to “repeat” in our modern chronologies as historically dated sites and artifacts conflict with radiocarbon & Egyptian dated


Ancient variations in ancient native carbon-dioxide and radiocarbon levels are known to skew radiocarbon dates for given time periods. This is something all scientists well studied in radiocarbon dating understand. Several calibration curves (such as IntCal) have been created to attempt to ‘correct’ for these variations in order to translate a laboratory ‘radiocarbon date’ to a true calendar date. In this paper I propose that a previously undetected large variation in atmospheric carbon dioxide occurred from at least the onset of the Christian era to around the second millennium BCE in the Mediterranean region. This variation skews dates for the given period up to a 1000+ years causing our modern models of pre-Christian history to essentially ‘repeat’– with written historic empire and dynasty sequences from about 100-900 BCE, duplicating in an artificial ‘radiocarbon dated history’ dating from about 900-4000 BCE.

[—add illustration here or at top with the IntCal correlation curve next to my proposed correlation curve —]

Thus the well known historically dated empire and dynasty sequences of the Grecian, Median, Persian, Neo Babylonian and Neo Assyrian Empires, completely repeat with an identical radiocarbon dated empire and dynasty sequence of the ‘sea peoples’, Hittite, Hyksos, Old Babylonian or Sumerian and Akkadian Empires. I propose that these latter empires are identical to the former. This repetition of history caused by insufficiently calibrated dates, of course should have been obvious to the scientific community of the mid twentieth century, however I suggest that Early Christian archaeologists and historians were eager to have the tales of the bible validated by archaeological findings. And it just so happened that radiocarbon dates for many of the most monumental architecture there (New Kingdom) happened to radiocarbon date to about the time that the Israelites in the Bible were supposedly slaves in that land. Additionally the prestige and ability to publish when one finds archaeological evidence of ‘new and previously unknown empires’ as well as a lack of general understanding among archaeologist at the tenuous results of uncalibrated radiocarbon dates caused them to overlook the obvious ‘repetition’ of history that these radiometrically dated archaeological finds were creating in the broader view of prehistory.

So even though Manetho who was commissioned by Ptolemy III around 240 BC, starts his famous ‘history of Egypt’ going back in time from Rameses II, archaeologist discarded the obvious fact that Rameses II WAS IN FACT Ptolemy II, in favor of the idea that Rameses (one of the most prolific builders in Egyptian history) was actually the Rameses of the bible’s story of Moses. Forget the fact that Rameses dynasty has countless similarities to the Ptolemaic dynasty or that the second most important Persian/Egyptian historian Herodotus says nothing of the Rameses New Kingdom dynasty. [rewrite… this isn’t true]

These mistakes took hold because of a disastrous coincidence. This being that radiocarbon dates just happened to somewhat correlate in certain areas with the erroneous histories of Eusebius, and Jerome who cherry picked & added to the works of Manetho in order to create an Egyptian & Mesopotamian timeline that fit the bible. [fn. he himself says in the beginning of his book ‘Chronicles’, that he was seeking to “establish how long before the life-giving revelation [of Christ] Moses and the Hebrew prophets who succeeded him lived and what they, filled with the divine spirit, said before [the time of Christ]” (Chronicles, p.5) However, a simple look at Josephus ‘Against Apion‘, who Eusebius quotes at length shows that Eusebius almost certainly added to both Josephus and Manetho’s king list every dynasty after the New Kingdom. Its obvious Josephus’ Egyptian history was trying to wrongly prove that the ‘Shepard Kings’ of Manetho were actually the Jews of Moses from around 1600 BC. When in fact they are actually Persians of 500 BC. (rewite this whole thing. Outline it.) Note on how many king lists start with Rameses/Seti. The Abydos, the , Why? Because, like Manetho they were comisioned by Ptolemy to legitimize his dynasty!] So this is the troubled foundation that Willard Libby and radiocarbon dating entered the scene on. And because the radiocarbon dates for the famed Ramesses and Atmose dynasties somewhat loosely matched the “historical” dates (the historical dates have since been changed by over 500 years, so I use the term ‘loosely’, loosely. [I need to compare the dates of the artifacts found in this analysis of libby’s work, (here’s the original chart from Libby, see this too) As well as many taken since in this work as in this study. And find a pre-Libby Egyptian chronology from the 40‘s just before Libby and see how they actually correlate. I’ll bet they hardly do AT ALL, but I MUST prove this. And I need to write out this paragraph better

But because it roughly correlated with the biblical story and false or skewed historic sequences built on poor biblical correlations they ran with it. And since then the field of prehistory has been built on so many studies based on circular reasoning and those initial false histories that the entire scientific community has simply explained away the thousands of examples where historically dated and radiometrically dated artifacts seem like they should belong to the same culture or timeframe and yet do not. An occurrence which has given rise to confusing nomenclatures like old Babylon vs neo-Babylon (ie. historically dated Babylon vs. radiocarbon dated Babylon)

Eusebius, one of the three sources we have of Menetho, says of the account,

Perhaps it happened that there were many kings in Egypt at the same time. They say that some of them were kings of Thinis, some of Memphis, some of Sais, and some of Ethiopia; and there were yet others in other places. And as it seems that these dynasties ruled each in its own [time, but] no, it is very unlikely that they ruled in succession to each other. Rather, some of them ruled in one place, and others in another place. Therefore the increase in the number of years can be explained in that way. But we will leave this matter, and proceed to the details of the chronology of the Egyptians… (Eusebius. p.137)

Hammurabi as Solomon (1770 BC = 990 BC)

-the distinct similarities between not only Hammurabi’s law code but also his songs and biblical law and psalms is far to strong to be coincidence. Many historians dismiss the account of 1 Chronicles 18 and 2 Samuel 8 where David is said to have conquered the land to the Euphrates River. However several authors see extensive evidence for this occurence in a correlation with Zimri-Lim & Hammurabi . See Hammurabi and Zimri-Lim as Contemporaries of Solomon by Damien Mackey
-there are strong similarities between the goring ox of Exodus 21 and the same occurrence in what is called LH 251 of Hammurabi’s Code. Just as striking are the contrasts between the Torah Law and Hammurabi’s Code (see: LH 16, 19, 106, 197, 209, 210, 229 and 230) in the laws of runaway slaves, the rejection of cross-generational civil punishment, and even the famous lex talionis.

Hyksos & Ahmose I as Amalekites & David (1570 = 1000 BC)

-There is overwhelming archaeological and epigraphical evidence showing that the Kolbrin not only solves the identity of Manetho & Josephus’ Hyksos Shepherd Kings. But also that the Egyptian timeline is in need of revision.

Josephus goes to great lengths to try and prove the Hyksos as captive Israelites under Moses. But the Kolbrin has this to say, “In the days when Hiram [of Tyre] came to Egypt, the Pharaoh Athmos ruled. In those days, Egypt was at war with the Abramites, for their great red-headed king had committed adultery with the wife of a prince of Paran. The remorseful king reaped as he had sown, for his favourite daughter was ravished by her own brother, and his wives were humiliated and ravished before the eyes of all men.”

(Sons of Fire:6:9)

The identity of this “red haired” king as David is easily recognized from both the description of his red hair in 1 Samuel 16:12 as well as the story of the rape of his daughter Tamar by Amnon her half brother in 2 Samuel 13:1-21.

Archaeologists have failed to find any evidence that the Davidic kingdom achieved any of the size or importance given it in the Bible, but if David is in fact the king who warred with Egypt during the reign of one called Athmos (Ahmose I?), then what Manetho says works well the the biblical record (the current version of which came from Alexandria in the same decade as Menetho!). In Against Apion, Josephus quotes Manetho in stating that the first shepherd king’s name was Salatis who conquered both upper and lower Egypt and even built a palace in Memphis. He left garrisons throughout Egypt building a primary outpost in Avaris, which he walled and left 240,000 men to keep it.

After his death it states that his successor Beon (Soloman?) reigned 44 years, a series of five puppet kings/governess are named who all together hold Egypt as a vassal for some 278 years.

Finally, Manetho says, Under Tethmosis (thought to be Ahmose I), the kings of Thebes and the other parts of Egypt “made an insurrection against the shepherds, and that there a terrible and long war was made between them.” He says further, “That under a king, whose name was Alisphragmuthosis, the shepherds were subdued by him, and were indeed driven out of other parts of Egypt, but were shut up in a place that contained ten thousand acres; this place was named Avaris.” Manetho says, “That the shepherds built a wall round all this place, which was a large and a strong wall, and this in order to keep all their possessions and their prey within a place of strength, but that Thummosis the son of Alisphragmuthosis made an attempt to take them by force and by siege, with four hundred and eighty thousand men to lie rotund about them” (Against Apion, Bk 1 v14)

As unbelievable as this account is, especially in supposing Saul or David to be the first Shepherd king, its hard to dispute the evidence of the scores of severed hands found in Averis around the time of Ahmose I. (see article on it here). Compare that to 2 Samuel 4:12 which tells us, “And David commanded his young men, and they killed them and cut off their hands and feet and hanged them beside the pool at Hebron”. This may have been a common practice and thus coincidence. OR this may be evidence that David was in Avaris during the reign of Ahmose. Archaeologists say of Averis, “At Avaris, the evidence shows a small group of settlers from the Canaan/Syria area settled on virgin ground, rapidly grew to a huge population”

What’s I propose is that the Hyksos were Amalekites and Canaanites that continually fought Israel until David conquered or killed them all. And the last few Hyksos were actually David, Solomon and Rehoboam (who was then conquered by Egypt and Jeroboam after 4 years). Another point of evidence might be Sheshi, the Hyksos king thought to be Manatho’s Salitis, he leaves hundreds of some of the first Scarabs to appear throughout Canaan, Egypt and Nubia. David is known to have allied with Nubia, and Solomon allied with Egypt. Why is ‘the seal of Solomon such a big legend? A match?

There’s more evidence here..  Read and add it.

(Note this also suggests then, that David conquered to the rivers (Mesopotamia).. Judah including egypt, and the northern kingdom including all of Syria and perhaps parts of Assyria?

-Tell el-Dab near Avaris (northeast delta) has a population explosion during 1590 and 1570 BCE, could this be evidence of David taking it from the Amalekites? (this is speculative, learn more)

Hyksos as Early Persians (or David’s Kingdom in one instance?)

Summary of Correlations
-Note that the term ‘Hyksos’ is used on the tomb of Petosiris to designate Artaxerxes III the Persian. ref
-The Kolbrin tells of a war between Egypt and the Abramites who were led by a red haired king who perfectly fits the description of David in the days of the Phoenician Hiram and Pharaoh Ahmose. (although names like Ahmose might have been re-used over and over, and red hair kings who cut off hands might have been common for centuries)
-Ahmose is well known as being the Pharaoh who drove out the Hyksos. (he should be the Pharaoh who let them in)
-Manetho says Hyksos were Jewish (Cananite?) aggressors (give all details of this). Josephus tried (poorly) to prove they were captives.
-Archaeology shows: They spoke Aramaic & Canaanite dialects.
-They likely lived close by and were prolific, because they had been migrating into Egypt for a few centuries. ref ref.
-War in the Hyksos takeover could have been partly minimal. Instead they used diplomacy and expansion. ref
-They had a custom of cutting off hands as a bounty, Just as 2 Samuel 4:12 says David did. ref.
-They seem to have been in alliance with the Nubians of Ethiopia (ref)
-The independent Thebans came to battle the Hyksos (because of an argument over hippos) and were defeated (is this in the bible?) ref
-They are the ones who bring the compound/composite bow and horse chariot to Egypt. Their Asiatic technology advances Egypt. ref
-they wore bright colored Canaanite clothing. ref (1900 BC to 1750 BC)

Behistun Inscription lists the lands conquered and ruled by Darius the Great. It includes Egypt. (and lists his genealogy)
-Isaiah 44:28 reads: “says of Cyrus ‘He is My shepherd, And he will carry out all My desire’.”.
-Be sure in the paper to note that Sumerian kings in general were known ash shepherd kings. Two kings on the Sumerian King list are literally called ‘shepherds’, “Etana, the shepherd, who ascended to heaven and consolidated all the foreign countries” and “Lugalbanda the shepherd.” Urukagina who reigned seven years in Lagash around 2375 B.C is also called a shepherd king.

Ninteenth Dynasty Correlations Overview
-It seems unlikely that the 19the dynasty is cohesive. It is likely missing people and time. The question is where? I suspect the biginning (after Ahmose, because I’ll bet their two of them), Middle (ideas?) and End (Seti could be pre-Alexander?)

Ahmose & Pinedjem II as Contemporary of David (1550 =1000 BC)
-The Tomb/Mummy of Ahmose I (1549–1524 BC) is thought to have ‘been relocated from its original burial place… and re-wrapped’ in the 21st dynasty because the name of Pinedjem II (990-976 BC.) is on his wrappings! (ref) More likely Pinedjem II was Ahmose’ high priest, or his father Pinedjem I (-1032 BC), again making him a contemporary of David like the Kolbrin says.
-In fact the mummies of pharaohs Ahmose I, Amenhotep I, Thutmose II, Thutmose III, Ramesses I, Seti I, Ramesses II, and Ramesses IX were ALL put in Pinedjem II’s tomb! (
-Note that Ahmose is credited with bringing war horses to Egypt. (ref) Its thought this technology came from the Hyksos because of evidence from Avaris. (ref). This works with the fact that the bibles first mention is of the Canaanite’s (king Jabin, Judges 4) surrounding Israel. (ref, ref) The first use BY Israel seems to be David stealing 1000 chariots & 100 horses from King of Zobah at the Border of the Eurphratees (1 chron 18:3-6, 2 Sam 8:3–6), which Solomon multiplies into 12,000 horses (1 Kings 10:26). Only by Persian times are war-horses ubiquitous.

Egyptian Syria Kadesh as Biblical Gaza Kadesh? (1506 – 1274 BC = 722 – 600 BC)
-First problem is there’s three of them. One in Negiv, one in southeast Gaza, and one in Syria. So its confusing.
-King Hoskiah comes from here in Kolbrin. (SOF 7. probably the Gaza one on the border of Egypt)
-Thutmosis first battles Mitanni there in 1504 BC. Armana letter EA189 tells of the Habiru taking the city and then mayor loyal to Pharaoh taking it back around 1350 BC. Seti I with Ramesses II his son retakes it & Carchemish from Hittites in 1306 and then 1274 BC. These are all believed to be the Syrian Kadesh. BUUT Ahmose I, Tuthmosis III and Ramesses III are all known to have fought important battles in Gaza Kadesh..
-A major link is Ptolemy II’s epic battle of Raphia/Gaza (which is likely Ramesses II’s Kadesh) which could be the same as Ramesses II
-Nebuchadnezzar II was defeated against the Egyptian army under pharaoh Necho II at Migdol near Gaza Kadesh, which he later takes in 568 BC. And Cambyses I looses to Egypt there in 529 BC.

—————– radiocarbon date bump? (older) ——————–

Sargon of Akkad as Sennacherib/Sargon II of Assyria (2200 BC = 722 BC)

-Several rulers take the title of ‘Sargon of Akkad’, causing much confusion.
-Might the pole shift of Ahaz in 736 BC have cause radiocarbon dates to get OLDER again for a time? Or is Sargon just dated wrong?
-Sargon the Great of Akkas founds the Akkadian empire in (2334–2279) is almost certainly the same person as Sennacherib of neo-Assyria (705-681 BC). Note that Sargon the Great (of Akkad) is known mostly from Assyrian tablets from the 700’s !!!! Much info of him comes from a “Neo-Assyrian text from the 7th century BC purporting to be Sargon’s autobiography”. His name is “identical to the name of the Neo-Assyrian king Sargon II” (
Sennecherib/Sargon II makes Nineveh his glorious capital, but Sargon of Akkad’s capital hasn’t been found, nor have any contemporary documents of his life! Why? Because Sargon of Akkad is an invention to explain the radiocarbon and Egyptian chronology discrepancies found in archaeology. (see chronology of the near east)
(note: Shalmaneser V is the one who carried off Israel in 722 BC)

-This discrepancy is almost certainly caused by a volcano or major global climate change event giving rise to a major marine reservoir effect in the near east or global changes in carbon reservoirs.
-Archaeology in the city of Elba (home of the Elba Tablets) shows three destructions at 2500-2300 BC reportedly by Sargon of Akkad. A second destruction dates to 2050-1950 BC, a third at 1600 BC by Hittites and never recovers. On a circular Tel dates same as great pyramids and Stonehenge
-This is fitting, suggesting Assyrian war drove the builders of Stone Hinge to Britain at the same time as Hoskiah and the Sons of Light. Around 720 BC.

Mari in Syria Destroyed by both Sargon and Hammurabi, is largely dated by radiocarbon (and 25k tablets found in its library), is a great place to sort out who Sargon and Hammurabi are. I think in this case Hammurabi is actually Darius? re-using the old title for Solomon. Ḫapiru (“Hebrews”) mentioned but so also remarkably are the Banu Yamina (“Benjaminites”) which they say lived NORTH of Mari (showing ancient Israel’s boundaries larger than supposed).
-It’s relationship to Tel Hazor is another important key, as Hazor is mentioned in the Mari Tablets, Amarna letters, Annals of Thutmose II, Anastasi papyrus AND Egyptian Execration text. Although I feel like its likely Tel Hazor is NOT the same as the ancient, the records speaking of it should help to correlate dates.

Thutmose III as Necho II (1479 – 1425 BC = 610–595 BC)
-they both fight battles in many similiar places. Particluarly against the nubians
-Necho II works on the Suez canal and Tuthomse II at least has a residence out there…
-They both are the ONLY pharoahs to cross the Euphrates! (because Necho was helping the Assyrians fight the rising Babylonians)
-They both fight in the Battle of Megiddo! (take Megiddo and control the region. 1457 BC vs. 609 BC)
-see Defacing of Monuments for thutmose vs Necho

Thutmose III Battle of Megiddo as Necho II Battle of Megiddo? (1457 = 609 BC)
-This might be the best example of why these two are the same person. They both have epoch “battle of megiddos”. These two battles with the same name and same location are believed to be two separate events simply because one is dated archaeologically w/ Egyptian history and the other biblically. You can read about them here and here
Or see:

The Armana Letters as Letters Between Ethiopia and Rulers of Judah from 2 Kings 17:4. (1352 BC = 720 BC)
These letters provide the best opportunity to revising Egyptian chronology of the 18th dynasty. These letters attest to a very strong Egyptian state which allies with Canaan as well as Turkey & Babylon. The main aggressor being the Hirbu who seemed to be a raiders.
Letter EA287 is a great example where the ruler of Jerusalem begs for help from Kushite archers of the Amarna Egyptian kings. Compare that to 2 Kings 19:9 & Isaiah 37:9 where we’re told that the “King of Ethiopia (Kush), waged war against Sennacherib in reign of King Hezekiah” (about 716–687 BC) and 2 Kings 17:4 that says that king Hoshea (730-721 BC) sent letters to “So, King of Egypt”. So is often erroneously attributed to Osorkon IV who ruled nothing… but is FAR more likely Oros or Shebitko (who are likely the same person), even though one is the father of 18th dynasty Akhenaten and the other the 25th dynasty Nubian Pharaoh who fought Sennacherib.
-In the Bible, Ethiopians/Cushites are presented as ruling Egypt all the way from Hezekiah ~720 BC and Isaiah (Isa 18-20, 2 Kings 19) to presumably just before Josiah and the Pharoah Necho II around 620 BC. I believe archaeologists mistake the Assyrians of Nineveh who were actually Babylonians under Nebuchadnezzar II. Jeremiah & Ezekiel prophesy of his conquering of Egypt, but because of the mix-up, historians/archaeologists don’t believe Babylon every conquered Egypt. Archaeologists believe the 25th dynasty Cushites gained control of Egypt by aligning with the Assyrians around 720 BC. But I’m pretty sure its actually the Babylonians, who Josiah was aligned with. 25 & 26 dynasties are probably somewhat concurrent as Egypt, just like Israel is in a north/south civil war going back and forth on whether to align with Assyria or Babylon. These correlate with the 18 dynasty which is also mixed between Monotheistic Cushite and Egyptian Pharaohs.
-The Kolbrin explains that the Monotheism of Akhenaten had long been part of Egyptian religion but hidden from the commoners who held deeply entrenched polytheistic beliefs. The Armana Letters show the growing power and influence of these Nubian rulers and their treaties with those of Canaan and Babylon.
Insights from the Armana Letters:
-lots of letters from Asqalon king Widia. And Ashkalon was taken by Sennacherib and Nebuchadnezzar. (supposedly later in history but I say actually during the neo-Assyrian & neo-Babylonian conquests)
-five letters to Lakis (Lachish, Israel), really pertinent because seven Lachish Letters were found there dating to likely just before Nebuchadnezzar in 588BC. (but these are in paleo-Hebrew & Amarna was cuneiform, There’s also a Lachish Relief in Assyria which is cuneiform I think). NOTE THAT LACHISH is the Lachish reliefs show this is where Sennacherib (actually Nebuchadnezzar II) attacked Jerusalem from… further proving that Lachish was smartly aligned with Babylon, but Jerusalem flipped allegiance and sided with Pharaoh.

Sartrap Aryandes & The New Kingdom.(524 = 1020 BC) In the final days of Egypt new kingdom (1570-1070 BC) non-coin form of silver shaped like rings and gold pieces shaped like sheep centuries were exchanged before the minting coins out different metals. (ref) Herodotus and later Polyaenus claimed “that the satrap started minting his own silver coinage, calling it aryandic in opposition to the golden, already existing, daric, thus irritating the Persian king.” (ref, Herodotus, Histories IV, 166 )

18th Dynasty Thutmose III (or Ay) as relative of 25th Dynasty Piye & Shabaka. (1479-1425 BC = 747-705 BC)
A Shabaka inscription in the Temple of Ptah @ Karnak built by Thutmose III suggest Piye & Shabaka somehow closely related to Thutmose & Hatshepsut or Ay?. Piye was Kushite and Hatshepsut ‘conquered’ Nubia and had her monuments defaced by later Egyptians (likely because she was a foreign Ethiopian wife of Thutmose that somehow gained the kingdom for Nubia instead of a native of Karnak who simply ruled Nubia!). Both Shabaka & Hatshepsut were prolific builders. (of course everyone in this age is. I’m pretty sure either these rulers overlap with either the Kushite/Nubian rulers of the 25th dynasty or the Egyptians that retake Egypt from them in the 26th! The same parallel of builders happens between 18th and 25th dynasties in The Temple of Amun at Jabel Barkal in Sudan.

Note that both the the 18th AND 25th dynasties are closely related to Kush/Nubia. The 25th are said to be Kushite rulers who controlled Middle Egypt, whereas the 18th are said to be Middle Kingdom rulars who controlled Kush/Sudan. Ether way, Assyria is closely involved with both (shown by the Amarna letters for the 25th).

There may even be a relationship between the names of monotheistic Amarna (Akanaten’s new capitol name for the Beni Amran tribe), Solomon’s close alliance with Sheba and Armenia with its relationship to Israel.

Ramesses Dynasty as Ptolemies (1292–1051 BC = 332-80 BC)
-From Ramesses I to Ramesses XI was 241 years vs. Ptolemy I to Ptolemy XI was 252 years! What are the chances?! thats huge, because it shows the historical dates are mixed up, but fairly accurate overall!!!
-The temple walls at Medinet Habu suggest the ‘sea peoples’ were composed (at least in part) of the Minoans from Crete. ‘Coincidentally’, again Ptolemy (especially Ptolemy V) engaged in long wars with Crete (see Cretan Wars). So the Minoans who radiocarbon date from 2000-1100 BC, are actually just radiocarbon/Egyptian dated Macedonian Cretans. The Hyksos of Avaris have a lot of Minoan artifacts too. (could Averis be by/where the real Pi-Ramesses is? (if its not alexandria and was really on the east delta)

Twenty-First Dynasty (1077-1051) Likely Pre-Roman Ptolemies? (80 – 44 BC?)
-Note that Ptolemy I’s, Ptolemy III and Ptolemy X are married to Berenice I,II & III ; AND Setnakhte, Ramesses III and Ramesses X are married to Tiy, Tiye and Tyti. This is no coincidence. Note these wives might unravel the duplicity in Seti II&II as Seti II was also married to Tiye (also spelled Tiy or Tiaa). So Seti II maybe the same person as Senakhte or a family member?. Note there seems to be three titles used among Ptolemy consorts, Bernice, Arsinoe and Cleopatra. Likewise there seems to be three names in 18/19 dynasty consorts Tiye, Nefertari, Meritamon. Use these to unravel people.
-This really needs to be looked at, most importantly to see if there are actually radiocarbon dates on the latest Ramesses or figures like Neferkare/Amenemnisu to see if radiocarbon years are still off by 1000 years at this point, or if they equilize part way through the Ptolemaic period but Egyptologist discard the dates that suddenly get younger.

Other Notes on Repeating History

-Temple of Hibis is one of the only existing temples known to be built by Darius I. (my bet is all others were redone by Ramesses/Ptolemy). “The temple bears a close resemblance – both architecturally and regarding inscribed texts – to Theban temples of the New Kingdom and also of the Ptolemaic period” (which means perhaps you can use its architecture to compare things built by Ahmose who might be the vassal pharaoh of Darius?
-another good way to Link Darius to a Pharaoh is his known work on the Darius Canal. Aristotle and Strabo say Sesostris is the first to try building the canal (just before Darius), which Egyptologist correlate with  12th Dynasty, Pharaoh Senusret III (1878–1839 BC). Which may be based on nothing… But many articles say the Suez canal was worked on during the new kingdom. (so Amhose I? is Darius?) see here and here. Thutmose II had a residence out there, so that more evidence.

-Rameses Horus name means “The strong bull who rejuvenates the royalty”. The Apis Bull was the Egyptian equivilent of Savior (Just like Ptolemy Soter/Savior). Ptolemy created the new God Ser-apis (Zues-Apis Bull). built his great Serapeum in Alexandria, nearby the famous library, to elevate his new god as a deity (see here & here). Since at least Cambyses the bull was ritually killed (like Spanish bull fighters), embalmed and then resurrected. “Coincidentally”, a Serapeum in Saqqara was built by Ramesses II to embalm bulls just like the Sarapeum in Alexandria built by Ptolemy. Ptolemy II (of course) then “extended” and adds to it as well (actually the same builder!).

-Mithras Scene. This tradition of killing, interring/mummifying and resurrecting the zues-apis bull serves as the backdrop for the Christ narrative. It is almost certainly what is represented in Mithraic tauroctony and was practiced not just in Egypt but also Turkey and Italy. Many Serapeum‘s or Bull Tombs are found in Egypt, Turkey & Italy.

-Note that many temples such as the Temple of Khonsu, are “originally constructed” by Ramesses I,II, or III but then have sections thought to be “added” by Ptolemy I,II, or III. Why? Because they are the same people, but archaeologists have aspects attributed to one or the other (such as Greek writing vs radiocarbon dates or c14 dated paraphernalia that contradict, forcing them to hypothesize a ‘dual’ construction. (other examples?)

-also Temple of Edfu. “started during the reign of Ptolemy III Euergetes and completed in 57 BC under Ptolemy XII Auletes. It was built on the site of an earlier, smaller temple also dedicated to Horus… [built under] the New Kingdom rulers Ramesses I, Seti I and Ramesses II”

-same thing happens with Dendera Temple complex. Egyptologists know from inscriptions that the temple was built by Nectanebo II around (360–343 BC), but radiocarbon and other associated evidence leads them to believe it was built ontop of a temple by Pepi I and/or an Eighteenth dynasty ruler from (1550 – 1292 BC).

-In the Esna temple, An out of place “Jam of a Gateway” from the reign of Thutmose II (Eighteenth Dynasty) his strangely placed as a door sill in the Esna temple known to be the work of Ptolemy III Euergetes (known as a “restorer of Egypt” because so many things are re-used in his building projects”. Or is it that…

-Why is it that pieces of King Ramses II statue were found in the Ptolmaic temple of Kom Ombo?
Note how the Ptolemaic temple of Kom Ombo has the same motifs and honors the same gods as a “previous” temple built by the Ramesses in the New Kingom. “A temple was already built in the New Kingdom to honor these gods”

-Cuneiform inscriptions from Hattusa, Turkey mention Mithra and that Hittite king Suppiluliuma (reigned between 1344 to 1322 BCE) who achieved fame as a great warrior and statesman, ordered the recording of a peace treaty between himself and the Armenian king Šattivaz (reigned ca. 1350-1320 BCE). Mithra isn’t found again until the fourth century BC under Achaemenid king Xerxes (son of Darius) and Armenian king Tiridates.

-Medinet Habu and The temple of Anum inscribed as built by Hatshepsut and Thutmose III but then “modified” in the Greco-Roman period. (Yet its artwork still has paint! one of the best preserved temples in Egypt)

-Temple of Amun at Medinet Habu (which is Ramesses III funerary complex has a ‘Gate of the Ptolemies’ built by …

-Tuna el-Gebel, like pretty much all ptolmaic temple complexes has 18-20th/New Kingdom foundations and temples sprinkled throughout (where they have c14 dates or writing that correlates it to ‘Older’ Dynasties.

-Records of Ramesses III talk about a crop failure that might be a volcanic eruption. An ash layer is found in peat deposits that radiocarbon dates to 1087-1006 BC.

-Ramesses III killed (or close to) in ‘harem conspiracy’ led by his second wife Tiye, ct scans shows wounds from multiple attackers which seem fatal but debate exists. Ptolemy II’s wife is exiled for plotting his murder. Records say she failed, but perhaps that was a lie to hide the murder from the people. Ptolemy III takes throne and pays his mom a stipend in her exile in coptus. Its unknown what punishments’ Tiye received.

-Ramesses III – X are not in any king lists. Sources include: The hieratic Harris Papyrus,

  • The Temple of Amun at KarnACK: The temple complex was built by the pharaohs of the New Kingdom, including Amenhotep I, Tuthmosis III, and Ramses II. But then Ptolemy III Euergetes and Ptolemy IV Philopator “added” a number of structures to the temple complex, such as a pylon, a temple of Isis and a birth house.
  • The Temple of Horus at Edfu: built by Ptolemy III Euergetes and Ptolemy IV Philopator added a number of structures to the temple, such as a pylon, and a birth house
  • The Temple of Khonsu at Luxor: built by Tuthmosis III, Amenhotep III and Ramses II but Ptolemy III Euergetes and Ptolemy IV Philopator added a number of structures to the temple complex, such as a pylon, and a birth house
  • The Temple of Isis at Philae: built by Nectanebo I, and Ptolemy II Philadelphus and Ptolemy IV Philopator added structures to the temple complex.
  • The Temple of Amun at Thebes: built by pharaohs such as Amenhotep I, Tuthmosis III, and Ramses II
  • The Temple of Montu at Medamud: built by Ramses II (perhaps on an Old Kingdom Sanctuary), but with structures from the Ptolemy VIII period.
  • The Temple of Seti I at Abydos: built by Seti I, yet Ptolemy IV Philopator added a number of structures to the temple complex, such as a pylon and a birth house.
  • The Temple of Sobek at Crocodilopolis: built by Ramses II but Ptolemy III Euergetes and Ptolemy IV Philopator added a number of structures to the temple complex, such as a pylon and a birth house.
  • The Temple of Ptah at Memphis: built by Ramses II complete with a 36 foot high statue of himself, but Ptolemy IV Philopator added a number of structures to the temple complex, such as a pylon and a birth house.
  • The Temple of Ptah at Luxor/Karnak contains mixed motifs from Thutmose III & Shabaka (1479-1412 = 705-690 BC) as well as Ramesside & Ptolmaic pharoes (1200’s = 200’s BC). Built by Thutmose III, but Ptolmaic ‘additions include’ in first gateway crosses an enclosed cartouche of Ptolemy VI. On the interior façade of the first gateway are passages of Ptolemy XI and Ptolemy XIII. The second and fourth gateways contain cartouches in the name of Shabaka. The third gateway cartouche is in the name of Ptolemy XIII. The fifth gateway leading to the portico columns of Ptolemy III contains the title of Tuthmosis III and on the gate contains the name of Ptolemy III.
  • The Temple of Amun at Jebel Barkal, Sudan was also built by 18th AND 25th dynasty rulers. In the 18th, at least Thutmose III, Amenhotep IV (Akhenaten), Tutankhamun and Horemheb as well as worked on by Seti I & possibly Ramesses II. This seems to suggest that ALL these pharaoh’s were associated with Nubia. The site was then ‘neglected’ until the reign of Nubian King Piye who added extensively to it. (forerunner to Shabaka) Once again this seems to show a synchronism or parallel between the 18th AND 25th dynasties. Close study of these will likely show them to be repeats of the same dynasty.,_Jebel_Barkal

Important Events of Judah & Israel in Relation to Egypt & Mesopotamia
-Saul/David/Solomon appear to gain first independence from Canaanites & Amalekites
-in ~920 BC, Jeroboam flees to Egypt, allies with them and comes back to conquer Judah making Israel a vassal of Egypt (date)
– 700-900 BC, are somewhat of an Egyptian dark age. Probably when the Armarna letters occur!
-in 701 BCE, Hezekiah of Judah, Lule king of Sidon, Sidka, king of Ascalon and the king of Ekron formed an alliance with Egypt against Assyria (with Pharoah ___?), nevertheless, Sennacherib conquers the Northern Kingdom and parts of Judah (701 BC?), but stops short of Jerusalem & Egypt.
– in 671 Assyrian Esarhaddon sacks Memphis, conquers Egypt, takes massive spoils and captives to Assyria, appoints new rulers at every level including Necho I as king at Sais (673-663 BC)
– in 667 BC Ashurbanipal, quells revolts, reasserts Assyrian rule in Egypt
– in 655 BC Psamtik I threw off his ties to the Assyrians and allies with Greece.
– by 635 BC Egypt recaptures Ashdod.
– in 650-600, Egyptians were actively aiding the Assyrians in an attempt to help them survive from growing power of Babylon.
– in 609 BC, Jehoahaz, became king, the king of Egypt, Necho I (put into power by the Assyrians), rushed into Judah and deposed him, and Judah again became a tribute state of Egypt
– in 605 Babylon defeats Egypt at Carchemish and then Ashkelon.. (Jer 46:2). Jer & Ezek prophesied that Babylon would destroy Egypt (Ezek 29-32). But historians believe NO Babylonian army took Egypt, and Egypt stayed independent from the Assyrian conquest to the Persian Conquest.
– from 589-570 BC Apries or Biblical Pharaoh Hophra of Jer 44:30, 43:8-13, Ezekiel 17:15, is the one Hezekiah tries to ally with against Babylon. This suggests Israel was formerly independent of Egypt. Likely since the Assyrian fall of Egypt.

Actual DateHistorically Known Empire or CultureArchaeologically Dated EquivalentArcheol. Date
911-609 BCNeo Assyrian EmpireOld Assyrian Empire2600-2154 BC
605-556 BCNeo Babylonian EmpireOld Babylonian Empire1894-1595 BC
671-460 BCMesopotamian Rulers (Esarhaddon of Assyria first takes Mephis in 671 BC, then Nebuchadnezzar II beats Egypt at Carchemish and the beats Amasis at the delta (Avaris?) in 568 BC. Not until Cyrus is Memphis taken. Then Darius Takes Thebes for a moment? But restores respect to Egyptian religion.)Hyksos (First take only Avaris. Then in 1650 take Memphis. Finally take Thebes but only for a moment.1720-1540
460-332 BCLate Achaemenes occupation of EgyptAhmose gains Egyptian semi-independence. Takes Memphis & battles averis.1550–1320 BC
332-30 BCPtolemaic Kingdom of EgyptRamessid 19th Dynasty of Egypt1292-1189 BC

Note 1: Egyptian artifacts first show up in Mesopotamia in Nimrud, which becomes a major Assyrian capital in 1350 BC. This date

Table of Pharaohs mentioned in the Kolbrin and possible correlations.

Actual DateKolbrin NameEquiv?Hist. DateDetails
~2400HanokNoahGLN:4:29 Hanok and the Ark/great ship. Had three brothers who divided the land.
BeltsheraBabel?GLN 3:7-9 The floodgates [of Atuma] were opened… “the people left… Shinara..fled up a mountain… built a gateway to heaven”
1450 BCAnked(Moses)MAN 6:1-48 Story of Moses & the Destroyer. “Kair taught these things to the Children of Light.. before the death of the Pharaoh Anked”. Mentions places: Remwar, Noshari, Maha, Pikaroth, Mara. City/God called “Thom”
970 BCAthmosAhmose1550 BCSOF 6:9 HUGE. This verse suggests that the Hyksos were Davidic Israel! David warred with Egypt at the same time Ahmose chased the Shepherd kings out.
910?TathomasisThutmose I or IV?1490 BCIf this is true… then Akhenaten is NOT Darius, but likely a follower of Babylon or Israel‘s cult.
772?NabihatonAkhenaten1352 BCMAN 34:29 Starts the story of how he had a demon and corrupted Egypt. Mother is Towi (Tiye) Name composed of Fathers ‘Nab’ adn ‘henaten’.
720 BCNafohiaunknown??SOF 1:1 “Father of sons of light (Hoskiah) came out of Egypt in days of Pharaoh Nafohia. (Should be about the time of the Assyrian conquest or Sargon of Akkad?)

Table of Pharaohs mentioned in the Bible and possible correlations.

Actual DateBible NameEquiv?Hist. DateDetails
?Rameses?unknown!1546 BCGen 47:11, Ex 1:11, Ex 12:37, Num 33:3–5 A pharaoh named Rameses is never mentioned in the Bible, but Joseph settles Jacob & his family “in the land of Rameses” and Israel “built Pithom & Rameses and on (named as Heliopolis east of Cairo in Spt.) as store cities for Pharaoh before fleeing to Succoth just before the Exodus. Rameses in the bible is thus just a region/city in Egypt meaning “Ra created it”. (see biblehub).
?Pharaoh??1 Kings 11:18–23. Hadad flees to Egypt from Paran, Pharaoh gives him wife Tahpenes’ sister to wife. They have son Genubath who’s raised in Pharaoh’s household.
?Pharaoh??1 Kings 3:1, 9:16 Gives Solomon his daughter and city of captured Gezer in Alliance. Thutmose III (1479–1425 BC) has inscription of conquering Gezer. Armana period leaders swear allegiance to Egypt. Siamun & Psusennes II common matches.
?Shishak??943-922 1 Kings 11:40 & 2 Chronicles 12:2 Tell of his Jeroboam’s escape to Egypt and return with Shishak to take Jerusalem.
?So’unknown730 BC2 Kings 17:4 says that king Hoshea sent letters to “So, King of Egypt”.  commonly identified with Osorkon IV (730–715 BC)
?Tirhakahunknown715 – 6862 Kings 19:9 & Isaiah 37:9. King of Ethiopia (Kush), waged war against Sennacherib in reign of King Hezekiah.. Some scholars have identified him as the pharaoh Taharqa (Ethiopia ruled Egypt from this point to Necho/Babylon, much like the late 18th dynasty)
sameNecho Necho II610–5952 Chron 35:20, 36:4, 35:22. Necho puts his brother Jehoiakim on throne of Judah (609 BC). Necho battles kills Josiah in Carchemish (605 BC). Takes King Jehoahaz captive in another Carchemish battle? Read and put dates.
sameHophraApries589-570Jer 44:30. I will give Pharaoh Hophra king of Egypt into the hand of his enemies and into the hand of those who seek his life, as I gave Zedekiah king of Judah into the hand of Nebuchadnezzar. Also mentions Pathros (upper), Noph (lower) & Tehpanhes border Egypt (43:7)

-One of the most important things in the Kolbrin is CRT 7:5 which explains that the Mayan/Aztec Calendar is the correct cycle for the destroyer, NOT the later Israelite 49 year cycle. “Habaris… taught them the mysteries concerning the wheel of the year and divided the year into a … a great year circle of fifty-two years, a hundred and four of which was the circle of The Destroyer”

Egyptian King Lists

HERODOTUS- The king list given us by Herodotus is all over the place but helps us to understand how likely it is that those of Manetho are completely erroneous is too. Since Herodotus lived 484-425 BC just after Darius we can likely trust the 26th dynasty names he lists. One big question is… where does the 18th dynasty fit in? It is the last true names in Menetho & Abydos/Saqqara King Lists made by Ptolemy III so I think it makes sense that these were all ruler between Darius & Ptolemy.

ChapTransPharaohMenethoM. DynSM. DATE
2.99.2MinaNarmerMenes1st dynasty62/ 3150 BC
2.100.2NitokrisNetjerikaraNitokris6th dynasty12/ 2182–2179 BC
2.101.1MoeriusAmenemhat IIIAmmenemes11? dyn16
2.102.1SesostrisSenusret IIISesostris12th dynasty48/ 1878–1860 BC
2.121.1RhampsinitosRamesses IIInot present
2.124KheopsKhufuSouphis?4th dynasty63/ 2589–2566 BC
2.127KhephrenKhafraSouphis?4th dynasty66/ 2558–2532 BC
2.129MycerinusMenkauraMenkheres4rth dynasty63/ 2532–2503 BC
2.137Sabakon/NeferkareShabakaSeberkheres? Sabakon? 4rth? 25th?8/ 705–690 BC
2.140.2AmurtaiouAmyrtaeusAmurtaios28th dynasty6/ 404–398 BC
2.141.1SethosShebitko? Seti?Sebikhos? Sethos?25th? 19th?55/ 714–705 BC
2.151.2PsammetikhosPsamtik IPsammetikhos26th dynasty54/ 664–610 BC
2.152.1NeconNecho INekhao26th dynasty8/ 672–664 BC
2.158.1NecosNecho IINekhao II26th dynasty6/ 610–595 BC
2.159.3PsammiPsamtik IIPsammouthis?26th dynasty6/595–589 BC
2.161ApriesApriesOuaphris26th dynasty25/ 589–570 BC
2.172AmasisAmasisAmosis26th dynasty44/ 570–526 BC
3.14-15PsammetichusPsamtik IIIPsammekherites?26th dynasty6m 526–525 BC
MesutreCambyses IISon of Cyrus the Great27th dynasty6/ 525-522 BC
SetetureDarius Ithen Xerxes, artexerxes, Darius II27th dynasty36/ 522-486 BC


Does the fact that Herodotus has ZERO New Kingdom (18th dynasty) Pharoah’s suggest that most the 18th came AFTER cyrus? Or is it because they are all right after David and are too OLD for accurate records?
-Amasis II might be a good match with Thutmose III based on both their conquests of Cyprus, power and military prowess. Thutmose II lead at least 17 campaigns from Syria to Nubia.

MENETHO (as reported by his 3 sources)

Ahmose I1AmosAmosis25Amosis25Tethmosis25/4Drives out Hyksos.
Thutmose II2Khebros13Khebron13Chebron13Khebron13
Amenhotep I3Amenophthis244Ammenophis21Ammenophis21Amenophis20/7
Hatshepsut4Amensis22    Amesses ♀21/9“his sister” (of amenophis)
Thutmose I5Misaphris13Miphres512Mephres12Mephres12/9
Thutmose III6Misphragmouthosis26Misphragmouthosis26Mispharmuthosis26Mephramuthosis25/10
Thutmose IV7Touthmosis9Touthmosis9Thmosis9Thmosis9/8
Amenhotep II8Amenophis31Amenophis31Ammenophis31Amenophis30/10
Amenhotep III9Oros37Oros366Orus38Oros36/5
Neferneferuaten710Akherres32Akhenkherses128Achencheres12Akenkheres ♀12/1Josephus lists as daugher of Oros.
?   Kherres15Cherres15  Josephus skips
Ramesses I15Rhamesses101Rhamesses1168Remesses68 Rhamesses 1/4
?Amenophath19Amenophis40Menophis40Amenophis16/6Just before Sethos in Josephus.
Ramesses IIArmesses Miamun66/2Josephus places this person After Ramesses I. Ramesses II correlation is supposed based on reign.
Seti I
Sethos & Ramesses
59see note 2.
add to 263 yearsadd to348 yearsadd to 348 yearsadd to 246 years

-Josephus last Pharoah reference is Sethos of whome he says, after Amenophis came… “Sethosis, and Ramesses, two brethren: the former of whom had a naval force; and in an hostile manner destroyed those that met him upon the sea. But as he slew Ramesses in no long time afterward, so he appointed another of his brethren [named Armais] to be his deputy over Egypt.” then… “For Manetho says, that Sethosis was himself called Egyptus: as was his brother Armais called Danaus” He sums the whole history as those who “inhabited this country, three hundred ninety and three years before Danaus came to Argos” (read it here).
Danaus is a famous legend, but like Herodotus, it seems very likely referring to Darius? My logic is this… Look at Armesis and Kherres in Eusibius. Josephus prolog suggests all the last pharoahs are contemporary with him. Is it coincidence that the last 2 pharaohs in Herodotus are named Amasis/Amosis and Apries? Probably not!

Footnotes In Paper

x. [[Sources of the Ptolmaic Dynasty include: 1. The “Canon of Kings” is an ancient Egyptian list of pharaohs that includes the Ptolemaic dynasty. It is inscribed on the walls of the temple of Seti I at Abydos, and is one of the oldest surviving king lists from ancient Egypt.
2. The “Alexandria List” is another ancient Egyptian king list that includes the Ptolemaic pharaohs. It was discovered in the Serapeum of Alexandria, a temple dedicated to the god Serapis.
3. The “Turin Canon” is an ancient Egyptian papyrus that contains a list of pharaohs, including the Ptolemaic dynasty. It was discovered in the 1820s in Turin, Italy and is now housed in the Museo Egizio in Turin.
4. The “Chronicle of the Pharaohs” by the Egyptian priest Manetho, written during the Ptolemaic period provides a list of the pharaohs of Egypt from the earliest times to his own day, including the Ptolemaic pharaohs.
5. The “Roman historian” Appian of Alexandria, wrote about the history of the Roman Republic and Roman Empire, including the Ptolemaic dynasty.
6. Plutarch, a Greek historian, biographer, and essayist wrote about Ptolemy I Soter and Ptolemy II Philadelphus in his biography “Life of Alexander” and “Life of Demetrius”]]

y. [[Egyptian temples which share

z. [[Sources that detail Ramesside period Pharaohs after Ramesses III are limited to: 1. Primarily archaeological information from the Tombs in the Valley of the Kings.
2. A little from a relief in the Temple of Ramesses III in Medinet Habu.
3. Papyri and ostraca discovered in various locations in Egypt, including Deir el-Medina


The history of Manetho as preserved by Eusebius, and Jerome (Armenian version). Or perhaps better, by Dynasty (book I, book II)

The History of Manetho as preserved by Josephus in ‘Against Apion‘

The Histories by herodotus. (1890, Macaulay translation. 2013 Rawlinson Translation. Egyptian section spans from [99-172] )

Strabo’s Geography has some important information on Egypt. Has a great catalogue of translated ancient egyptian texts from 800 BC – 50 BC (chronological order) and even better one of all dates earlier than 800 BC. Pdf’s most with hieroglyphic transcriptions., best resource on king lists and cartouches. (be sure to check out its library & bibliography)

Digital Egypt. This whole site could be turned into a map like my North America Archaeology one. I probably should. resources on king lists, dynasties and tombs.

Overview and back-check check of Willard Libby’s initial paper “on the age of things”.

Huge amount of information on dates and cultures. Egypt and the Mediterranean. Radiocarbon Dating and Egyptian Chronology

Histomap of the world. An old empire harmony chart.

Babylonian Chronicles. Babylonian Chronicles – Wikipedia

Egyptian texts: St Andrews Corpus, attalus,

Huge number of artifacts used as original sources: List of inscriptions in biblical archaeology – Wikipedia

Faulty radiocarbon dates in Pompeii. Lindroos, Alf & Heinemeier, J. et al (2011). Problems in radiocarbon dating of Roman pozzolana mortars. Building Roma Aeterna. Current Research On Roman Mortar and Concrete. 214-230.

Radiocarbon dating in ‘The Manchester Museum Mummy Project‘, illustrated how different materials can produce large discrepancies in radiocarbon results, illustrating the importance of consistency and proper methods in gathering radiocarbon samples. (cloth vs bone on Egyptian mummies resulted in 1000 year + different results. A re-wrapping is assumed.)

Family Tree of the Ramessean 19th Dynasty

Family Tree of the Ptolemaic Dynasty

Radiocarbon Dating:
20 instances of false rings since 1932: Actual article here: (Extrapolating that data suggests a two thousand year old tree could have as many as 400 in a 2000 year old tree.)

Libby presentation summarizing first publications:
Initial Libby paper (first page):

Re-dating some of Libby initial samples:

Some new radiocarbon dates on major Egyptian periods.

186 radiocarbon dates from 1st dynasty Egypt. An absolute chronology for early Egypt using radiocarbon dating and Bayesian statistical modelling. Dee, Michael, Shortland, Andrew, Et al. Royal Society Publishing, Nov 2013 [put these in teh libby table next to pre-c14 dates to show how off they are!]
Pre-carbon dating chronologies:

Mediterranean radiocarbon off from northern Europe:

Mediterranean radiocarbon offsets and calendar dates for prehistory. (Intcal adjustments for meditranian dates, especially because of santorini issues) webmap:

Global radiocarbon database: webmap: